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This material is based on work supported by the
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C1L9S1
Computers store thousands of files, directories, and folders scattered
across one or many drives. To keep track of all files, computers keep a
detailed record of each file, its location, changes made to the file,
access dates, and other important information.
Linux has a similar system of file storage and location process called
the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard which defines where directories
and the files contained within them are stored. This filesystem
U the
standard is explored in this lesson.
It is very important to have a clear understanding of filesystems and
storage locations because improper use of filesystem tools can
corrupt or destroy important data.
You will learn to manipulate files and directories using command line
and other tools. Additionally, you will develop an understanding of
the hierarchy used within Linux for file location and storage.
C1L9S2
Student Expectations
You should know what will be expected of you when
you complete this lesson. These expectations are
presented as objectives.
Objectives are short statements of expectations that
tell you what you must be able to do, perform, learn,
or adjust after reviewing the lesson.
Select the Objective tab on the left to review this
lesson’s objective.
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Objective
Given a configured Linux systems, users will
be able to describe the Linux Filesystem
Hierarchy Standard and use Linux commands
to manipulate files as per industry standards.
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During this lesson, you will explore:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Filesystem Hierarchy (FHS)
File directory in Linux
File types
Viewing directories and files
Creating directories and files
Moving directories and files
Using wildcards
Deleting directories and files
C1L9S5
Every operating system follows a standard to
determine where files are stored on a hard drive so
they can be found and used by the operating
system at a later time. This standard is called a
filesystem. File systems allow files to be organized
in a hierarchical-based directory. A hierarchy of files
is necessary to give preferences and permissions to
certain files but not to others. File directories are
used to store files, subdirectories, programs, and
configuration files.
Linux uses the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
–a process that began in the early 1990’s as an
attempt to restructure the file and directory
system in Linux and later, in other Unix-like
distributions. However, most modern Unix/Linux
distributions do not follow these standards as they
were originally intended.
Further reading:
Linux Filesystem Hierarchy from TLDP
Graphic of Filesystem Hierarchy
C1L9S6
Understanding the Linux filesystem hierarchy will allow you to
save, locate, and retrieve files as needed. In the Unix/Linux
environment (as with any other operating system), each
directory has it’s own purpose and use.
Unix/Linux systems have a root login, which requires a
password to access. Linux systems also have a root directory
represented by a forward slash (/). An absolute path or
absolute file location always includes the root directory;
consequently, the path begins with the forward slash (/) to
indicate the root directory.
To view a demonstration
of the PWD command,
select PLAY below.
View Video
VideoLesson9PrintWorkingD
irectory(C1L9S16).mp4
You should always differentiate between the root login and the
root directory. One is often confused with the other.
Tip: If you forget the your current file location while working in
a Linux command line environment, type the command pwd
(print working directory) at the command prompt, and your
path or current working directory will be displayed.
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The standard directory system in some Linux distributions (i.e.
UBUNTU) may contain some of the following main directories:
/bin, /dev, /etc, /home, /media, /root, /sbin, /tmp, /usr, and /var.
Review the Linux File System Tree Overview link to learn about
the specific purpose of each directory.
In Unix/Linux systems, everything is considered a file. Therefore,
every path would begin with the forward slash (root directory).
For example:
/home/mary/client
• client is located in the mary subdirectory
• mary is located in the home subdirectory
• home is located in the root (/) directory
Locations within the file directory tree can be identified as
having a relative or absolute pathname. For example, an
absolute name would start with the slash "/", while a relative
path name would not.
Required Reading
Root directory illustration
C1L9S8
Linux files are categorized as “shareable versus
unshareable,” and “variable” versus “static.”
A shareable file is one that may be stored on one
computer but accessed and used by other
computers. An unshareable file will be the
opposite—it is not shared with other computers.
Files used for security purposes and device lock files
are examples of unshareable files.
A static file is one that does not change during
regular use, however, a system administrator may
make changes to static files. Examples of static files
include documentation files and libraries.
Static
Variable
Shareable
Unshareable
/usr
/etc
/opt
/boot
/var/mail
/var/run
/var/spool/news
/var/lock
On the other hand, a variable file changes regularly
and does not require a system administrator to
make changes to it.
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There are six specific file types in Unix/Linux. These file
types create a file system where all processes, devices,
and connections are accessed. File types include:
• Regular file – almost anything in an Unix/Linux system
•
•
•
•
•
Static
Shareable
Unshareable
/usr
/etc
/opt
/boot
can be considered a file including text, binary, or
Variable
/var/mail
/var/run
executable items.
/var/spool/news
/var/lock
Directory – a directory is a location to save other files.
In Unix/Linux, a file may be listed in more than one
FHS compliant system
directory to create a “link.”
Device – all devices in Unix/Linux environments can be
accessed as files.
Socket – also referred to as "Unix domain socket" or "local domain socket." A socket represents
the communication between two programs.
Pipe – Allows communication between two programs (or commands).
Symbolic (soft) link – similar to a “shortcut” in Windows. A link points to an original file, but if the
original file is deleted, the link will be broken and invalid. Directory links are considered “soft
links.”
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To view file types in a Unix/Linux environment
type
ls –all or ls –l at the command prompt.
The results will display information for each file
inside the directory.
Let’s review Figure 1:
The dash (–) in front of the file permissions
indicates the file is regular. The letter “d”
indicates the filename is a directory (inside the
directory) which makes it a sub-directory. The
letter “l” indicates a symbolic file.
