Infection Control Induction Program

Infection Control
Induction Program
March 2009
What is an infection?
An infection occurs when invading
microorganisms cause ill health
Pain, tenderness,
swelling, redness, pus
Microbial Reservoirs
Microbes can survive in many environments
On or in people, as normal flora
On or in people who have infections
Animals (zoonoses)- normal flora or infections
Contaminated food or fluids
Contaminated articles
Contaminated environment
Infection Transmission
Direct contact with another person can
transmit their microbes to you
Indirect contact is when a third person or an
article transmits the microbes from one person
to another
Droplet transmission occurs when large
respiratory droplets (which travel less than 1
metre), are coughed onto someone else
Infection Transmission
Airborne transmission occurs when fine spray
is coughed into the air (can travel suspended in
air more than 1 metre)
Vector transmission occurs when living animals/
insects transmit infections
Contaminated food
Contaminated water
Seven Requirements of Infection Transmission
1. Pathogenic
2. A reservoir where
the microbes can
survive (people, food,
water, articles)
3. An exit point (body
fluids, respiratory
Transmission Route
(direct contact, airborne,
or contaminated article)
1. Suitable place of
entry (respiratory
tract, broken skin,
2. Susceptible host
debilitated, other
medical problem)
3. Adequate dose of
microbes (to cause
Prevent Infection Transmission
Standard precautions
Used for ALL patient contacts
Additional precautions
Used in addition to standard precautions when
more stringent precautions are required
Airborne transmission – Tb, chicken pox
Droplet transmission - influenza
Multi Resistant Organisms
Additional Precautions
Single room with ensuite
Dedicated toilet – infectious diarrhoea
Cohorting if single room not available
Special ventilation requirements –
Additional use of protective barriers –
positive/negative pressure
Tb particulate
mask: 1um filtration
Rostering of immune HCWs to care for infectious
Dedicated patient equipment
Restricted movement of patients and HCWs
Standard Precautions
Routine infection control measures to be
used at all times for all patient care
Hand Hygiene
Staff hands are the most common vehicle
for infection transmission
Own resident hand flora
Transient hand flora – organisms picked up
from contact with persons or articles
Infectious hand conditions – dermatitis,
Hand Hygiene Refers To:
Hand washing using soap/skin cleanser
Decontamination using alcohol hand rub
Decontamination using 4% Chlorhexidine
Hand rub
Alcohol Hand Rubs
 Improve
 Kill
hand hygiene compliance
bacteria on hands more readily
 Cause
less skin irritations and dryness
 Decrease
patient infection rates when
used before and after every patient
Correct Application
Austin Health
Don't forget areas around and under your
If your hands are visibly soiled, wash with soap
and water rather than alcohol rub
A MOMENT is when there is a perceived or
actual risk of pathogen (germ) transmission
from on surface to another via the hands.
Perform Hand Hygiene
Before and after direct patient contact
After removing gloves
Before handling invasive devices
After contact with body fluids, mucous
membranes, non intact skin & wound
Perform Hand Hygiene Contd
If moving from contaminated to clean
body site
After contact with inanimate objects in
immediate vicinity of patient
Before handling medications or preparing
Glove Use
Used when contact with
body fluids is anticipated
Single use – must be
discarded after patient
Must wash hands after
removal of gloves
Mask Use
Single use item
Use when splash with
body fluids is anticipated
N95/P2 for airborne
Replace when moist
Dispose of directly into
waste bin
Danger Zone for absorption of viruses
 Eyes
 Nose
 Mouth
Linen Management
• Do not over fill bags (3/4 full)
• No sharps into soiled linen
• Prevent seepage
• Use gloves to handle moist linen
Waste Management
Waste should be segregated at point of
Place clinical waste in yellow containers
or bags bearing biohazard symbol
Do not over fill bags or containers
Do not compact by hand
Follow state and national guidelines or
Environmental Cleaning
 Deposits
of dust, soil and microbes
on surfaces are a potential source
of infection
Neutral detergent used for routine cleaning
Disinfectants may be required in some
situations – gastro, MROs
All cleaning equipment should be stored dry
Surfaces should be cleaned regularly and
immediately following blood and body fluid
Single Use Policy
Any items marked by manufacturer as
single use should be discarded after use
Single use vials or ampoules must be used
wherever these are available
Multi dose vials must only be used on the
same patient then discarded
Items marked “Single Patient Use” must
only be re-used on same patient then
Safe Handling of Sharps
Always use safety devices when they are
Use appropriate sharps containers
Discard used sharps immediately
Do not pass sharps by hand between HCWs
Avoid recapping needles
Do not force sharps into container
Do not over-fill sharps containers
Occupational Exposure
First aid – immediate washing of area
Eye splashes – rinse thoroughly
Report incident promptly
Evaluation of exposure
Follow-up action, counselling
Blood tests if required
Ensure full documentation of incident
Staff Health
Good personal hygiene
Seek prompt diagnosis and treatment of
personal illness (away for 48 hours - gastro)
Staff immunisation
Hepatitis B
Varicella zoster
Food Hygiene
Hand washing, glove use
Regular cleaning of serving and storage
Pest and dust control
Date and cover prepared food in fridge
Maintain safe food temperatures
Hot food - >60oC
Cold food - <5oC
Blood and Body Substance Spills
Don personal protective equipment
Confine and contain the spill
Treat waste as infectious
Clean spill site according to hospital
Carpet – clean with neutral
detergent and arrange carpet
cleaner as soon as possible
Use a chlorine based disinfectant as
directed by your hospital policy
Take Care ………….
…. of yourself and your patients
Questions or Queries?
Infection Control Phone Number:…………………………..

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