KEY-ISSUES-IN

Report
KEY ISSUES IN SLA
Hartono, S.S., M.Pd.
COLASULA
SLA as a uniform phenomenon
• SLA is not a uniform and predictable
phenomenon. There is no single way in which
learners acquire a knowledge of a second
language (L2). SLA is the products of many
factors pertaining to the learners and the
learning situation.
• Different learners in different situations learn L2
in different ways.
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
vs.
FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
SLA stands in contrast to first language
acquisition. It is the study of how learners learn
an additional language after they have acquired
their mother tongue.
The study of language-learner language began
with the study of first language (L1) acquisition.
COMPETENCE vs. PERFORMANCE
• A distinction is often made between competence
and performance (Chomsky, 1965).
• Competence: the mental representation of
linguistic rules which constitute the speakerhearer’s internalized grammar.
• Performance: the comprehension and
production of language.
• Language acquisition studies are interested in
how competence is developed. However, because
competence is not open to direct inspection, it’s
necessary to examine how the learner performs.
ACQUISITION vs LEARNING
• Acquisition is sometimes contrasted with
learning on the assumption that these are
different processes.
• Acquisition: picking up a second language
through exposure and it’s subconscious.
• Learning: conscious study of a second language.
• Ellis (1985): acquisition and learning are not a
real distinction.
THE ROLE OF THE FIRST LANGUAGE
• There was a strong assumption that most of
difficulties facing the L2 learner were imposed
by his / her L1.
• Differences between L1 & L2, the learner’s L1
knowledge would interfere with the L2.
• Similarities between L1 & L2, the learner’s L1
knowledge aid L2 learning.
• This process is called language transfer.
• The study of these differences is called
Contrastive Analysis.
INDIVIDUAL LEARNER DIFFERENCES
• Variability in language-learner language is the result
not only if contextual factors. It also occurs because
of individual differences in the way learners learn a
L2 and the way they use their L2 knowledge.
• No two learners learn L2 in exactly the same way.
• Adults and children may learn L2 in different way
both in route and rate.
• Factors that may make learning differences:
aptitude, motivation, age, cognitive style,
personality, etc.
THE ROLE OF INPUT
• SLA takes place only when the learner has access to
L2 input.
• The input may be in the form of exposure in natural
setting or formal instruction, it may be spoken or
written.
• Early theories of SLA emphasized the importance of
the input. The whole process of learning could be
controlled by presenting the L2 in the right-sized
doses and ensuring that the learners continued to
practice until each feature was ‘overlearned’ /
automatic.
LEARNER STRATEGIES (LS)
• LS is the use of general cognitive strategies to
shift the input the learner receives and relates to
his / her existing knowledge.
• There are three LS:
a. Learning strategies: the means by which the
learners process the L2 input in order to develop
linguistic competence. This can be conscious and
behavioral or subconscious and psycholinguistic.
b. Production strategies: The learners’ attempt
to use the L2 knowledge they have already
acquired efficiently and clearly. This can be done
by rehearsal of what should be said and
discourse planning.
c. Communication strategies: learners’ attempt to
communicate meaning for which they lack the
requisite linguistic knowledge.
The ROLE OF FORMAL ISNTRUCTION
• From the teacher’s point of view, the role of formal
instruction plays in SLA is of central importance.
• Studies on formal instruction suggest that it does
not change the ‘natural’ route development or the
order of learning.
• formal instruction may enhance the whole process.
Learners who receive formal instruction may learn
more rapidly than those who don’t. Although L2
knowledge derived from formal instruction is not
immediately available for use in spontaneous
conversation, it soon becomes serviceable once the
learner has the opportunity to use the L2 in this
kind of communication. Formal instruction can have
a powerful delay effect.

similar documents