Infection Control Induction Program

Report
Infection Control
Induction Program
GRICG
March 2009
What is an infection?

An infection occurs when invading
microorganisms cause ill health

Viruses

Bacteria

Fungi

Prions
Pain, tenderness,
swelling, redness, pus
fever
Microbial Reservoirs

Microbes can survive in many environments

On or in people, as normal flora

On or in people who have infections

Animals (zoonoses)- normal flora or infections

Contaminated food or fluids

Contaminated articles

Contaminated environment
Infection Transmission
Direct contact with another person can
transmit their microbes to you
Indirect contact is when a third person or an
article transmits the microbes from one person
to another
Droplet transmission occurs when large
respiratory droplets (which travel less than 1
metre), are coughed onto someone else
Infection Transmission
Airborne transmission occurs when fine spray
is coughed into the air (can travel suspended in
air more than 1 metre)
Vector transmission occurs when living animals/
insects transmit infections
Contaminated food
Contaminated water
Seven Requirements of Infection Transmission
1. Pathogenic
microbes
2. A reservoir where
the microbes can
survive (people, food,
water, articles)
3. An exit point (body
fluids, respiratory
droplets)
Transmission Route
(direct contact, airborne,
or contaminated article)
1. Suitable place of
entry (respiratory
tract, broken skin,
bowel)
2. Susceptible host
(non-immune,
debilitated, other
medical problem)
3. Adequate dose of
microbes (to cause
infection)
Prevent Infection Transmission

Standard precautions


Used for ALL patient contacts
Additional precautions

Used in addition to standard precautions when
more stringent precautions are required

Airborne transmission – Tb, chicken pox

Droplet transmission - influenza

Multi Resistant Organisms

Gastroenteritis
Additional Precautions

Single room with ensuite

Dedicated toilet – infectious diarrhoea

Cohorting if single room not available

Special ventilation requirements –

Additional use of protective barriers –
positive/negative pressure
Tb particulate
mask: 1um filtration

Rostering of immune HCWs to care for infectious
patients

Dedicated patient equipment

Restricted movement of patients and HCWs
Standard Precautions

Routine infection control measures to be
used at all times for all patient care
Hand Hygiene

Staff hands are the most common vehicle
for infection transmission

Own resident hand flora

Transient hand flora – organisms picked up
from contact with persons or articles

Infectious hand conditions – dermatitis,
paronychia
Hand Hygiene Refers To:

Hand washing using soap/skin cleanser

Decontamination using alcohol hand rub

Decontamination using 4% Chlorhexidine
Alcohol/
Chlorhexidine
Hand rub
Alcohol Hand Rubs
 Improve
 Kill
hand hygiene compliance
bacteria on hands more readily
 Cause
less skin irritations and dryness
 Decrease
patient infection rates when
used before and after every patient
contact
Correct Application
Austin Health

Don't forget areas around and under your
fingernails

If your hands are visibly soiled, wash with soap
and water rather than alcohol rub
A MOMENT is when there is a perceived or
actual risk of pathogen (germ) transmission
from on surface to another via the hands.
Perform Hand Hygiene
1.
Before and after direct patient contact
2.
After removing gloves
3.
Before handling invasive devices
4.
After contact with body fluids, mucous
membranes, non intact skin & wound
dressings
Perform Hand Hygiene Contd
5.
If moving from contaminated to clean
body site
6.
After contact with inanimate objects in
immediate vicinity of patient
7.
Before handling medications or preparing
food
Respiratory
(Cough)
Etiquette
Glove Use

Used when contact with
body fluids is anticipated

Single use – must be
discarded after patient
contact

Must wash hands after
removal of gloves
Mask Use

Single use item

Use when splash with
body fluids is anticipated

N95/P2 for airborne
diseases

Replace when moist

Dispose of directly into
waste bin
Danger Zone for absorption of viruses
 Eyes
 Nose
 Mouth
Linen Management
• Do not over fill bags (3/4 full)
• No sharps into soiled linen
• Prevent seepage
• Use gloves to handle moist linen
Waste Management

Waste should be segregated at point of
generation

Place clinical waste in yellow containers
or bags bearing biohazard symbol

Do not over fill bags or containers

Do not compact by hand

Follow state and national guidelines or
codes
Environmental Cleaning
 Deposits
of dust, soil and microbes
on surfaces are a potential source
of infection

Neutral detergent used for routine cleaning

Disinfectants may be required in some
situations – gastro, MROs

All cleaning equipment should be stored dry

Surfaces should be cleaned regularly and
immediately following blood and body fluid
spills
Single Use Policy

Any items marked by manufacturer as
single use should be discarded after use

Single use vials or ampoules must be used
wherever these are available

Multi dose vials must only be used on the
same patient then discarded

Items marked “Single Patient Use” must
only be re-used on same patient then
discarded
Safe Handling of Sharps

Always use safety devices when they are
available

Use appropriate sharps containers

Discard used sharps immediately

Do not pass sharps by hand between HCWs

Avoid recapping needles

Do not force sharps into container

Do not over-fill sharps containers
Occupational Exposure

First aid – immediate washing of area

Eye splashes – rinse thoroughly

Report incident promptly

Evaluation of exposure

Follow-up action, counselling

Blood tests if required

Ensure full documentation of incident
Staff Health

Good personal hygiene

Seek prompt diagnosis and treatment of
personal illness (away for 48 hours - gastro)

Staff immunisation

Hepatitis B

Influenza

MMR

Pertussis

Varicella zoster
Food Hygiene

Hand washing, glove use

Regular cleaning of serving and storage
areas

Pest and dust control

Date and cover prepared food in fridge

Maintain safe food temperatures

Hot food - >60oC

Cold food - <5oC
Blood and Body Substance Spills

Don personal protective equipment

Confine and contain the spill

Treat waste as infectious

Clean spill site according to hospital
policy

Carpet – clean with neutral
detergent and arrange carpet
cleaner as soon as possible

INFECTIOUS
WASTE
Use a chlorine based disinfectant as
directed by your hospital policy
Take Care ………….
…. of yourself and your patients
Questions or Queries?
Infection Control Phone Number:…………………………..

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