ET 5 * LS 4 - Nabiku Idolaku

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ET 7
Comparison
If you want to compare two things, you use the comparative form of
an adjective.
For example the comparative form of big is bigger, and the
comparative form of interesting is more interesting.
Example :
- Your car is bigger than mine.
- His new book is more interesting than his last one.
If you want to say that one thing is bigger, faster, more interesting etc
than all the others of a group of things, you use the superlative form
of an adjective.
For example, the superlative form of big is biggest, and the superlative
form of interesting is the most interesting.
Example :
- It’s the fastest motorcycle in the world.
- What’s the most delicious food you’ve ever eaten?
CHOOSING THE RIGHT FORM OF THE ADJECTIVE
If the adjective is one syllable long, you add ‘er’ or ‘est’ to it, sometimes making a change in
the spelling.
adjective
comparative
superlative
tall
taller
tallest
big
bigger
biggest
nice
nicer
nicest
If the adjective is three or more syllables long, you add the words more or most before it.
Example :
That‘s a more interesting question.
Kim’s question was the most interesting one.
The new trains are more comfortable than the old ones.
That’s the most comfortable bed I’ve ever slept
Most adjectives with two syllables use more and most to form the comparative and
superlative, but some two-syllable adjectives have -er/-est endings, and some two-syllable
adjectives use both methods.
Words which are formed from a verb, and which end in -ing, -ed, or other past forms,
always use more/most, no matter how many syllables they have.
Example :
His latest film is even more boring than his previous ones.
She was more shocked than I was.
The -er/-est endings are possible with adjectives ending in -y, -ow, -le, -er, -ure. Don’t forget
that with adjectives that end in -y, the -y changes to -i.
adjective comparative superlative
happy
happier
happiest
gentle
gentler
gentlest
narrow
narrower
narrowest
clever
cleverer
cleverest
You keep this pattern even in the cases where you can add ‘un’ to a two-syllable adjective.
unhappier/unhappiest
Proper and eager do not follow this rule: you can use only more/most with them.
You use more/most with all other two-syllable adjectives.
more/most active more/most useful more/most recent
ADJECTIVES THAT DO NOT FOLLOW THE NORMAL RULES
Not all adjectives follow the normal rules. Some adjectives have completely irregular forms.
The most common ones are:
adjective comparative superlative
good
better
best
bad
worse
worst
little
less
least
COMPARING TWO THINGS WHICH ARE THE SAME
If you want to say that two things are the same size, the same height
etc, you can say that one thing is as big as the other, as tall as the
other etc.
She’s as tall as her sister.
Do you think this summer will be as hot as last summer?
COMPARING TWO THINGS WHICH ARE NOT THE SAME
If you want to say that two things are not the same size, the same
height etc, you can say that one thing is not as big as the other, not
as tall as the other etc.
Example :
The meal wasn’t as good as the last meal I had there.
I’m not as fat as him. OR I’m not as fat as he is.
London is not as expensive as some other European cities.
You can use less … than to mean the same thing as not as … as, but you usually use it with
adjectives that have two or more syllables, for example less expensive, less important.
Example :
Value for money is less important than quality and reliability.
Don’t use less with short adjectives such as good, old etc.
• You can leave out the second as and the noun after it, if you have already mentioned or
suggested the second thing that you are comparing.
The material looks like silk, but it’s not as expensive. (=”not” as expensive as silk)
• Similarly, you can also leave out the than part of the comparison when you are using less,
if you have already mentioned or suggested the second thing that you are comparing.
I prefer the old Hollywood movies. They’re much less violent. (=”than” modern films)
The buses are less crowded after 10 o’clock. (=”than” they are before 10 o’clock)
If you want to say that one type of thing is less expensive, less important etc than all other
things of the same type, you can say that it is the least expensive, the least important etc.
People usually choose the least expensive brand.
Don’t use least with short adjectives such as good, old etc.
-
Your car is bigger than mine
It’s the fastest motorcycle in the world
I’m not as fat as him
Value for money is less important than quality and reliability.
People usually choose the least expensive brand.
