Presentazione di PowerPoint

Report
Second International Conference on
Innovative Natural Fibre Composites
for Industrial Applications
Rome - April 15 - 18, 2009
Promoting the cultivation
and development of hemp in Italy
Isidoro Peroni, Glenda Giampaoli, Cesare Quaglia
Sapienza University of Rome
Museo della Canapa of Sant’Anatolia
Assocanapa
Contents
1. Natural fibres characteristics
2. Natural composites
3. The history of hemp
4. Re-introduction of the hemp cultivation in Italy
5. Italian Organizations
6. Italian Museums
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy
8. Peculiarities and uses of hemp
9. Research
10. Optical Microscopic Enlargements of Hemp Plant
11. A particular application: a prototype of a rudder
12. Phyto-remediation with hemp
13. Conclusions
1. Natural fibres characteristics
NATURAL FIBRES
ADVANTAGES:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
biodegradability
renewable rough materials
low density (even the half of the glass one)
low cost
low impact damage
thermo-acoustic insulation
non toxicity
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
Eastern countries
Bamboo, Sisal, Coir, Jute, etc.
Western countries
Hemp: always of eastern origin but
with a long western tradition
for fabrics and ropes ,
(some problems, now solved, for the
resemblance with the “Indian hemp”)
Kenaf ( without doping substances),
Flax, Cotton, etc.
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
NATURAL FIBRES PROPERTIES
Fibre
Cellulose
(%)
Elongation
(%)
Density
(Mg/m3)
UTS
(MPa)
E
(GPa)
moisture
(%)
Glass-E
-
-
2.55
2400
73
0
Hemp
78
1.6
1.48
550-900
70
8
Jute
61
1.5
1.17
400-800
10-30
12
Cotton
71
2.4
1.51
400
12
8-25
Pineapple
82
2.4
-
-
-
-
Banana
65
3.0
-
-
-
-
Coconut
43
15.0
1.25
220
6
10
Ramiè
83
1.2
1.50
500
44
12-17
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
HEMP FIBRES
High Mechanical Properties
High UTS and Stiffness
σR = 600 MPa
Treated
σR = 318
± 14 MPa
E = 70 GPa
Un-treated
σR = 591
± 67 MPa
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
Test Machine INSTROM 1193
Range 25kN
Laboratory ICMMPM
Es = 7.0 Gpa
UTSs = 60.0 MPa
Ef = 84.0 Gpa
UTSf = 720.0 Mpa
A% = 1.4%
Strength [kN]
2
Average diameter of stalks: 5.7 mm
Average strength: 2500 N
E = Young Modulus [GPa]
UTS = Ultimate Strength [MPa] 1
A% = Percent elongation at breaking
( )s = stalk
( )f = fibre
ΔL [mm]
0
0.5
1
1.5
2.0
Elongation-strength diagram
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
The reported result are little higher than the values of literature because the
test are performed on virgin stalks.
Strength parameters of various fibres (from J.M.S. 21 1986 )
Fibres
Cellulose content
(fraction)
UTS
(MPa)
Elongation
(%)
Hemp
0.78
690
1.6
Jute
0.61
550
1.5
Flex
0.71
780
2.4
Pineapple
0.82
650
2.4
Banana
0.65
540
3.0
Coir
0.43
140
15.0
Ramie
0.83
870
1.2
2. Natural composites
Polymeric matrix composites are very spread
PMC present higher
specific properties if
compared to metals
Structural
components
Usually rough materials (fibres and matrices) are artificial
Glass, carbon,
aramidic
But rough materials could also come from renewable resources
Artificial fibres
Natural fibres
Economic
Light
Eco-compatible
Available
2. Natural composites (cont.)
High performance materials
Sustainable development
Very good properties
Biodegradability
Safety
Structural modifications
Renewability
Environment protection
Research aims to conjugate both
(Es. international meetings. SAMPE, SPIE, ASME, JSME)
3. The history of hemp
The original country of the hemp-plant is no known, but it is
generally believed to have been the mountainous districts in the
extreme north of India, whence it spread westward through
Europe, and southward through the peninsula of India. Its
cultivation in each direction had in all probability a different
object; for it is found to produce under tropical culture an
inferior fibre, and a powerfully intoxicating drug, but in cold and
temperate climates it yields an abundance of strong fibres in
great perfection for textile purposes, and loses its narcotic
qualities.
