5.01 C Nutrients - Duplin County Schools

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5.01C What is a Nutrient?
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A nutrient is a chemical substance in
food that helps maintain the body.
You need over 50 nutrients, which can
be divided into six groups.
Water
Carbohydrates
Lipids (Fats)
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
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The Six Classifications of
Nutrients
• Water
• Carbohydrates
• Fats
• Protein
• Vitamins
• Minerals
Sugars
Starches
Cellulose
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These Nutrients Have Calories
• Proteins
• Carbohydrates
• Fats
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Definition of a Calorie:
• The unit used to measure
the energy value of food.
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Calories per gram:
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Protein
1 Gram = 4 calories
Carbohydrates 1 Gram = 4 calories
Fat
1 Gram = 9 calories
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Variables which affect
nutrient needs:
1. Age
2. Gender
3. Activity Level
4. Climate
5. Health
6. State of nutrition
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Key Nutrient: Water
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Function
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Aids digestion and
cell growth and
maintenance
Facilitates chemical
reactions
Lubricates joints and
cells
Regulates body
temperature
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Sources
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Liquids
Food
Breakdown of energy
nutrients
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Key Nutrient: Carbohydrates
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Function
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Supplies the
energy
Provides fiber
Help the body
digest fats
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Sources
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Sugars: honey, jam,
molasses, candy,
table sugar
Fiber: fruits,
vegetables, whole
grains
Starch: breads,
cereals, pasta
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Key Nutrient: Fats
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Function
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Supply energy
Carry fat-soluble
vitamins
Insulate the body
Protect organs
Provide essential
fatty acids
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Sources
Types of Fats
• Saturated: dairy products,
meats, lard, coconut and
palm oils
• Unsaturated: fish, nuts,
vegetable oils
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Cholesterol
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The fat-like substance in
found in body cells. This
substance clogs arteries.
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Key Nutrient: Proteins
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Functions
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Builds and repairs muscles
and cell tissues
Helps the body make
important substances
Regulates body processes
Supplies energy
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Sources
Complete proteins:
• dairy products, eggs,
fish, meat and
poultry.
Incomplete proteins:
• beans, grains and
nuts.
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Key Nutrient: Vitamins
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Function
Vitamins are divided into two main groups.
Fat-soluble vitamins
• dissolve in fats
• are stored in fatty tissues of the body
Water-soluble vitamins
• dissolve in water
• are not stored in the body
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Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Nutrient
Functions
Sources
Vitamin A
Keeps skin and mucus
membranes healthy
Prevents night blindness
Promotes growth
Butter, dark green and yellow fruits
and vegetables, egg yolk, liver,
whole and fortified milk
Vitamin D
Builds strong bones and teeth
Egg yolk; fortified butter,
margarine, and milk; the sun
Vitamin E
Acts as an antioxidant to protect
cell membranes
Eggs, liver, salad oils, whole grain
cereals
Vitamin K
Helps blood clot
Cauliflower, egg yolk, organ meats
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Water-Soluble Vitamins
Nutrient
Functions
Sources
B-Complex
Helps wounds heal
Helps fight infection
Helps nervous tissue function healthy
Plays important role in breakdown of
proteins fats and carbohydrates
Vitamin C
(ascorbic acid)
Keeps nervous system healthy
Pork, whole grain breads and
cereals
Releases energy from food
Helps promote healthy gums and tissues
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Oranges, grapefruits,
tangerines, cantaloupe,
broccoli, citrus fruits, tomatoes
and raw cabbage
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Key Nutrient: Minerals
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Minerals
Nutrient
Functions
Sources
Calcium
Builds bones and teeth
Helps muscles and nerves work
Milk, yogurt, cheese,
salmon, dark veggies
Iron
Combines with protein to make
hemoglobin. Helps cells use oxygen
Liver, spinach, raisins and
molasses
Potassium
Helps nerves and muscles
Balances body water
Potatoes, bananas, prune
juice and tomato products
Sodium
Helps nerves and muscle function
Salt, soy sauce, processed
foods and country ham
Iodine
Promotes normal functioning of the
thyroid gland
Iodized salt and salt water
fish
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Food For Thought
Avoid excesses of some vitamins and minerals.
To promote good nutrition and maintain good
health:
• Eat a variety of foods from the food guide
pyramid.
• Drink plenty of water
• Daily exercise
• Seek the advice of a physician or dietician
before taking supplements
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