Report

1-2 Data Classification Part 1 Types of Data Qualitative and Quantitative • Qualitative data consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries. • Quantitative data consists of numerical measurements or counts. • You can have numerical qualitative data. Example 1 p11 The base prices of several vehicles are shown in the table. Which data are qualitative data and which are quantitative data? (Source: Ford Motor Company*) Model • Fusion 14 S • F-150 XL • Five Hundred SEL • Escape XLT Sport • 2007 Explorer Sport Trac Limited • Freestar SEL • Crown Victoria LX • Expedition XLT Base Price • $17,795 • $18,710 • $23,785 • $24,575 • $26,775 • $27,500 • $28,830 • $35,480 Example 1 TIY 1 p11 The populations of several U.S. cities are shown in the table. Identify the contents of each data set. Decide whether each data set consists of numerical or nonnumerical entries. Specify the qualitative data and the quantitative data. City • Cleveland, OH • Detroit, MI • Houston, TX • Las Vegas, NV • Portland, OR • Topeka, KS Population • 452,208 • 886,671 • 2,016,582 • 545,147 • 533,427 • 121,946 Related Homework Part 1 • p15 #7-12 (#11 is debatable- why?) Part 2 Levels of Measurement Levels of Measurement • The level of measurement determines which statistical calculations are meaningful. • The four levels of measurement, in order from lowest to highest, are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Nominal Level of Measurement Data at the nominal level of measurement are qualitative only. Data at this level are categorized using names, labels, or qualities. No mathematical computations can be made at this level. Example: Network Affiliates in Pittsburgh, PA • WTAE (ABC) • WPXI (NBC) • KDKA (CBS) • WPGH (FOX) Ordinal Level of Measurement Data at the ordinal level of measurement are qualitative or quantitative. Data at this level can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful. Example: Top Five TV Programs from 2/12/07 to 2/18/07 (Source: Nielson Media Research*) 1) American Idol - Tuesday 2) American Idol - Wednesday 3) Grey’s Anatomy 4) House 5) CSI Interval Level of Measurement Data at the interval level of measurement can be ordered, and you can calculate meaningful differences between data entries. At the interval level, a zero entry simply represents a position on a scale; the entry is not an inherent zero. (Inherent zero means “none.”) Example: New York Yankees’ World Series Victories (Years) (Source: Major League Baseball*) 1923, 1927, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1941, 1943, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1961, 1962, 1977, 1978, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000 Ratio Level of Measurement Data at the ratio level of measurement are similar to data at the interval level, with the added property that a zero entry is an inherent zero. A ratio of two data values can be formed so that one data value can be meaningfully expressed as a multiple of another. Example: 2006 American League Home Run Totals (by Team) Baltimore 164 Cleveland 236 Los Angeles 159 Oakland 175 Texas 183 Boston 192 Detroit 203 Minnesota 143 Seattle 172 Toronto 199 Chicago 236 Kansas City124 New York 210 Tampa Bay 190 Example 2&3 TIY 2&3 p12-13 • Identify the level of measurement – The final standings for the Pacific Division of the National Basketball Association – A collection of phone numbers – The body temperatures (in degrees Fahrenheit) of an athlete during an exercise session – The heart rates (in beats per minute) of an athlete during an exercise session. Related Homework Part 2 • p15-16 #1-6, 13-26 (#26- you don’t need to justify your answer) – Associated Press* – National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics and Economics Division* – The New York Times* – Yankelovich for the National Representatives Science Foundation, American Meteorological Society* – National Climatic Data Center* – U.S. House of Representatives, Office of the Clerk*