3. The history of hemp (cont.)
The similarity of its name in various languages is a
strong indication that it has taken the course here
indicated; thus, it is called in the
Sanscrit
Persic
Arabic
Greek
Latin
Italian
French
Danish
Lettish and Lithuanian
Slavonic
Erse
Scaninavian
Swedish
German
Anglo-Saxon
English
goni, sana, or shanapu;
canna;
kanneh or kinnub;
kannabis;
cannabis;
canapa;
chanvre or chanbre;
kamp or kennep;
kannapes;
konopi;
canaib;
hampr;
hampa;
hauf;
haenep;
hemp.
3. The history of hemp (cont.)
Hemp can be monoecious or dioecious plant, that means it can have
female and male flowers on the same or in different plant. The ancient
variety are dioecious.
The plant was already cultivated in China before 2000 B.C. .
In 500 B.C. it was already spread in Asia, Europe and Africa.
The Italian production has been the first for quality (variety
‘Carmagnola’) and the second for quantity (after Russian).
Until the 1940s the hemp cultivation was widespread in every region
of Italy for the production of ropes and fabrics. In the mountainous
area, where the land is less fertile, there was, all the same, a
production of cloth sheets and brides’ trousseau. In the 1940’
craftsmen and especially craftswomen were very busy in the
cultivation and manufacturing of hemp.
3. The history of hemp (cont.)
Subsequently, the fight against drugs and the promulgation of
famous 1937 US law, that forbade also the production of industrial
hemp, all together with the coming of the new synthetic fibres, such
as Nylon patented by Du Pont (one of the more powerful chemical
industry in the world), resulted in a significant drop down of the hemp
cultivation.
At that time these new fibres seemed to be cheaper, healtier and more
attractive. For example every young woman in Italy, wished to wear a
pair of nylon stockings.
3. The history of hemp (cont.)
In the last ten years the hemp cultivation has been making a
comeback in Italy and the rest of Europe. There has been a
rediscovery of the potential of hemp that has led to the
establishment of many enterprises in the field of hemp and its
applications. In Italy Assocanapa and other organisations, like
Fibranova and Consorzio Canapa Italia, are now sponsoring the
spreading of hemp.
This new interest is due to peculiarities of hemp and to the present
requirement of ecocompatibility and sustainable development.
In Italy and in Europe (CEE Economic European Community ) it is
now legal to cultivate hemp for industrial purpose. The varieties
allowed are only those with a content in THC (that is the substance
with narcotic effect ) lower then 0.2 %.
3. The history of hemp (cont.)
Italian hemp is of very good quality for fabrics and it is exported
worldwide.
Before the last world war there were more than 100,000 hectares in
cultivation, whereas in the last few years there are only a few hundred
of hectares.
Now a few farmers, industrialists, researchers and ecologists are
trying to launch it again, but there are many difficulties
to close the line of production (“filiera”).
First experiences have been carried out in Piedmont, in Emilia –
Romagna and in Umbria.
Also Campania is interested in reintroduction of hemp that used to
be one of the main cultivations in the region.
4. Re-introduction of the hemp cultivation in Italy
The opportunity to re-introduce the cultivation of hemp in Italy was born,
mainly from both agronomic and economic needs.
Of course, to reproduce the culture in Italy has been necessary a phase of
agronomic and technological experimentation, to ensure its viability after an
eclipse lasting about half a century.
In parallel to the cultivation was due to assess the economic viability for both
the agriculture and for industry.
This phase of the testing period, of not less than five years, has required much
work and effort but it has certainly produced good results.
It was in this general view that regions Emilia- Romagna and Tuscany have
accepted the requests from the manufacturing sector and farmers to facilitate
the reintegration of this plant into the regional regulations.
