Report

Graduate Teaching Assistant Training Steve Rooney and Stuart Johnson Student Development www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Who are we? www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Outline • Facilitating group learning • Introduction to (some!) learning and teaching theory • Putting theory into practice • Q and A www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Learning names • How can we learn students names? • How can we teach if we don’t know who our students are? www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Facilitating group learning www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Outline • Facilitating group learning • Introduction to learning and teaching theory • Putting theory into practice • Q and A www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment “…the corporal and Colonel Korn both agreed that it was neither possible nor necessary to educate people who never questioned anything.” www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Introduction to teaching approaches • There are different approaches to teaching and learning • There is a body of theoretical discussion and academic research that informs how we think about teaching and learning • Thinking about educational theory can help us to improve the way in which we teach www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Reflecting on learning Task one • In pairs, list the factors that impact on the activity of ‘learning’. www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Some pointers from psychological research • How do students learn? • Psychological research is concerned with the individuality of cognition: knowing, understanding, remembering and problem solving. • What factors impact on the activity of learning? – human behaviour – motivation – achievement – personality – self-esteem www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Key theories influencing pedagogy • Social constructivist theory • Information processing theory • Theories relating to learning styles and strategies www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Task 2: Theory and Practice Working in three groups, read through the main points of the theory you have been given. As a group discuss and prepare a presentation (max. 10 minutes) to give to the rest of the group in which you: • teach the main points of the theory; • explain the implications of it for pedagogical practice; • devise one or more activity/activities that would be appropriate for this theory of learning – you can try these out if you wish. www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment References • Ausubel, D.P. (1968) Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston • Bruner, J. (1983) Child’s Talk: Learning to Use Language, Oxford: Oxford University Press • Gagné, R.M. (1977) The Conditions of Learning, New York: Holt International • Kolb, D.A. (1976, 1985) The Learning Style Inventory: Technical Manual, Boston Mass.: McBer and Co. • McCarthy, B. (1987) The 4MAT System, Barrington, Ill.: Excel • Riding, R.J. & Rayner, S. (1998) Learning Styles and Strategies, London: David Fulton • Stones, E. (1992) Quality Teaching: A Sample of Cases, London: Routledge • Vygotsky, L.S. (1962) Thought and Language, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press • Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes, London: Harvard University Press www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Outline • Facilitating group learning • Introduction to learning and teaching theory • Putting theory into practice • Q and A www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Getting students to talk If I look at my shoes he won’t pick me Why won’t she just tell us the answer? I hate speaking in front of other people I haven’t got anything to say www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Why do students talk? • Some students are more inclined to speak up • Some groups bond well or are less intimidating • However, what you do as a tutor/facilitator makes a lot of difference to whether students speak www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Techniques to get them talking Develop ideas Understand task Thinking Time Input new but related task Group work Pair discussion Pair discussion Group work Group work Whole class feedback Tutor summary www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Get talking Check understanding Group work Develop ideas Other techniques • Rounds • Case studies • Role play • Changing the rules www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Factors influencing student motivation During a term what factors might affect the performance of your group? Week 1 www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Week 5 Week 10 Responding to external factors • Be aware of the stresses and strains that are motivating and impacting on your students. • Respond to them where appropriate, e.g. – Reduce reading where there are more thing competing for student time. – Explicitly address assessments in class. • Report them to module convenor where you think that there is a more fundamental problem. www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Case studies www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Lesson planning Some questions to ask: • What are my learning outcomes for the coming session? • Is it appropriate to design a highly structured session or is greater flexibility required? • How much time do I have? • What resources will I need? • What space will I be working in? • Where does my session fit into the programme? • Do I need to stipulate what needs to be done in my absence? www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Learning outcomes • One definition of education is “an observable change in behaviour” • So learning outcomes describe what a student will be able to do (what you can observe) at the end of the session/course • Usually learning outcomes will describe one of the following things: – knowledge and understanding – intellectual skills – practical skills – key/transferable skills www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Times Description Learning outcomes Student preparation Students will have: • read chapter Fine Art and the Cold War • discussed the topic Introduction: overview of seminar • articulated key differences between fine art traditions in the East and West 0-5 • Energiser: best paintings - divide group into East and West 5-10 Discussion 10-15 • Set question – thinking time 15-20 • Discuss answers in pairs 20-30 • Groups of 4 to come up with best 3 30-40 • Feedback Input 40-50 • Mini lecture – schools of thought 50-55 • Rounds – response to lecture Next week… 55-60 • Prepare group presentations • gained experience in working in groups • encountered the main schools of thought and made an initial response to them More scenarios I’m confident I would know how to deal with this I have some idea about how I would deal with this I’m not sure I would know what to do about this Aaaagh! I would panic if confronted with this! www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Withdrawn student • Towards the end of the semester, you notice that a student who had always contributed to discussion has gradually become withdrawn and is failing to complete coursework. During the first term her marks were consistently good, work had always been handed in on time and she had prepared for each small group session. There is now a noticeable deterioration in the standard of her work. www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Confident Some idea Not sure Aaaagh Non-native speaker • Xu is a non-native speaker within your tutorial group. She takes notes attentively at every class but rarely speaks. When she does speak her speech is heavily accented but comprehensible. When asked direct questions she often misinterprets what she has been asked or asks you or other students to repeat what you have said. On occasion her misunderstandings have provoked laughter from native speaking students. www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Confident Some idea Not sure Aaaagh Bob • Bob, one of the men in your first year tutorial class, is a model student in many ways. He seems particularly highly motivated. He is quiet in class but clearly prepares well and his first essay is excellent. He is often the first to arrive at a session and the last to leave. He has questions he wants you to answer at the end of most sessions. • Recently, he has taken to knocking on your door once or twice a week, either to ask a question about what is required in class, or to discuss the book, play or poem being studied. He invites you to coffee to discuss academic issues and to Some Confident idea continue debate on the course areas that he considers interesting Not sure www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Aaaagh Panic • You have a student in one of your seminar groups who has to give a presentation in a future session. The student tells you that s/he just cannot do it and is filled with panic at the very idea. www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Confident Some idea Not sure Aaaagh Dyslexia/Dyspraxia • You have a student in one of your seminar groups who discloses to you in confidence that they have dyslexia and dyspraxia. The student explains that this is the reason why she/he has been unable to prepare properly for the seminar. www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Confident Some idea Not sure Aaaagh Plagiarism • You have to fail a piece of work on the grounds of plagiarism. This student did not show you any drafts of the essay and you suspect that her other two assignments for other subjects (due in the same week) may also be heavily plagiarised. All students have received notification of the University guidelines concerning plagiarism in the Departmental handbook and induction sessions. www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Homesickness • It is four weeks into the first term and a first year student knocks on your door and asks if it is alright to talk to you. You invite her in and she tells you, through her sobs, that she is very homesick and is thinking of changing university of leaving university altogether. www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Confident Some idea Not sure Aaaagh Outline • Facilitating group learning • Introduction to learning and teaching theory • Putting theory into practice • Q and A www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment