‫تشخیص کلینیکی و مراحل مختلف ‪ARMD‬‬
‫‪K.Genab MD‬‬
Age-Related Macular
Age-related macular degeneration
(AMD) is the leading cause of
severe central visual acuity loss in 1
or both eyes in people over 50
years of age in the United States.
Prevalence of the disease is
roughly 85%-90% nonexudative
neovascular (wet) AMD.
Photoreceptors are reduced in density and
distribution. . Ultrastructural aging changes
occur in the pigment epithelium, including
loss of melanin granules, formation of
lipofuscin granules, and accumulation of
residual bodies.
Basal laminar deposits accumulate; these
consist of granular lipid-rich material and
widely spaced collagen fibers collecting
between the basal lamina (plasma membrane)
of the RPE cell and the inner aspect of the
basement membrane of the RPE (Fig 4-3). .
Progressive involutional changes occur in
the choriocapillaris.
All of
represent aging
but may not be part
of AMD. Abnormalities
associated with AMD that
are not necessarily part of
normal aging may be classified as
nonneovascular or neovascular.
Population-based studies have
shown that most patients with
AMD have only nonneovascular
abnormalities, such as drusen, focal
hyperpigmentation, or geographic
atrophy (RPE degeneration).
The risk of AMD increases with age.
Other risk factors for AMD include
positive family history, cigarette
smoking, hyperopia,light iris color,
hypertension, hypercholesterolemia,
female gender, and cardiovascular
Unfortunately, the impact of AMD
will continue to increase as the
population ages. It is estimated
that the number of patients with
AMD will increase by 60% by the
year 2020.
Genetics and AMD
The etiology of AMD remains poorly understood despite the
disease's prevalence. However,recent genetic association
studies have revealed allelic variants of genes encoding the
alternate complement pathway, particularly CFH (complement
factor H). Mutations at chromosome 1q31, HTRAl (a serine
protease) at 10q26 (Tyr402His), and a hypothetical gene
called LOC387715 (Ala69Ser) at 10q significantly increase a
patient's risk of AMD.
The presence of Tyr402His increases the risk of AMD about 5fold, and Ala69Ser about 7-fold. Together, these 2 genes may
explain 75% of the genetic risk of AMD. Another associated
locus is mutations at the complement factor B/complement
component 2 locus in the major histocompatibility complex
(MHC) class III region on 6p21. Although these predisposing
loci have been clearly validated in Caucasian populations,
they do not seem to infer the same risk in other racial groups.
Nonneovascular Abnormalities in AMD
The hallmark of the nonneovascular (nonexudative)
form of AMD is drusen; other indicators are
abnormalities of the RPE, including geographic atrophy
and areas of hyperpigmentation.
Clinically, drusen are small, round, yellow lesions located
at the level of the RPE within the macula (Fig 4-4).
Histologically, this material corresponds to the abnormal
thickening of the inner aspect of Bruch's membrane
shown in Figure 4-3. Ultrastructurally, the material
includes basal laminar deposits (granular lipid-rich
material and widely spaced collagen fibers) and basal
linear deposits (phospholipid vesicles and electron-dense
granules within the inner aspect of Bruch's membrane).
It may be recognized as a detachment of the RPE.
Whether small or large, these areas of detachment may
fill rapidly with fluorescein as the dye leaks out of the
choriocapillaris and pools within the area of detached
RPE. Because drusen seldom affect the photoreceptors
overlying the area of abnormal material, they typically do
not cause symptoms. However, some patients may have
some minimal photoreceptor loss, causing a reduction in
vision or difficulties with dark adaptation.
Drusen have been categorized as
 small (usually <64 µm in diameter)
 intermediate (usually 64-124 µm in
 large (usually ~ 125 µm in
Small drusen are well-defined focal areas of lipidization
in the RPE or accumulations of hyaline material in
Bruch's membrane. In the Age-Related Eye Disease
Study (AREDS), the risk of progression to advanced AMD
over a 5-year period for patients with early AMD (many
small drusen or few intermediate drusen) was 1.3%. In
contrast, the risk in patients with many intermediate or
larger drusen was 18%. Patients in the latter group are
also more likely to develop RPE abnormalities and
geographic atrophy or CNV compared to patients with a
few small or medium drusen.
the boundaries of drusen have been
described as . hard (discrete and well
poorly demarcated; see Fig 4-4) .
between drusen).
Abnormalities of the RPE
Several patterns of RPE abnormalities characterize
nonneovascular AMD :
 geographic atrophy
 nongeographic atrophy
focal hyperpigmentation
Characteristic abnormalities Spontaneous flattening of
RPEdetachments or regression of
soft, confluent drusen may lead to attenuation or atrophy of
RPE cells. When the area in which the RPE is either absent or
attenuated is contiguous, the condition is known as geographic
atrophy of the RPE. In areas of geographic atrophy, the
underlying choroidal vessels are more readily visible and the
overlying outer retina may appear thin (Fig 4-5).
Often, the underlying choriocapillaris will be attenuated or
atrophied as well. These areas of atrophy can coalesce and
enlarge, often ringing the fovea. On FA, geographic atrophy
shows a characteristic window defect. If the atrophy does not
cover a contiguous area, it may appear as a mottled area of
depigmentation called nongeographic atrophy, or RPE
biomicroscopy, but they are usually attenuated
or absent in areas overlying atrophied RPE.
Consequently, RPE atrophy in AMD may be
associated with visual loss, depending on the
extent of the atrophy and its location relative
to the foveal center.
Increased pigmentation at the level of the outer
retina leads to focalhyperpigmentation of the RPE.
