States of Consciousness

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Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
States of Consciousness
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Some Early Definitions
• Consciousness: All the sensations, perceptions,
memories, and feelings you are aware of in any instant
– Waking Consciousness: Normal, clear, organized,
alert awareness
• Altered State of Consciousness (ASC): Awareness that
is distinctly different in quality or pattern from waking
consciousness
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Sleep
• Definition: Innate, biological rhythm essential for survival
• Sleep Deprivation: Sleep loss; being deprived of needed
amounts of sleep
• Microsleep: Brief shift in brain-wave patterns similar to
those of sleep
• Sleep-Deprivation Psychosis: Major disruption that
occurs because of sleep loss
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Measuring Sleep Changes
• Electroencephalograph (EEG): Brain-wave machine;
amplifies and records electrical activity in the brain
• Beta Waves: Small fast waves associated with alertness
and awakeness
• Alpha Waves: Large, slow waves associated with
relaxation and falling asleep
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
States of Sleep
• Rapid Eye Movements (REM): Associated with
dreaming; sleep is very light.
– Body is very still during REM sleep.
– Lack of muscle paralysis during REM sleep is called
REM Behavioral Disorder.
• Non-REM (NREM) Sleep: Occurs during stages 1, 2, 3,
and 4; no rapid eye movement occurs.
– Seems to help us recover from daily fatigue.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Stages of Sleep
• Stage 1: Small, irregular waves produced in light sleep
(people may or may not say they were asleep)
– Hypnic Jerk: Reflex muscle twitch throughout body
that may occur in Stage 1
• Stage 2: Deeper sleep; sleep spindles (bursts of
distinctive brain-wave activity) appear
• Stage 3: Deeper sleep; Delta waves appear; very large
and slow
• Stage 4: Deepest level of normal sleep; almost purely
Delta waves
Figure 5.6
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
FIGURE 5.6 (a) Average proportion of time adults spend daily in REM sleep and NREM sleep.
REM periods add up to about 20 percent of total sleep time. (b) Typical changes in stages of
sleep during the night. Notice that dreams mostly coincide with REM periods.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Sleep Disturbances
• Insomnia: Difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep,
or waking early
– Sleeping pills exacerbate insomnia; cause decrease
in REM and Stage 4 sleep and may cause
dependency
• Drug-Dependency Insomnia: Sleeplessness that follows
withdrawal from sleeping pills
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
More Sleep Disturbances
• Sleepwalking (Somnambulism): Occurs in NREM sleep
during Stages 3 and 4
• Sleeptalking: Speaking while asleep; occurs in NREM
sleep
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Even More Sleep Disturbances
• Nightmares: Bad dreams
– Occur during REM sleep
– May occur once or twice a month; brief and easily
(unfortunately) remembered
– Imagery Rehearsal: Mentally rehearse the changed
dream before you go to sleep again; may help to
eliminate nightmares
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Night Terrors
• Night Terrors: Total panic and hallucinations may occur
– Occurs during Stage 4 sleep
– Most common in childhood; may occur in adults
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Physiological Sleep Problems
• Sleep Apnea: Interrupted breathing during sleep; cause
of very loud snoring
– Hypersomnia: Extreme daytime sleepiness
– Apnea can be treated by
• Surgery
• Weight loss
• Breathing mask
• Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS; Crib Death):
Sudden, unexplained death of healthy infant (infants
should sleep on back or on side to try to prevent)
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Hypnosis
• Altered state of consciousness characterized by
intensely narrowed attention and increased openness to
suggestion
– Mesmer: Believed he could cure diseases by passing
magnets over body; true “animal magnetism”
(“mesmerize” means to hypnotize)
– Must cooperate to become hypnotized
• Hypnotic Susceptibility: How easily a person can be
hypnotized
• Basic Suggestion Effect: Tendency of hypnotized people
to carry out suggested actions as though they were
involuntary
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Hypnosis Can’s and Cannot’s
• Hypnosis CAN
– Help people relax
– Reduce pain
– Get people to make better progress in therapy
• Hypnosis CANNOT
– Produce acts of superhuman strength
– Produce age regression
– Force you to do things against your will
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Stage Hypnosis
• Simulation of hypnotic effects.
• Tricks of the Trade:
– Waking Suggestibility: People on stage do not want to
spoil the act, so they will follow any instruction.
– Selection of Responsive Subjects: Any “volunteer”
who does not get hypnotized in the stage group and
does not follow instructions is “voted off.”
– The Hypnosis Label Disinhibits: On stage, once you
are “in a hypnotic trance,” your responsibility for
actions is removed; you can do whatever you want!
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
More Stage Hypnosis “Tricks of the Trade”
• Hypnotist as Director: Once they are in a trance, the
“volunteers” are suddenly the show’s stars, and they will
act like it. The hypnotists only need to direct them.
• Stage Hypnotists Use Tricks: Stage hypnosis is 50%
deception and 50% taking advantage of the situation
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Meditation
• Mental exercise designed to produce relaxation or
heightened awareness
• Concentrative Meditation: Attention is paid to a single
focal point (i.e., object, thought, etc.)
– Produces relaxation response and thus works to
reduce stress
• Receptive Meditation: Based on widening attention span
to become aware of everything experienced at a given
moment
• Mantra: Word(s) or sound(s) repeated silently during
concentrative meditation
• Relaxation Response: Occurs at time of relaxation;
internal response that prevents activation of adrenal
glands
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Drugs and Altered States of Consciousness
• Psychoactive Drug: Substance capable of altering
attention, judgment, memory, time sense, self-control,
emotion, or perception
• Stimulant: Substance that increases activity in body and
nervous system
• Depressant: Substance that decreases activity in body
and nervous system
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Physical Dependence
• Physical Dependence: Addiction based on drug
tolerance and withdrawal symptoms
– Drug Tolerance: Reduction in body’s response to a
drug
– Withdrawal Symptoms: Physical illness following
withdrawal of the drug
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Psychological Dependence/ Need
• Psychological Dependence: Drug dependence based on
psychological or emotional needs
– Usually crave drug
– Can be as powerful as physiological addiction
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 5
Alcohol
• Ethyl Alcohol: Intoxicating element in fermented and
distilled liquors
– NOT a stimulant but DOES lower inhibitions
– Depressant
• Binge Drinking: Consuming five or more drinks in a short
time; four or more for women
– Serious sign of alcohol abuse

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