The Battle of Gettysburg Day 1: Summary from the Southern

The Confederate Army initially
approached Gettysburg from Herr
Ridge to the northwest. Fighting
moved to Willoughby Run and
McPherson’s Ridge as the
Southern army continued to push
the Union back. Reinforcements
arrived at around noon, under the
command of Major General
Robert E. Rodes, and approached
the fighting from Oak Ridge to the
north. Here, Rodes’s brigade
engaged Union soldiers. Through
the fighting of the day, all Union
forces were pushed from Oak
Ridge and McPherson’s Ridge
through the town of Gettysburg
itself. The Union soldiers were
forced to encamp upon Cemetery
Hill, though no fighting took place
here on the first day.
Oak Ridge
Gen. Robert E. Lee
Lieutenant James Longstreet
• Lt. Gen. Ambrose Powell “A.P.” Hill
• Major Gen. Henry Heth
Brigadier Gen. James J. Archer
Brigadier Gen. J. Johnston Pettigrew
Col. John M. Brockenbrough
Brigadier Gen. Joseph R. Davis
• Major Gen. Robert E. Rodes
Major Gen. Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Brigadier Gen. Junius Daniel
Brigadier Gen. Alfred Iverson, Jr.
Col. Edward A. O’Neal
Brigadier Gen. George P. Doles
• Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell
Lt. Gen. Jubal Early
Major Gen. John Brown Gordon
Brigadier Gen. Harry T. Hays
Col. Isaac E. Avery
Major Gen. William Smith
Above: Gen. Robert
E. Lee
To the Left: Lt. James
The confederates had very little strategy at the
beginning of the battle because they didn’t expect
to find any resistance to their occupation of
Gettysburg. General Lee did not arrive until 2:30
PM. He sent in more troops under the command of
A.P. Hill, along with reinforcements from Major
General Robert E. Rodes and Lieutenant General
Richard S. Ewell. The strategy became for Rodes’s
forces to push the Union army back, while Hill’s
men and Ewell’s Brigade flanked to the left and
right while continuing to push. They pushed the
Federal Army through the town of Gettysburg to
Cemetery Hill. Here, General Lee decided to
continue to push the Union rather than flank
behind and cut them off from Washington, as
Lieutenant James Longstreet wished to do. He gave
supposedly confusing orders to General Ewell
which disallowed the Confederacy from continuing
to press on Day 1.
The fighting on July 1, 1863 began the Battle of Gettysburg which
would become the single most devastating battle, in terms of
casualties, in American history. The Federal Army lost 9,000 men
total, with 6,000 killed and 3,000 captured. The Confederate Army
experienced 6,500 casualties, on the first day. The South won the
fighting of Day 1, but allowed the Union to take the high ground at
cemetery hill in their retreat. General Lee’s choice not to cut off
the route to Washington D.C. gave the North a better opportunity
to strategize for the next day and allowed reinforcements to be
brought in for the Federal forces.
Works Cited
“Battle of Gettysburg: Day 1-July 1, 1863.” n.d. Web. April
18, 2013.
Kelly, Martin. “Battle of Gettysburg: July 1, 1863-Day One.” n.d. Web. April 18, 2013
Williams, Brian. “Battle of Gettysburg: Day 1.”
February 2, 2007. Web. April 19, 2013.

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