4 .Re-introducion of the hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
A cornerstone in the revitalization of the crop was checking on the feasibility
of building a "chain of hemp" to do so we needed to assess whether the
conditions existed to encourage the creation of facilities for the initial
processing of the product and solve some problems related to regulatory
issues concerning the lawfulness of the cultivation of hemp fibre.
Characteristic features of this project, which has allowed the progress and
development, was the cooperation between agriculture, industry and public
administration and in 2001 in Italy the “filiera” of the hemp started.
The industrial sectors of textiles and paper were the first to leave, giving clear
signals of economic development and employment, today are taking place all
other sectors to arrive at the total use of all products derived from the
processing plant, from cosmetics to power and bio-construction.
Combining research and nature, tradition and innovation, was the common
thread that brought the companies listed below to undertake a "journey
called hemp"
5. Italian organizations
In the following are reported the main Italian organizations that deal with hemp.
A.PRO.CAL Soc a.r.l. is a producer of hemp and flax established in Emilia Romagna in June
2002 with the aim to encourage all initiatives to promote the economic value of production of
cannabis on the national and international markets.
ISCI (Experimental Institute for Industrial Crops), of the Ministry of Agriculture has granted
to Assocanapa the right to reproduce the Italian varieties of hemp, such as Carmagnola and
CS (Carmagnola selected), controlled by E.N.S.E. Ente Nazionale Sementi Elette.
C.R.A. is a new Center for the Experimentation in Agriculture .
In collaboration with the Region of Tuscany ARSIA Assocanapa is taking forward the pilot
action for the development of chain of hemp for textile use.
Canapaitalia consortium was formed in July 1999 in Ferrara by the will of some
companies, agricultural, industrial, involved in the reintroduction of hemp cultivation and
have accepted the challenge of verifying the technical and economic feasibility of the
reintroduction of hemp cultivation itself .
One of the major strengths of the Consortium Canapaitalia is to include not only farmers but
the whole chain, from seed to processors, users mainly textile and paper industry (paper
Fedrigoni).
5. Italian organizations (cont.)
Ecocanapa Soc a.r.l. is a company founded in 2001 with the aim of managing the supply
chain of agro-industrial hemp fibre.
Located in Comacchio (Ferrara) has been officially opened in December 2003 from the
Assessorato Agriculture of the Province of Ferrara as "the first processing industry."
Its establishment, undertaken in collaboration with Consorzio Canapaitalia houses a facility
designed exclusively for the production of hemp fibre quality, technologically innovative and
low environmental impact and for creating the missing link to sanction the reintroduction of
cultivating and processing hemp in Italy.
The system includes a line of scutching, the process of separating the fibre from shives and a
line of combing for working long fibre hemp scutched before being inserted in the subsequent
processing of the textile supply chain.
By the process to obtain other raw materials, such shives and dust, which can be used for the
production of felts, for green building products and furnishings, and more.
The system required a substantial investment was made in about a year and after only 5 years
after the experimental agricultural hemp in Italy.
5. Italian organizations (cont.)
Assocanapa. National Coordination for canapicoltura has its
headquarters in Carmagnola [TO]). Assocanapa, was
established in Turin by deed dated 30/1/1998. with the main
objective to promote, preserve and spread the cultivation of
hemp in Italy and its use in various productive sectors. The
current number of members is 82.
Assocanapa is independent, non-profit pursues and achieves
its aims by drawing on the following principles: subsidiarity
between members and between the structures at different
levels, local, regional, national, under which any decision is
taken at the lowest possible level.
The Association has the following specific purposes:
To promote, protect and spread the cultivation of hemp and its use in various productive
sectors. To stimulate and develop research to promote and assist such cultivation and use of its
products, paying special attention to develop and enhance those features that make the
cultivation of hemp particular interest in the preservation of the environment and living
conditions and of work.
Representing the needs of those who cultivate cannabis and / or work and use the products to
institutions, regional, national and supranational regulatory enforcement and the agricultural
and industrial production and use of products derived from them.
