Option C: CAD/CAM

C1 - The Impact of CAD
on the Design Process
Consider CAD drawing, 2D, 3D, rendering and
different types of modelling.
Consider product design, architecture and
graphic design.
The ability to link graphic screens together in
such a way as to simulate motion or a process.
The ability to simulate a real situation on the
screen and interact with it in a near-natural
Refer to different design contexts.
Consider costs, client needs and development
Consider how this helps to reduce full-scale
prototyping, which leads to a reduction in
tooling costs, labour costs, energy and
Also known as force feedback technology
Haptic technology works by using mechanical
actuators to apply forces to the user
By simulating the physics of the user’s virtual
world, it is possible to compute these forces
into real time.
The recording of human and animal movement
by any means
For example, by video, magnetic or electromechanical devices.
Input devices should include…
a scanner
3D scanner
digital camera
graphics tablet
Haptic technology allows
the user to become part of a
computer simulation and to
interact with it, enabling the
designer to observe the
user’s performance, so as to
design a better outcome.
Haptic technology can also
be used in situations where
it may prove difficult to
train in the real
Haptic technology is also
used in feedback devices
used in home entertainment
Capturing a number of
users’ movements will allow
designers to design better
ergonomic products.
Motion capture allows the
designer to understand the
users’ physiological
CAD packages no
longer ask the user to
draw in an
orthographic view.
Software has been
developed to allow
users to design from
any 3D view.
3D facilities allow
complex screen
images that can be
annotated to create a
range of useful data.
The data can be used
in CAM systems.
For example…
Orthographic drawings
 Presentation virtual product images.
Allows the users to revolve a sketch around an axis.
The revolve can be between 0° and 360°.
Extrude Profile command
Creates a feature by extruding a sketch profile to a
given dimension.
Starts with a 3D shape in which the designer
removes material to build the design
Starts with an initial sketch in which the
designer builds the design.
Bottom up: Additive Design
Top down: Subtractive Design
A realistic picture of the final model, offering
some machining data.
Surface models contain no data about the
interior of the part
Solid models are clear representations of the
final part.
They provide a complete set of data for the
product to be realized.
Solid modelling
techniques contain
more information for
the designer in order
to produce a 3D
model using CNC
(computer numerical
control) or RP (rapid
Surface modelling has
no wall thickness.
The calculation and simulation of unknown
factors in products using CAD systems.
For example, simulating the stresses within a welded
car part.
For example, the maximum load of a vehicle
and the stresses acting upon the vehicle from
the differences in terrain.
Consider costs, type of environment, weather
and the user when testing vehicles.

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