To review the different switches you can use
with the ls command (list directory contents)
you can review previous lessons. To search man
pages in your Unix/Linux system type man ls at
the command prompt.
clients and sales are directories. Notice the d at
the beginning of the file rights (left).
gomez and smith are files, notice the dash (-) at
the beginning of the file rights
Rodriguez smith represents a soft link file where
smith is the source file and rodriguez is the
symbolic link.
(If smith is deleted, destroyed, or corrupted, then the
rodriguez symbolic link would not function.)
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Access your command line to create files. Refer to Fig 2.
To create a directory:
mkdir <name of the file>
To create the clients directory: mkdir clients
To create a file:
touch <nameofthefile>
To create the gomez file: touch gomez
To create multiple directories in one command line:
mkdir <directory name 1> <directory name 2>
To create smith and lopez: mkdir smith lopez
To create a symbolic link;
ln –s <nameofsourcefile> <nameofsymboliclink>
To remove a symbolic link, view this reference.
To create the Rodriguez symbolic link, type:
ln –s smith rodriguez
To view the contents of the directory, type:
ls –l at the command prompt.
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The mv (move command allows you to move files
and directories. (Refer to figure 3).
Terry created a file and named it bonus. At the
command prompt, he types ls –l to view the list of
files in that directory. He is certain bonus is a file
(and not a directory) because the first character
that appears for the bonus file is a dash (–)
indicating file status.
Terry wants to move the bonus file into the lopez
subdirectory. At the prompt he types mv bonus
lopez where bonus is the file to be moved and lopez
is the destination directory to which bonus will be
moved.
Terry types ls -l again to ensure bonus was indeed
moved to the lopez directory. The file bonus does
not show in the original directory listing. Therefore,
bonus was indeed moved.
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Now Terry wants to make sure bonus is inside the lopez
subdirectory. Before he can list the contents of the lopez
subdirectory, he needs to move into the lopez subdirectory.
At the prompt he types cd lopez
Then he types ls –l to list the contents of the lopez
subdirectory. The results confirm that the bonus file is
stored at that location.
To make sure, Terry types pwd to print the working
directory, and indeed it displays Terry’s current working
directory as /home/terry/lopez.
To move out of the lopez subdirectory Terry types cd ..
(cd command, followed by a space and two periods). This
command takes him out of the lopez subdirectory and back
to /home/terry.
This move is confirmed when he types pwd (to check his
current working directory) and it returns his path as being
/home/terry.
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Sometimes you will need to find a file but do not
remember where you saved or stored it. To locate
misplaced files, you can use the find command.
You can find a file by typing the command
find <filename> at the command prompt.
For example, Terry forgot where he stored the
bonus file. At the prompt, he types:
find . –name bonus
Bonus file is located in the lopez directory
The computer returns the output indicating bonus
is located inside the lopez subdirectory.
Note: Years ago, you needed to add print at the
end of the command line to get results. Most
modern Unix distributions do not require this.
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Sometimes you will not remember the exact name or spelling of a file or
directory you seek. In these instances, wildcard characters work well.
There are two types of wildcard characters: the asterisk (*) and the
question mark (?). Both types may be used in place of actual letters.
However, there is a slight difference between them.
The asterisk (represented by the * character on your keyboard)
represents any number of characters. The question mark (represented by
the ? symbol on your keyboard) represents one character. For example, if
you are searching for a file that begins with B and you know it is four
letters long, you would type ls B??? at the command prompt.
If you knew the filename begins with b but you do not remember the
other letters in the filename, you would type ls b* at the command
prompt.
ls b???
Ls b??? is the command to list
the contents of the directory
for all filenames that begin
with the letter b and are four
characters long.
ls b*
Ls b* is the command to list
the contents of the directory
for all filenames that begin
with the letter b.
The asterisk (*) wildcard is used more frequently than the question mark
(?) character to do wildcard searches in a Unix/Linux environment.
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Sometimes you will need to remove
directories and files. The following
commands will allow you to achieve this
goal (refer to figure 4):
To remove a file at the command prompt:
rm <name of file>
For example, to remove the gomez file:
rm gomez
To learn more about the rm command you
may visit the man rm page. By default, the
rm command removes files, not
directories.
Remember: Unix/Linux systems are case
sensitive. Consequently, rm Gomez is not
the same as rm gomez!
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To remove a directory:
rmdir <nameofdirectory>
For example, to remove the clients
directory: rmdir clients
This directory was deleted because it was
empty. If there were other items or files
contained in this directory, you would have
to use the rm –r command to delete it.
To remove or delete a symbolic link:
rm <symbolic link>
The removal of a symbolic link will not
affect nor delete the original file.
To view the listing of directories and files created type:
ls –l (or –all) at the command prompt.
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Linux distributions use the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
(FHS) to determine the content and location of files and
directories, but not all Linux distros follow this standard
precisely.
Linux is case sensitive so upper and lower case letters are
differentiated. However, Linux treats everything within the
OS as files. The main file location is called the root directory
and is represented with a forward slash (/).
File locations are called paths and can be relative or absolute.
Relative paths are referenced based on your current location
within a directory, while absolute paths have a fixed location
and are not based on your current directory or location.
Absolute paths reference the root directory.
Linux accepts various commands at a command prompt to
create, move, view, locate, rename, and delete files.
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