5. Italian organizations (cont.)
In order to achieve its purposes, Assocanapa developed the following activities:
- Coordinate and / or initiatives to promote legal, legislative and membership for the
development of “canapicoltura” and protection of its members
- Contribute to Agencies and organizations that have similar purposes and that in any
activities that are of interest for the development of “canapicoltura” and related activities.
- Creates and manages brands that enhance the production of its members by providing
appropriate specifications that define the quality characteristics necessary for use of the
marks themselves.
- Producing, in collaboration with other organizations and public or private, information
activities and training for farmers, business operators, technicians and users.
- Stimulates and / or coordinates and / or supports the presentation in the field of
experimental designs and / or innovative financed by EU funds, and / or national and regional
and promotes the establishment and consolidation for the development of these projects,
partnerships with other business associations and European
- Manages the cooperation with other agencies and organizations, publishing activities,
including regular, for the dissemination of information regarding its activities and of specific
interest to the industry .
5. Italian organizations (cont.)
Group Fibranova s.r.l. born in 2000 at the initiative of some businessmen,
scientists and financial advisers who, as of 1996 had a major role in the
reintroduction of hemp cultivation
Linificio e Canapificio Nazionale SpA is the world leader in the spinning
liniera care and hemp is one of the oldest companies in Europe, founded on 14
January 1873
Società Produttori Sementi (Seed Producers Company) SpA Bologna is one of
the founding members of the Consortium Canapaitalia and the only seed
company in this consortium. In collaboration with A.PRO.CAL is taking
forward a project to experiment with new varieties of hemp made available
by genetic improvement. The tests also aim to find new uses for hemp, parallel
to those in the textile industry, including the production of seed oil for
cosmetic use food.
6. Italian museums specialized on hemp history
Besides strictly cultivation, experimental and commercial, hemp revolve around the cultural
institutions and museums, which tend to re-assess and to make known this fibre textiles used
in Italy until the'50s.
We pass by the Museum Atelier Experimental Aracne created in collaboration with the
Consortium Canapaitalia, the Ecomuseum culture and processing of hemp, the Museum of
hemp in Pisoniano, near Tivoli [RM], the Ecomuseum of “Cordari” (Rope-makers) in
Carmagnola, to San Marino di Bentivoglio just to name a few.
In Umbria, in particular, on 12 July 2008 was inaugurated the Museum of the hemp at
Sant'Anatolia di Narco, a small medieval village near Spoleto.
The Museum is the first antenna of dell'Ecomuseo Valnerina that came into being and it is
placed inside the Town Hall in the center of the country. Located on two floors is divided into
three main sections:
1) Processing and Weaving Hemp
2) Textile section
3) Workshop
.
Hemp Museum of Sant'Anatolia di Narco.
Particular of the exhibition: The sheaves of hemp
6. Italian museums specialized on hemp history (cont.)
1) In the first section, dedicated to working with hemp and weaving, the objects interact
with the visitors to make them become an integral part of the reality represented, the
panels will explain all stages of processing of hemp, by sowing the crop at harvest, fibre
processing and then close the cycle with the last stage of processing, spinning and
weaving.
2) In the second section, devoted to fabrics, you can view the finished objects, ie those tissues
that can be placed in a home / daily (blankets, towels for the bread, baby bands) and the
textile collection "Gentili“ including findings coming from the territorial Valnerina and
cover the period running from mid-1700 to mid 1900.
3) The last section, finally, will be dedicated to the workshop to ensure that the Museum,
from the mere place of heritage conservation to become an educational tool, a
"laboratory study", a school for the residents, to tourists and those who is interested in
learning this craft and a tourist attraction that encourages cultural exchanges and
economic growth.
The various types of frames in the same laboratory of the museum you can learn different
textile techniques to better understand how it has gone from a tangle of wires in a tissue
and as a vertical loom weights has led to a horizontal frame heddles still used.
.
Hemp Museum of Sant'Anatolia di Narco The loom
Hemp Museum of Sant'Anatolia di Narco. De Agostini Almanac 1953
6. Italian museums specialized on hemp history (cont.)
Activity in the laboratory of the Sant’Anatolia museum.
