The Confederate Army initially approached Gettysburg from Herr Ridge to the northwest. Fighting moved to Willoughby Run and McPherson’s Ridge as the Southern army continued to push the Union back. Reinforcements arrived at around noon, under the command of Major General Robert E. Rodes, and approached the fighting from Oak Ridge to the north. Here, Rodes’s brigade engaged Union soldiers. Through the fighting of the day, all Union forces were pushed from Oak Ridge and McPherson’s Ridge through the town of Gettysburg itself. The Union soldiers were forced to encamp upon Cemetery Hill, though no fighting took place here on the first day. SETTING Oak Ridge PARTICIPANTS Gen. Robert E. Lee • Lieutenant James Longstreet • Lt. Gen. Ambrose Powell “A.P.” Hill • Major Gen. Henry Heth • • • • Brigadier Gen. James J. Archer Brigadier Gen. J. Johnston Pettigrew Col. John M. Brockenbrough Brigadier Gen. Joseph R. Davis • Major Gen. Robert E. Rodes • • • • • Major Gen. Stephen Dodson Ramseur Brigadier Gen. Junius Daniel Brigadier Gen. Alfred Iverson, Jr. Col. Edward A. O’Neal Brigadier Gen. George P. Doles • Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell • • • • • Lt. Gen. Jubal Early Major Gen. John Brown Gordon Brigadier Gen. Harry T. Hays Col. Isaac E. Avery Major Gen. William Smith Above: Gen. Robert E. Lee To the Left: Lt. James Longstreet STRATEGY The confederates had very little strategy at the beginning of the battle because they didn’t expect to find any resistance to their occupation of Gettysburg. General Lee did not arrive until 2:30 PM. He sent in more troops under the command of A.P. Hill, along with reinforcements from Major General Robert E. Rodes and Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell. The strategy became for Rodes’s forces to push the Union army back, while Hill’s men and Ewell’s Brigade flanked to the left and right while continuing to push. They pushed the Federal Army through the town of Gettysburg to Cemetery Hill. Here, General Lee decided to continue to push the Union rather than flank behind and cut them off from Washington, as Lieutenant James Longstreet wished to do. He gave supposedly confusing orders to General Ewell which disallowed the Confederacy from continuing to press on Day 1. SIGNIFICANCE The fighting on July 1, 1863 began the Battle of Gettysburg which would become the single most devastating battle, in terms of casualties, in American history. The Federal Army lost 9,000 men total, with 6,000 killed and 3,000 captured. The Confederate Army experienced 6,500 casualties, on the first day. The South won the fighting of Day 1, but allowed the Union to take the high ground at cemetery hill in their retreat. General Lee’s choice not to cut off the route to Washington D.C. gave the North a better opportunity to strategize for the next day and allowed reinforcements to be brought in for the Federal forces. Works Cited “Battle of Gettysburg: Day 1-July 1, 1863.” Personal.psu.edu. n.d. Web. April 18, 2013. Kelly, Martin. “Battle of Gettysburg: July 1, 1863-Day One.” americanhistory.about.com. n.d. Web. April 18, 2013 Williams, Brian. “Battle of Gettysburg: Day 1.” Militaryhistoryonline.com. February 2, 2007. Web. April 19, 2013.