S1 + to be + comparative adj + than + S2
S1 + to be + not + comparative adj + than + S2
Comparative adj : as big as
bigger
more interesting
less interesting
Parallel constructions
I prefer (n) to (n)
I prefer (v+ing) to (v+ing)
I would rather (v) than (v)
Expressions :
- I love …
- I hate …
- I like … better than
- I prefer … to …
- I prefer not …
- I would rather … than …
- What’s your favourite movie?
- What’s your preference?
Expressions to start a conversation :
- Look who’s here.
- Glad to have you here
- How was your holiday?
- Glad to see you back
Expressions to end a conversation :
- It’s getting late.
- I’d better get going.
- Well, time to go.
- It’s a long story.
- I’ll tell you more later.
- I’ve got to go now.
- I’ll tell you about it later.
Expressions to show excitement :
- I wouldn’t have missed it.
- I’m all ears.
TAG QUESTION
ADVERBS
ADVERBIAL PHRASE
An adverbial phrase (AdvP) is a linguistic term for a group of two or more words
operating adverbially, when viewed in terms of their syntactic function.
Compare the following sentences:
I'll go to bed soon.
I'll go to bed in an hour.
I'll go to bed when I've finished my book.
In the first, soon is an adverb (as distinct from a noun or verb), and it is an adverbial
(as distinct from a subject or object).
Clearly, in the second sentence, in an hour has the same syntactic function, though it
does not contain an adverb; therefore, a prepositional phrase consisting of a
preposition and a noun (preceded by its article) can function as an adverbial and is
called an adverbial phrase.
In the third sentence, we see a whole clause functioning as an adverbial; it is termed
an adverbial clause.
ADVERBIAL PHRASE
Adverb phrases, are phrases that do the work of an adverb in a sentence.
They, like adverbs, can describe:
1.Time (answers the question 'When?')
She will be arriving in a short time.
2.Place (answers the question 'Where?')
He is waiting near the wall.
3.Manner (answers the question 'How?')
They are discussing the matter in a civilized way.
Position of adverbs :
1. After direct object.
If no direct object, they go after the verb.
Example :
He eats his meal slowly.
He eats slowly.
2. Before the verb.
Example :
He slowly eats his lunch.
He slowly walked to school.
3. If there is more than one adverb or adverbial phrase, the usual order is :
MANNER – PLACE – TIME
Example :
Mr. Ahmad worked hard in the library this morning.
4. An adverb or adverbial phrase can be put at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis.
Example :
Slowly he began to eat his meal.
5. Adverb position is flexible.
Example :
This morning Mr. Ali worked really hard at the library.
Classroom Debate
There is a “For” team and a “Against” team.
Teams think of arguments FOR or AGAINST a particular statement
Expectation : positive teamwork experience, e.g :
- Group rapport
- Taking turns
- Respecting the views of others
- Keeping noise to a minimum
CAPTAIN responsibilities :
- Maintaining team discipline and focus
- Exercising leadership
- Being fair and unbiased
- Delegating group member responsibilities
WH QUESTIONS
Location
Where is it located?
Architect
Who was the architect?
Function
What is the function of the palace?
Public access :
Is the palace open for public?
Interesting things :
What is the interesting things about the palace?
EXPRESSIONS in a restaurant:
DINER :
- Could you give us a few (more) minutes ?
- What do you recommend ?
- What’s the soup / the specialty of the day?
- Does the steak come with a salad?
- Here you go / are.
WAITER / CASHIER :
- Are you ready to order?
- Can I help you?
- May I take your order, please?
- Would you like to order now?
- Will that be rare / medium / well-done?
- Will that be regular / medium / large?
- Anything else?
- Will that be all?
- Here’s your change.
- Enjoy your meal.
VOCABULARY
scenic
adjective
ˈsiːnɪk
;
ˈsiːnɪk
1 [usually before noun]
having beautiful natural scenery
• an area of scenic beauty
• They took the scenic route back to the hotel.