Assimilation and invention, knowledge and planning, memory and imagination
are the moments based on which we will be working and then graft the creative
experience. We start, therefore, from items by weaving then creative thinking
and action which then allow the exploration of new realities. In doing so we can
fix the "memory" and "tradition" that you see on display but that also revive and
display again through acts of fantastic reworking and invention: You create and
build new meanings through the active storage and imaginative design.
Activating an eye on things, the laboratory intends to cause a meeting between the
public and the museum that can be effective on the creative and cognitive level
through the game, doing and doing to prove how many and in what ways you can
combine and manipulate ideas and concepts as well as tools, materials, colours,
techniques.
The proposed laboratory activities, related mainly to the processing of hemp and
to the texture, will also learn about and deepen the complex and divided world of
textile fibres and autarkic ones in particular.
In addition to laboratory work projects , the activity of the museum is closely
connected with the agricultural practice. Through an agreement with the Institute
of Agriculture of Sant'Anatolia and the “Comunità Montana” of Valnerina we are
pursuing a project to put back into cultivation of hemp lands located along the
Nera river, known as, “Le Canapine”.
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation
in Italy
Ruscio. Monteleone di Spoleto (Umbria): Harvesting hemp with children of primary school
The Source of Pia. Sant'Anatolia di Narco: Putting the bundles of hemp in water for the retting
.
Traditional hemp processing:: drying and scutcing
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
A field of hemp
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
Hay baler suitable for hemp
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
A bale of hemp “tender core”
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
Polled field of Hemp
(Assocanapa)
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
Modification of the cutting bar
Implementation of spikes with catchment area properly built
by blacksmith craftsman on our project, sized for collection
of seed hemp breeding, that can be divided and disconnected
quickly in order to permit the transport of the bar on the
roads.
The system was designed and built so that it can be
disassembled quickly and that we can act separately on each
part.
Application of the spikes on the cutting bar through a
steel frame handcrafted custom-built, with bars welded
and bolted, as applied to the base of the bottom floor of
the bar at the top and on each spike.
(Assocanapa)
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
Assocanapa s.r.l.
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
Assocanapa s.r.l.
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
1
2
3
4
Assocanapa s.r.l.
7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
The modification that have been carried out have helped to convey
the enormous vegetable mass, and to gather and store the seeds.
Further field trials were:
technical comparison between crop sowing broadcast or in file,
a different investment from 10 to 25 kg / ha
the harvesting period of the seed (scalar ripening)
improvement of mechanical harvesting
polling “cimatura” in the vegetative stage.
Experiments in progress aimed at the quality of seed in terms of
germination and purity.
(Assocanapa)
8. Pecularities and Products of hemp
There are more than 25000 of products derived from the hemp and
the plant has about 50000 different uses. In north of Italy they say that
hemp is the vegetable pig because nothing of it is thrown away.
Fabrics and ropes - Its fibre can become as fine as cotton and it is
also stronger and long lasting.
Paper - We can have first quality paper (for example for banknotes)
both from fibre and pulp.
8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
Oil – from the seed it is possible to make oils that are very rich in
proteins and essential fats. They are very useful in alimentation,
cosmetics, detergents and paints .
Building industries – There are several patents, especially French
(insulating materials, plywood, etc.).
Beds for animals – The pulp of hemp is antibacterial
absorbent.
and very
Plastic materials – From cellulose we can produce biodegradable
plastic, to obtain complete biological composite.
Fuel – From the biomasses it is possible to obtain methanol and
ethanol that could replace mineral oils.
8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
Hemp is the more productive plant in the vegetable mass of the whole
temperate zone. It produce, for the same cultivate surface, in three
months, about four times the amount of biomass of a wood in a year.
Besides, if it is employed in paper production it requires less acids
and bleachers then wood.
The hemp fibre can be used as reinforcement in construction
materials and in composite plastic. Hemp fibres can make a stronger
and lighter composite plastic than fibreglass.
Moreover, when hemp fibres break, the composite does not shatter
like fibreglass, making a safer product, for example, for the interior of
a car, because it is less likely to cause an injury.
