LS HAT review

Report
Ebonie J.
LS HAT REVIEW
LS.2 CELL THEORY KEY TERMS
Cell membrane: the outside layer that determines what goes in and what
goes out of the cell
 Cell wall: mostly in plant cells, covers the outside of the cell and acts as
protection
 Cytoplasm: the jelly-like substance floating in the cell
 Vacuole: acts as a storage tank for food, wastes, and water
 Mitochondrion: acts as the powerhouse of the cell
 Endoplasmic Reticulum: transports things around the cell
 Nucleus: the control center or brain of the cell
 Chloroplast: contains chlorophyll
Similarities between plant and animal cells
 Plant and animal cells both have membranes, cytoplasm, vacuoles,
mitochondrion, and an endoplasmic reticulum, but animal cells don’t have
cell walls or chloroplasts.

LABELS OF ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS
Cell wall
Cytoplasm
Cell Membrane
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Vacuole
Nucleus
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Nucleolus
Nuclear Membrane
Nuclear Membrane
Golgi Bodies Vacuole
Mitochondrion
ER
Mitochondrion
Golgi Bodies
ER
CELL THEORY
1.
2.
3.
All living things are composed of cells
Cells are the basic unit of function and
structure of living things
All cells come from other cells
Scientist
Robert Hooke
Anton van
Leeuwenhoek
Matthias Schleiden
Rudolf Vischow
Cell
Theory
Discovery
Looked at cork; noticed boxes like 1 and 2
cells
Viewed animalcules; first to see
1 and 2
bacteria
Concluded all plant parts are made 1 and 2
up of cells
Cells come from existing cells
3
TYPES OF CELL DIVISION/ MITOSIS
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What is the difference between passive and active transport?
Passive is when the molecules travel from a higher
concentrated area to lower one through different pressures, but
active is the same without the pressures.
Mitosis
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Mitosis is asexual, but meiosis is sexual.
LS.3 CELL ORGANIZATION KEY TERMS
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Unicellular: single-celled, one cell
Multicellular: more than one cell
Respiration: the process of breathing
Digestion: breaking down food
Excretion: waste
Growth: how an organism develops into a adult
Reproduction: to produce more of oneself
Active Transport: molecules going from higher to lower
concentration
Passive Transport: molecules going from higher to lower
concentration with different pressures
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ System
Organism
TYPES OF TRANSPORT
Define osmosis: Osmosis is when
a big molecule travels from high
concentration to low concentration.
Describe what is happening in the picture above:
The solute is passing through the barrier and going into a lower concentrated
area
Define diffusion: Diffusion is when
molecules spread or dissolve from a
high concentrated area to a lower
one.
Describe what is happening in the picture above:
The red molecules are spreading or dissolving from a high concentrated area
to a lower one.
LS.13 GENETICS KEY TERMS
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DNA – contains your genetic make-up
Gene – a specific trait
Allele – pairs of genes
Homozygous – pure genotype
Heterozygous – different genotype
Chromosome – made up of DNA
Phenotype – your genes appearance
Genotype – the letters of your genes
Dominant – the capital letter in a genotype
Recessive – the lower-case letter in a genotype
Hybrid – different genotype (heterozygous)
ROLE OF DNA
DNA is coded instruction that store and pass
genetic information from one generation to the
next.
 DNA rungs are made of four sets of nitrogen
bases and a backbone of phosphate and sugar.
 Nitrogen Bases
 Adenine - Thymine
 Thymine - Adenine
 Cytosine - Guanine
 Guanine – Cytosine

ROLE OF DNA (CONTINUED)
Mendel – father of genetics
 Watson & Crick – created the 1st model of DNA;
won the Nobel prize
 Wilkins & Franklin – took pictures of DNA

PUNNET SQUARES
2 possible phenotypes – yellow and green
 3 possible genotypes – YY Yy yy
 Yy – heterozygous YY, yy – homozygous
 YY, Yy – dominant/ yy – recessive

Green
Yellow
2:4
50%
½
2:4
50%
½
YY
0%
0
0
Yy
2:4
50%
½
yy
2:4
50%
½
LS.5 CLASSIFICATION KEY TERMS
Taxonomic key: statements that describe the
physical characteristics of an organism
 Dichotomous key: a key that categorizes species
 Phototroprism: an organism’s response to light
 Eutrophication: rich nutrients in a lake
 Succession: predictable changes in a community
 Dormancy: a state of quiet
 Hibernation: a state of greatly reduced body
activity in the winter

LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION
Kingdom
 Phylum
 Class
 Order
 Family
 Genus
 Species
King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti

BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
Pisum sativam
Rana hexadactyla
 Mangifera indica
Felis domestica
 Ficus bengalensis Canis familiaris
 Glycine max Naja naja
 The genus is in yellow and the species is
underlined