• a scenic drive
2 [only before noun]
connected with scenery in a theatre
• scenic designs
scenically
ˈsiːnɪkli ; ˈsiːnɪkli
Adverb
scenically attractive areas
serene
adjective
səˈriːn
;
səˈriːn
calm and peaceful
• a lake, still and serene in the sunlight
serenely
səˈriːnli ; səˈriːnli
Adverb
• serenely beautiful
• She smiled serenely.
serenity
səˈrenəti ; səˈrenəti
noun [uncountable, singular]
• The hotel offers a haven of peace and serenity away from the bustle of the city.
pristine
adjective
ˈprɪstiːn
;
ˈprɪstiːn
1 fresh and clean, as if new
Synonym
Immaculate
The car is in pristine condition.
a pristine white tablecloth
2 not developed or changed in any way; left in its original condition
Synonym
Unspoiled
• pristine, pollution-free beaches
Papier Mâché, (French for "chewed paper", [papje maʃe], English /ˌpæpi.eɪ
ˈmæʃeɪ/ or /ˌpeɪpər məˈʃeɪ/),
paper mixed with glue or flour and water, that is used to make decorative objects
String
material made of several threads twisted together, used for tying things together; a
piece of string used to fasten or pull something or keep something in place
Thread
a thin string of cotton, wool, silk, etc. used for sewing or making cloth
Clay
a type of heavy, sticky earth that becomes hard when it is baked and is used to make
things such as pots and bricks
Marionette
a puppet whose arms, legs and head are moved by strings
Brass
a bright yellow metal made by mixing copper and zinc; objects made of brass
solid brass fittings/door handlesa brass plate(= a sign outside a building giving the
- Funky
fashionable and unusual
- She wears really funky clothes.
- horrible
1 (informal) very bad or unpleasant; used to describe something that you do not like
horrible weather/children/shoes
- The coffee tasted horrible.
- I've got a horrible feeling she lied to us.
- It was horrible sitting there all on my own.
2 making you feel very shocked and frightened
Synonym : terrible
a horrible crime/nightmare
3 (informal) (of people or their behaviour)
unfriendly, unpleasant or unkind
Synonym : nasty, obnoxious
a horrible man
- My sister was being horrible to me all day.
- What a horrible thing to say!
-
terrible
1 very unpleasant; making you feel very unhappy, upset or frightened
a terrible experience
What terrible news!
I've just had a terrible thought.
It was a terrible thing to happen to someone so young.
That's a terrible thing to say!
2 causing great harm or injury; very serious
a terrible accident
He had suffered terrible injuries.
I'll have to stay with her—she's in a terrible state.
3 [not before noun] unhappy or ill/sick
I feel terrible—I think I'll go to bed.
You look terrible, you'd better sit down.
4 (informal) of very bad quality; very bad
a terrible meal
Your driving is terrible!
5 [only before noun] used to show the great extent or degree of something bad
a terrible mistake
- exceptional
1 unusually good
Synonym : outstanding
- At the age of five he showed exceptional talent as a musician.
- The quality of the recording is quite exceptional.
2 very unusual
- This deadline will be extended only in exceptional circumstances
- lousy
1 very bad
Synonim : awful, terrible
- What lousy weather!
- I've had a lousy day.
- She felt lousy (= ill).
2 [only before noun] used to show that you feel annoyed or insulted because you do not think
that something is worth very much
- All she bought me was this lousy T-shirt.
- He offered me a lousy £100 for it.
3 lousy with something/somebody (North American English) having too much of something or
too many people
- clumsy
1 (of people and animals)
moving or doing things in a very awkward way
- I spilt your coffee. Sorry—that was clumsy of me.
- His clumsy fingers couldn't untie the knot.
2 (of actions and statements)
done without skill or in a way that offends people
- She made a clumsy attempt to apologize.
3 (of objects)
difficult to move or use easily; not well designed
4 (of processes) awkward; too complicated to understand or use easily
- The complaints procedure is clumsy and time-consuming.
- dreadful
1 very bad or unpleasant
- What dreadful weather!
- What a dreadful thing to say!
- It's dreadful the way they treat their staff.
- How dreadful!Jane looked dreadful(= looked ill or tired).
2 [only before noun] used to emphasize how bad something is
Synonym : terrible
- He's a dreadful snob.
- She's making a dreadful mess of things.
- I'm afraid there's been a dreadful mistake.
3 [usually before noun] causing fear or suffering
Synonym : terrible
a dreadful accident
- They suffered dreadful injuries.
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