Hemp fibre also has been shown to improve home building materials
8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
Some characteristics make the hemp extremely interesting from the
point of view of the environment protection:
It does not need pesticides, unlike cotton, because it is targeted by
very few parasites.
It does not need herbicides; because of its easy cultivation and very
fast growth, so it chokes all the other plants surrounding it, ‘cleaning
up’ the field.
It is suitable for any kind of soil and allows the recovery of the
uncultivated lands.
8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
Some Impact Results (glass-hemp)
Typology of
specimen
Mat Glass
Absorbed energy / Reduction % UTS
5 Joule
10 Joule
15 Joule
2.8%
12.8%
17.7%
5%
15%
25%
Mat Glass +
Hemp
1.3%
6.6%
14.9%
5%
10%
20%
Fabric Glass
1.0%
12.7%
22.5%
5%
25%
30%
Fabric Glass +
Hemp
0.6%
9.9%
16.2%
0%
15%
20%
Results show an
improvement of
impact response
thanks to the
insertion of
natural fibres.
Also impact
energy
restitution
improves.
Damage
threshold is
higher.
9. Research
Modernization of the production cycle of hemp:
Selection of the variety
Control of the THC
Control of the cellulose fibres quality
Harvest in the field in suitable length to make easy the successive
operations of separation of the cellulose fibres from the lignin and
hemi-cellulose.
Separation by the Steam explosion (ENEA Rotondello Calabria)
Enzymatic separation
Return back to the traditional methods reviewed, like mechanical
and maceration systems
Wile it easy to produce technical fibres for insulating panels in
building, researchers and developers are trying to obtain high quality
fibres for fabrics ed especially for composites reinforcement.
9. Research (cont.)
Research must now focus on those aspect that limit the expansion of the
natural fibres.
Main items are:
like of genotypes adapted to different cultivation environments.
seed availability
mechanisation of harvesting
guaranteed supply of homogenous high quality fibre for the industries.
identification of new commercial applications for hemp fibre and its products.
development of biological resin of good quality and suitable for reinforced
composites.
generation of a complete and sustainable production chain.
9. Research (cont.)
Research on eco-composites in Italian universities and research centres:
Università di Roma Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale
Facoltà di Ingegneria
Dipartimento Ing. CMMPM
Dipartimento Ing. Aerospaz. e Astronaut.
Dipartimento Meccanica e Aeronautica
Università di Trento
Università di Palermo (tecnologie produttive)
Politecnico di Milano (ecocompositi termoplastici)
Università di Napoli “Federico II” (kenaf)
Università di Bologna (fibre-matrix interface)
Università di Perugia (Ecofina)
C.R.Fiat. Torino
C.I.R.A. Napoli
Consorzio Venezia Ricerche (wood flour)
CNR (eco-composites)
CNR- ISMAC Biella The Institute of Macromolecolar Studies
and many others!
10. Optical Microscopic
Enlargements of Hemp Plant
Longitudinal section of a hemp stalk
(X10)
Particular of external fibres
(X80)
Particular of interior part (X80)
Transversal section of a hemp stalk (X10)
Transversal section of a hemp stalk
X10
Particular of internal part (X80)
Perspective of two orthogonal sections of a stalk (X8)
Seeds and stalk of hemp in comparision with an old italian coin
Two seeds of hemp
X8
A split seed of hemp
X12.5
Roots of a plant of hemp
X1
Particular of roots of a plant of hemp
X8
Hemp fibres after Traction test X8
Particular of fibre (200 micron)
X80
Micrographies with SEM of Hemp fibre
Filo di canapa (yarn) Canapificio Linificio Italiano X30
Yarn
of hemp Canapificio Linificio Italiano X30, X300
Micrographies with SEM of Hemp fibre
Yarn of hemp Canapificio Linificio Italiano X1000, X5000
“Mat” thermoacoustic insulator of hemp
X30 , X300
“Mat” thermoacoustic insulator of hemp X1000, X5000
Comparison to SEM of glass fibre
“Mat” of glassfibre
Sistema Compositi X300 , X1000 , X5000
Fabric of glass fibre
Sistema Compositi
X30, X300
Fabric of glass fibre
Sistema Compositi
X1000, X5000
11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical Rudder
LOOM
Types of Fabric
11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical Rudder (cont.)
