How to use a latin dictionary

Report
 I can:
 Find a simple word in the assigned Latin dictionary
 Compare using Whitaker’s Words to Cassell’s Latin Dictionary
 Find a word using principal parts
 Determine the part of speech for a word
 Use the dictionary listing to infer the following
 Declension or conjugation
 Verb tense
 Gender
 Special grammatical irregularities
 Usage by specific authors
 bases
 Pros
 Quick and easy for digital natives
 Gives lots of information
 Part of speech
 Gender
 Principal parts
 Tense and voice
 Case and number
 Just a few key strokes to an on-line translator and a failing grade and severely
ticked off teacher
 Does have errors
 Most importantly, you can’t use it on the IB test but you can use Cassell’s Latin
Dictionary.
 The more familiar you are with using that dictionary, the easier it will be for you to do well
on your test
 Your goal and CMS’ expectation as well is for you to score well not just in class but on
that test
 Obviously, not every variation ( declined nouns, adjectives, and pronouns or
conjugated verbs) will be listed. Otherwise, this gentleman might only being
carrying ten to twenty words worth of the dictionary.
 Cassell’s Latin Dictionary has a specific format to limit the size and number of
entries per word ( and confused the uninitiated).
 Nouns are listed as:
 Nominative singular, genitive singular gender
definitions
 E.g. Vir, viri m. man
 From the genitive singular, you can deduce the declension (ae=1, i=2, is=3, us=4, ei=5)
 Sometimes the listing will say “pl” meaning that word can only exist in the plural form
 Adjectives and pronouns are listed as:
 Masculine nominative singular, feminine nominative singular, neuter nominative singular
 E.g.
Troianus. Troiana, Troianum Trojan
 From the listing you can determine the declension:
 -us, -a, -um or -er, -a, -um first/second declension 2-1-2
 -er, -is, -e or -is, -e or something different, -is 3rd
 Verbs are listed usually in four principal parts:
 1st person singular present tense (o)
 Present infinitive (re)
 1st person singular perfect tense (i)
 Perfect passive participle/supine (us/um)
 E.g. Scribo, scriber, scripsi, sciptum
 If a verb is first conjugations (are), Cassell’s will only give the first two parts and assumes
you know that the third will be –avi and the fourth will be -atum
 Deponent verbs are listed in three forms, all passive and follow the –r, -i,-us sum pattern
 E.g. Sequor, sequi, secutus sum
to follow
 Verbs that take special cases will usually include phrases such as “with genitive” or “with dative”
 E.g. Credo, credere, credidi creditum with dative
to belive, to trust
 Some adjectives and nouns can also require special cases and will be noted like the verbs
The definition of a verb is given in the infinitive form such as “to sail” ; this does
not mean that you translate it as an infinitive unless it is in the infinitive form in the
sentence

 Prepositions will usually have “+ acc “ or “+ abl”
 Conjunctions, adverbs, and interjections normally have only one form. Adverbs are
usually marked with “adv.”
 If you look up a word such as “Tulit” and the dictionary says “see fero”, the word does
not mean “see”. Look up “fero”.
 Frequently, especially with verbs, the word you are looking for does not conform to the
first principal part. Please look at the other principal parts before giving up and calling
for help.
 Many words include usage by specific authors. This can help you narrow down
which is the most appropriate definition to use at that time.
 Verg
Vergil
 Cic
Cicero
 Pl
Plautus
 Liv
Livy
 Cat
Catullus
 Hor
Horace
 Plin
Pliny
 Prop Propertius
 Ov
Ovid
To facilitate pronunciation, sometimes spellings are contracted.
adc becomes acc
adf
aff
adg
agg
adl
all
adp
app
adsc
asc
adsp
asp
conl
coll
conm
comm
inl
ill
inm
imm
inp
imp
inr
irr
subm
summ
 Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
 Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit
 litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto
 vi superum saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram;
 multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem,
 inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum,
 Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae.
5
 The word has “av….” or “ at….” ; take that off and add “o”
 Appellaverant
 “u. v. x s “
appello
probably a third principal part.
 Take of u,v,s,x and add “o”
 “x” substitute “c” followed by “o” eo
 Duxit
duco
io
 Sum esse fui futurus










to be
Fero, ferre, tuli, latum bear carry
Ago, agere, egi, actum do
Tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatum
lift up, raise
Facio, facere, feci, factum
do, make compound fic
Capio, capere, cepi, captum capture, take
compound cip
Cedo cedere cessi cessum yield go
Eo, ire, ivi/ii, itus
go
Mitto, mittere,misi, missum send
Gradior, gradi, gradus sum
compound gred
Do, dare, dedi, datum give compound didi
 c substitute
 at ….
x
Try …as, atis

similar documents