Chapter 5

Report
5
The Communication Process
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Nature of Communication
The communication process is complex, and often unsuccessful
Source Encoding
Forms of Encoding
Verbal
• Spoken
Word
• Written
Word
• Song
Lyrics
Graphic
• Pictures
• Drawings
• Charts
Musical
Animation
• Arrangement
• Action/
Motion
• Instrumentation
• Pace/
Speed
• Voices
• Shape/
Form
The Semiotic Perspective
Object
Interpretant
Sign/Symbol
An Image Can Convey More Than Words
What is the symbolic meaning of this Levi ad?
The Model
The Clothes
The Setting
The Statement
The Tag Line
Communication Channel
Personal
Channels
Word of
Mouth
Personal
Selling
Nonpersonal
Channels
Print
Media
Broadcast
Media
Marketers Embrace Buzz Marketing
Apples for Dessert
Field of Experience Overlap
Different Worlds
Sender
Experience
Receiver
Experience
Moderate Commonality
Sender
Experience
Receiver
Experience
High Commonality
Receiver
Sender
Experience
Experience
Receiver
Experience
Noise
Successful Communication
Select an appropriate source
Develop a properly encoded message
Select appropriate channel for target
audience
Receive feedback
Identifying the Target Audience
Mass Markets and Audiences
Markets Segments
Niche Markets
Individual
and Group
Audiences
The Response Process
Obtaining Feedback
Effectiveness Tests
Persuasion Process
Circulation reach
Exposure/presentation
Listener, reader,
viewer recognition
Attention
Recall, checklists
Comprehension
Brand attitudes,
purchase intent
Message acceptance/
yielding
Recall over time
Retention
Inventory
POP consumer panel
Scanner data
Purchase behavior
Alternative Response Hierarchies
High
Low
Perceived product
differentiation
Topical Involvement
High
Low
Learning
model
Low involvement
model
Cognitive
Affective
Conative
Cognitive
Dissonance/
attribution model
Conative
Conative
Affective
Cognitive
Affective
Dissonance/Attribution Model
Low-Involvement Products
Low
Involvement
High
Involvement
The FCB Planning Model
Thinking
Feeling
1
2
Informative
The Thinker
Affective
The Feeler
3
4
Habit
Formation
The Doer
SelfSatisfaction
The Reactor
Developing Promotional Strategies
• Ad options based on the FCB grid
– Rational versus emotional appeals
– Increasing involvement levels
– Evaluation of a think-type product
on the basis of feelings
Connecting on an Emotional Level
Cognitive Response
A method for examining consumers’ cognitive
processing of advertising messages by looking at
their cognitive responses to hearing, viewing, or
reading communications
Examines thoughts that are evoked
by an advertising message
Consumers write down or verbally report
their reactions to a message
A Model of Cognitive Response
Cognitive Response Categories
Product/Message Thoughts
Counterarguments
Support arguments
Source-Oriented Thoughts
Source derogation
Source bolstering
Ad Execution Thoughts
Thoughts about
the ad itself
Affect attitude
toward the ad
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Focuses on the way consumers respond to persuasive
messages, based on the amount and nature of elaboration
or processing of information
Routes to attitude change
Central route –
ability and
motivation to process
a message is high and
close attention is paid
to message content
Peripheral route –
ability and
motivation to process
a message is low;
receiver focuses more
on peripheral cues
than on message
content
Test Your Knowledge
The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) states that there
are two routes to persuasion, the central route and the
peripheral route. With the peripheral route:
A) The message is more likely to be received
if a celebrity endorser is used
B) The message should lots of information
C) The receiver is viewed as very actively
involved in the communication process
D) The quality of the message claims are
more important than the spokesperson,
headline, pictures, or music bed
E) The sender is dealing with a highinvolvement buying situation
Celebrity Endorsers Can Be Peripheral Cues
How Advertising Works

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