HAND LAY UP
RTM
11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical Rudder (cont.)
RUDDER
PROTOTYPE
(HEMP AND GLASS)
Ultra-light plane
Storm 280 SI
SG Aviation
Sabaudia (IT)
11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical Rudder (cont.)
The first step: to obtain composites of good quality with natural
reinforcement and traditional plastic matrix (like epoxy or polyester resin) is
nearly achieved .
Such partially natural composite could substitute classical GRP (glass
reinforced plastic) in many applications.
The second step: to have reliable wholly bio-degradable composite with both
matrix and reinforcement derived from natural products (not from mineral
oil ) is under investigation in all the world in universities and industries.
Some problems, to be solved, are: reliability, compatibility, strength to water
and strength to ageing.
12. Phyto-remediation
Among the possible uses of hemp (Cannabis sativa), you can use the cultivation of hemp for
the remediation of soils through phyto-remediation, exploiting its capacity to absorb, degrade
or stabilize pollutants by improving soil and / or avoiding pollution of the water-bearing
strata.
Hemp is suitable for use in the reclamation of land, as is easily cultivable, adapts well to many
types of soils and produces a high biomass used in the no-food industry.
That is why in recent years have been carried out numerous experiments to test its real
capacity of remediation of the soil.
Currently there are only experimental data that encourage the use of hemp for the
remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.
It would be necessary to extend the trial to obtain definitive data on its possible practical use
in the recovery of contaminated soils with organic pollutants.
Given the various industrial applications, the testing of its environmental potentialities could
make fruitful at least a portion of land that are now unused.
12. Phyto-remediation (cont.)
Accumulation of metals
in to the biomass
Phytovolatilization
Phytodegradation
Phytoextraction
Phytostabilization
12. Phyto-remediation (cont.)
Scientific experiments have been
conducted by:
Prof. Giovanardi University of Udine,
Prof.sa Citterio Bicocca Un. of Milan,
Dr. Di Candilo CRA-ISCI of Bologna.
Hemp shows:
resistance to high concentrations of
pollutants,
capacity to absorb and accumulate
pollutants,
fast growth and high biomass
production,
deep-rooting.
ABSORBITION
12. Phyto-remediation (cont.)
The varieties of hemp are tolerant to high concentrations of Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu
and Zn;
The varieties of hemp are able to extract the metals from the soil (mainly
accumulate in the root but also in the shoot);
The soil type factors and pH affect both the growth of plants and the
extraction of metals;
In the current state of research, are required several years to recover land
from the environmental pollution.
12. Phyto-remediation (cont.)
The best results with phyto-extraction are obtain in the absence of marked
effects phyto-toxic borne plant.
The crop manifests its phyto-extraction very similar to the accumulative
species.
The limited content of heavy metals inside the stalk allows an industrial use of
itself.
The high production of biomass would allow high production of energy
through combustion.
13. Conclusions
We have shown the main activities for the re-introduction and promotion of
hemp in Italy, focusing on the unique properties of this natural product in the
seed and stalks.
We have drawn an outline of ancient history (this is from an old edition of the
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1856) and modern chronicle of hemp in Italy.
We passed through the industrial and academic organizations working in the
field of hemp, agricultural cultivation, primary processing and utilization of
the many products available from this versatile plant and research.
Non-negligible importance in promoting have the specialized museums, in
particular that of Valnerina, in addition to the oldest one of Carmagnola and
Pisoniano and others.
After viewing some beautiful images of the structure of hemp, at last we have
shown a promising application of natural composites in aerospace and
something that can become highly topical use of the hemp plant as recovery of
polluted soils.
References
Web sites
www.assocasanapa.it
www.ecocanapa.it
www.casanapaitalia.com
www.gruppofibranova.it
www.comunesantanatolia.it.
Thank you for your attention

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