ANIMAL PHYLA
Animal
Phylum
Snail
Mollusk
Fish
Chordate
Earthworm
Annelids
Anemone
Cnidarians
Frog
Chordate
Jellyfish
Cnidarians
Starfish
Echinoderms
Alligator
Chordate
Crayfish
Chordate
Ant
Arthopods
Elephant
Chordate
Coral
Cnidarian
PLANT PHYLA
1.
2.
3.
4.
Mosses – club moss
Ferns – Silver fern
Conifer – pine tree
Flowering plants - tulips
THE SIX KINGDOMS
Archaebacteria
Eubacteria
Protista
Fungi
Plant
Animal
Unicellular/multicellular
Prokaryote/eukaryote
Heterotroph/autotroph
Asexual/sexual
Aquatic/terrestrial/air
Motile/non-motile
Unicellular/multicellular
Prokaryote/eukaryote
Heterotroph/autotroph
Asexual/sexual
Aquatic/terrestrial/air
Motile/non-motile
Unicellular/multicellular
Prokaryote/eukaryote
Heterotroph/autotroph
Asexual/sexual
Aquatic/terrestrial/air
Motile/non-motile
Unicellular/multicellular
Prokaryote/eukaryote
Heterotroph/autotroph
Asexual/sexual
Aquatic/terrestrial/air
Motile/non-motile
Unicellular/multicellular
Prokaryote/eukaryote
Heterotroph/autotroph
Asexual/sexual
Aquatic/terrestrial/air
Motile/non-motile
Unicellular/multicellular
Prokaryote/eukaryote
Heterotroph/autotroph
Asexual/sexual
Aquatic/terrestrial/air
Motile/non-motile
LS.6 PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Photosynthesis is the foundation of all food
webs.
 Equation for photosynthesis
 Reactants: carbon dioxide, water
 Products: carbohydrates, oxygen
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LS.7 ENERGY FLOW KEY TERMS
Producer: an organism that makes it’s own
food
 Consumer: an organism that doesn’t make it’s
own food
 Decomposer: an organism that breaks down
dead organisms
 Heterotroph: an organism that eats other things
 Autotroph: an organism that makes it’s food