On FA, these areas often show blockage. The
incidence of focal hyperpigmentation increases
with age, and patients with focal clumps of
hyperpigmentation are at an increased risk of
progressing to the more advanced forms of AMD.
the material that makes up the drusen may begin
to disappear, a condition sometimes referred to as
regressed drusen. In addition, dystrophic
calcification may occur, resulting in pinpoint
glistening within the atrophy or remaining drusen
material, sometimes called calcified drusen.
Furthermore, pigment or pigment-laden cells
(either RPEcellsor macrophages that have ingested
the pigment) may migrate to the photoreceptor
level, resulting in focal clumps or a reticulated
pattern of hyperpigmentation.
Fluorescein angiogram patterns of AMD
The fluorescein patterns of AMD are varied and can be categorized into hyper- and
hypofluorescent lesions:
Hyperfluorescent lesions:
hard and soft drusen
RPE atrophy
RPE tear
CNV (discussed further later in the chapter)
serous PED
subretinal fibrosis
laser scars
Hypofluorescent lesions:
. hemorrhage at any level
. pigment proliferation
Bressler SB, 00 OV, Bressler NM. Age-related macular degeneration: drusen and geographic
atrophy. In: Albert OM, Miller ]W, Azar OT, Blodi BA,eds. Albert &]akobiec'sPrinciplesand
Practice of Ophthalmology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2008:chap 144.
Differential diagnosis for nonneovascular AMD
1.Central Serous Chorioretionopathy in individuals under 50 years of age. In
individuals over 50 years of age, the absence of drusen, mottled RPE
atrophy, and/or multiple small serous detachments of the RPE may help
differentiate CSC from nonneovascular changes in AMD.
2.Pattern dystrophy of the RPE may include one or more areas of focal pinpoint
or reticular hyperpigmentation surrounded by a yellowish abnormality
(vitelliform detachment) of the outer retina. Fluorescein angiography depicts
early blocked fluorescence with a surrounding zone of hyperfluorescence.
3.Basal laminar, or cuticular, drusen, a clinical syndrome that may be seen in
patients in their 30s or 40s, consist of innumerable and homogeneous round
small or large drusen, more apparent on angiography ("starry-night"
appearance) than on biomicroscopy, often with a vitelliform accumulation of
yellow material in the central macula.
4.drug toxicity, such as the mottled hypopigmentation that may develop in
chloroquine toxicity,may resemble nongeographic atrophy(RPE degeneration);a
history of specific drug ingestion and lack of larg drusen may help to differentiate
these abnormalities from AMD.
Neovascular AMD
The hallmark of the neovascular form of AMD is the
presence of CNV .Any disturbance of Bruch's membrane,
such as the presence of drusen, thickening of the inner
aspect, or conditions similar to the nonneovascular
changes associated with AMD, can increase the likelihood
that a break will occur, allowing buds of neovascular tissue
from the choriocapillaris to perforate the outer aspect of
Bruch's membrane. These new vessels are accompanied
by fibroblasts, resulting in a fibrovascular complex that
proliferates within the inner aspect of Bruch's membrane
(Fig 4-6). This fibrovascular complex can disrupt and
destroy the normal architecture of the choriocapillaris,
Bruch's membrane, and the RPE.
Choroidal neovascularization
Symptom of CNV
.Fairly sudden,decrease in visual acuity
.central metamorphopsia.
.Or a relative central scotoma.
Signs of CNV may include
. the presence of subretinal fluid
. subretinal or sub-pigment epithelial blood
. subretinal or intraretinallipid
. subretinal pigment ring
. irregular elevation of the pigment epithelium
.subretinal gray-white lesion
. cystoid macular edema
. a sea fan pattern of subretinal small vessels
Signs and symptoms of neovascular AMD
Patients who develop neovascular AMD complain of the
sudden onset of decreased vision, metamorphopsia, and
paracentral scotomata. Clinically, there may be elevation
of the RPE; subretinal or intraretinallipid, fluid, or blood;
PED; and retinal pigment epithelial tears; occasionally,
the gray-green CNV lesion itself is seen.
The presence of an intraretinal hemorrhage may be an
early sign of a retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP)
lesion,with flow from the retinal circulation connecting
to the CNY.
Fluorescein angiography is the gold standard
for diagnosing CNV. In cases with overlying
blood or occult CNV, ICG angiography offers
clues to help in the decision-making process.
CNV is an ingrowth of new vessels
from the choriocapillaris through a break
in the outer aspect of Bruch's membrane
into the sub-pigment epithelial space (Fig
4-7). Within this space, the CNV can leak
fluid and blood and may be accompanied
by a serous or hemorrhagic detachment of
the RPE.
The blood may resorb, dissect under the retina,
or, rarely,break into the vitreous cavity. In
addition to vascularization from the choroid,
membrane, possibly accompanied by either
fibrovascular or fibrocellular tissue between the
neurosensory retina and the RPE. Ultimately,
this process results in a disciform fibrovascular
scar that replaces the normal architecture of the
outer retina and leads to permanent loss of
central vision.
Fluorescein angiogram patterns of CNV
Fluorescein patterns of CNV vary because the CNV lesion
may be a complex of several lesion components that may
include classic CNV, occult CNV, and features that may
obscure CNV. Two major patterns of CNV are seen on FA:
1. classic CNV
2. occult CNV
Classic CNV is an area of bright, fairly
uniform hyperfluorescence identified in
the early phase of the angiogram that
progressively intensifies throughout the
transit phase, with leakage of dye
obscuring the boundaries of this area by
the late phases of the angiogram
Occult CNV consists of 2 forms:
1. fibrovascular PED
2. late leakage from an undetermined source
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