• Expanded the Roman Republic through
a series of battles across Europe before
declaring himself dictator for life
• Devoted his energies to the conquest of
Gaul (modern France)
• He died famously on the steps of the
Senate at the hands of political rivals.
• Julius Caesar is often remembered as
one of the greatest military minds in
history and credited with laying the
foundation for the Roman Empire.
• As the first Roman emperor (though he never
claimed the title for himself), Augustus led
Rome’s transformation from republic to
empire during the tumultuous years following
the assassination of his great-uncle and
adoptive father Julius Caesar.
• He layed the foundations of the 200-year Pax
Romana (Roman Peace) and an empire that
lasted, in various forms, for nearly 1,500 years.
• Augustus Caesar died in A.D. 14, his empire
secured and at peace. His reported last
words were twofold: to his subjects he said, “I
found Rome of clay; I leave it to you of
marble,” but to the friends who had stayed
with him in his rise to power he added, “Have I
played the part well? Then applaud me as I
• Born in 42 B.C.
• Father died when he was 9
• Was sent on missions to gain
experience in government.
• Became emperor of Rome in 14 A.D.
• His son was poisoned by a friend
trying to reach the throne.
• When he died, he left the throne to
his grand-nephew, Caligula
• Born on August 13, 12 A.D
• His father died when he was 7.
Rumored that he was poisoned by
• Became emperor at age 25
• Suffered from a mental illness which
caused his to behave strangely- he
made his horse a priest
• Because he was voted an emperor
for life, his guards killed him to remove
him from power
• Born on April 26, 121
• Growing up, Aurelius was a dedicated
student, learning Latin and Greek
• After his adoptive father died in 161,
Aurelius rose to power and was officially
then known as Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
Augustus. His adopted brother served as
his co-ruler
• Marcus Aurelius, is not best remembered
for the wars he waged, but for his
contemplative nature and his rule driven
by reason
• Measuring some 620 by 513 feet (190 by
155 meters), the Colosseum was the
largest amphitheater in the Roman world
• Inside, the Colosseum had seating for
more than 50,000 spectators, who may
have been arranged according to social
• Hosted gladiatorial combats, hunts, wild
animal fights and larger combats such as
mock naval engagements (for which the
arena was flooded with water)
• Colosseum video
• The Romans constructed aqueducts to
bring a constant flow of water from
distant sources into cities and towns
• Aqueducts moved water through gravity
alone, along a slight downward gradient
within conduits of stone, brick or
• Aqueducts video

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