THE WATER CYCLE
Sun
Condensation
Evaporation
Ocean
Evaporation: when the water turns
into water vapor and starts floating
upward
Condensation: when the vapor
Condensation
turns into clouds
Precipitation: the water falls from
Precipitation the clouds
THE CARBON CYCLE
In this cycle, the regular carbon
is being turned into alternative
fuel by grounding corn.
THE NITROGEN CYCLE
FOOD CHAIN AND WEB PRACTICE
Producer: grass
 1st consumer: ant
 2nd consumer: spider
 What is the difference between a food chain
and a food web?
 A food chain only maps 1 path, but a food web
shows more than 1 path.
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ENERGY PYRAMID
Owl
Snake
Mouse
Grass
ENERGY FLOW MATCHING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
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A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
B Herbivore
E Carnivore
C Decomposer
D Omnivore
A Producer
F Consumers
an organism that can use sunlight in order to produce its own
food (autotroph)
an organism that only eats producers
an organism that breaks down dead or decaying organisms
an organism that will eat producers and consumers
an organism that will only eat other consumers
an organism that eats in order to obtain energy (heterotroph)
COMMUNITIES KEY TERMS
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Competition: struggle for limited resources
Cooperation: working together
Social hierarchy: the chain of importance within a
species
Territorial imperative: to claim or defend a territory
Niche: an organism’s role in an ecosystem
Predator: a carnivore that hunts animals for food
Prey: the animal that the predator hunts
Parasite: an organism that lives on and harms the host
Host: a organism that provides a source of energy for a
virus
SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS
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A. Commensalism – one animal benefits and the other is not helped
or harmed
B. Mutualism – both partners benefit from living together
C. Parasitism – one organism live on another harming the other
B 1. Plover bird gets food by acting as a toothpick for a crocodile.
A 2. The cattle egret eats the insects that are escaping as cattle
graze in the field.
C 3. A tick sucks the blood from a deer.
C 4. A tapeworm in a dog gains energy from the dog but the dog
loses nutrition due to the tapeworm.
B 5. Ostriches and zebras move together to warn each other of
impending danger because the ostrich sees well and the zebra hears
well.
ADAPTION AND CHANGE KEY TERMS
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Eutrophication: buildup over time of nutrients
*phototropism: organism’s response to light
*community: all the different populations in one area
*population: all the members of one species in one area
*biome: a group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms
*ecosystem: all the living and nonliving things that interact in an area
*adaptation: a characteristic that helps an organism survive
*permafrost: soil that is frozen all year
*taiga: a swampy coniferous forest
*canopy: a leafy roof formed by tall trees
*deciduous: a tree that sheds it’s leaves annually
*nocturnal: active at night
ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS
Whale B
Clouds A
Finger nails B
Clock A
Corpse B
Pipe A
Water A
Snail B
Cotton fabric A
Fish B
Steak A
Wool A
Paper A
Pork chops A
Gold A
Glass A
Salad A
Plastic A
Aluminum A
Bread A
Grapes B
Wooden ruler A
Plant B
Air A
Sand A
Hair A
ADAPTATIONS
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Shape of bird beaks: physical
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Type of arms or legs: structural
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Color of fur or feathers: structural
Shape of facial features (nose, eyes, ears):
physical
 Physical, Behavioral, and Structural
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WATER ECOSYSTEMS
Freshwater
Rivers and Streams
Marine
Shorelines
black mussels, barnacles, algae, moss
trout, catfish, carp, algae
Ponds and Lakes
Temperate oceans
plankton, whales, salmon, hagfish
algae, clams, snails, dragon flies
Wetlands
pond lilies, cattails, shrimp, shellfish, ducks
Tropical oceans
Clown fish, blue marlin, green turtle,
hammerhead
DESCRIPTIONS OF BIOMES
Tundra
Coniferous Forest
Deciduous Forest
Rainforest
Grasslands or Savannah
Desert
Temperature: ice cold
Rainfall: 10 in. per year
Plants: cotton grass, lichen
Animals: polar bear, penguin
Terms: permafrost
Movie: Happy Feet
Temperature: below 0 ½ of the yr.
Rainfall: 30 in. per year
Plants: pine tree, needles
Animals: beaver, moose, rabbit
Terms: conifer, taiga
Movie: Brother Bear
Temperature: seasons
Rainfall: falls throughout the year
Plants: willow tree
Animals: raccoon, turkey, bear
Terms: deciduous
Movie: Pocahontas
Temperature: mild, humid
Rainfall: lots of rain
Plants: vines, mangroves
Animals: gorilla, vine snake
Terms: canopy
Movie: Tarzan
Temperature: hot summers
Rainfall: 10-30 in. per year
Plants: blazingstar, coneflower
Animals: lions, elephants
Terms:
Movie: Lion King
Temperature: hot
Rainfall: 10 in. per year
Plants: cactus, dragon tree
Animals: rats, bats, vultures
Terms: nocturnal
Movie: Aladdin
LS.14 EVOLUTION KEY TERMS
*mutation: a change in a gene or chromosome
 *adaptation: a characteristic that helps an organism survive
 *natural selection : The process by which individuals that
are better adapted to their environment are more likely to
survive and reproduce
 *extinction: a disappeared species from earth
 *fossil record: fossils scientists have collected
 *variation: difference between organisms of a different
species
 *dormancy: as if in a deep sleep
 *hibernation: greatly reduced body activity during winter
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STIMULUS AND RESPONSE
1. You flinch when a dodge ball is thrown
towards you.
 2. A doctor hits your knee and you kick your
leg.
 3. Your mom wakes you up by turning on the
lights in your room.
 4. You whistle at your dogs and they run
towards you.
 5. You are hyper because you drank a soda at
lunch.
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NEEDS OF LIVING THINGS
T- Temperature, all organisms need to be at a
proper temperature
 O- Oxygen, animals need oxygen to go through
respiration
 W- Water, needed to dissolve and transport
substances
 E- Energy, all organisms need energy
 L- Living space, provides amount of water, food,
and energy
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CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS
Digestion: breaking down food for energy
 Respiration: gas exchange
 Nutrition: intake of food for energy
 Excretion: elimination of wastes
 Reproduction: producing more of oneself
 Develop: change over time
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LS.1 EXPERIMENT KEY TERMS
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*prediction: an educated guess based on what you know
*inference: guess about why you think an observation happens
*experiment: a test to answer a question
*hypothesis: a prediction of what will happen in an experiment
*independent variable: the thing that effects the dependent
*dependent variable: what happens after an experiment
*variable: anything that can change during an experiment
*control: the thing that is important
*constant: the thing that stays the same
*repeated trials: an experiment tested repeatedly
*mean: the average
*median: the middle number
*mode: the most numbers in a number sequence
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
State the Problem
Research
Hypothesis
Experiment
Collect Data
Analyze Data
Conclusion
Share/Publish
SCALE MODELS
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5 cm
32 cm
53.7 cm
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1) How big is a horsefly if 1 cm = 1m? 5 m
 2) How big is the ghost if 1 cm = 20 cm? 640 cm
 3) How big is the kitty if 1 cm = 10 cm? 537
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TYPES OF GRAPHS
Type: Bar Graph
Use: to display information
Type: Histogram
Use: to display # information
Type: Line Graph
Use: to display progress
Type: Pie Graph
Use: to show percent
DENSITY EQUATIONS
1. If an object has a mass of 25 grams and a
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volume of 5 mL, what is its density? 5
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2. What is the volume of a 2 cm cube? 8 cm
METRIC CONVERSIONS
1) 50 kg = (50,000,000) mg
 2) 200 g = (20,000) cg
 3) 72 L = (72,000) mL
 4) 11.90 daK = () dK
 5) 60 s = (60,000) ms
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SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
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1) 9.87 x 105 = 987, 000
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2) 2.09 x 10-8 = .0000000209
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3) 9,243,000 = 9.243 x 10(6)
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4) .00004945 = 4.945x10(-5)
EQUIPMENT
Name: Thermometer
Measures: temperature
Units: F, C
Name: Graduated Cylinder
Measures: Volume
Units: Liters, mililiters
Name: Triple beam balance
Measures: Mass
Units: Grams
Name: Ruler
Measures: Length
Units: Inches, cm

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