THERMO FUEL FROM WASTE PLASTICS

Report
PRESENTED
FOR
“TECHTOP- ENGINEERING
PROJECT CONTEST-09”
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
IN THIS SCENARIO OUR PROJECT
AIMS TO SOLVE THE TWIN
PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENT
POLLUTION DUE TO PLASTIC AND
THE NEED FOR AN ALTERNATIVE
FUEL SOURCE .
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
THE MAIN AIM OF OUR PROJECT
IS TO FIND A SOLUTION TO THE
MOUNTINGS PROBLEM OF
PLASTIC DISPOSAL , FOR WHICH
THE PLASTIC ARE CONVERTED
INTO
USEABLE FUEL .
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
THIS IS LIKE CASHING ON THE
POLLUTION ITSELF .THIS
PROJECT IF IMPLEMENT CAN
TURN THE TIDES GLOBALLY BY
PROVIDING A LONG TERM
SOLUTION FOR THESE
PROBLEMS.
INTRODUCTION
PLASTICS HAVE BECOME AN INDISPENSABLE
PART IN TODAY’S WORLD .DUE TO THEIR
LIGHT-WEIGHT , DURABILITY ,ENERGY
EFFICIENCY , COUPLED WITH A FASTER RATE
OF PRODUCTION AND DESIGN FLEXIBILITY
,THESE PLASTIC ARE EMPLOYED IN ENTIRE
GAMUT OF INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC
AREAS .
INTRODUCTION
PLASTIC ARE NON DEGRADABLE POLYMERS
OF MOSTLY CONTAINING CARBON,
HYDROGEN AND FEW OTHERS ELEMENTS
SUCH AS CHLORINE , NITROGEN ETC..,.
DUE TO ITS NON-BIODEGRADABLE NATURE
,THE PLASTIC WASTE CONTRIBUTES
SIGNIFICANTLY TO THE PROBLEM OF
MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT .
PLASTICS
Plastics are natural / synthetic materials .
They are produced by chemically modifying natural substances
or are synthesized from inorganic and organic raw material. on
the basis of their physical characteristics ,plastics are usually
divided into thermosets ,elastomers and thermoplastics .
These groups differ primarily with regard to molecular
structure , which is what determines their differing thermal
behavior .The following table lists the characteristics of the
various types of plastics.
THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF PLASTICS:
Thermosets
Elastomers
thermoplastics
THERMOSETS CHARACTERISTICS
AND APPLICATIONS
Thermosets are hard and have a very tight –meshed ,
branched molecular structure .curing proceeds during shaping ,
after which it is no longer possible to shape the material by heating .
Further shaping may then only be performed by machining .
thermosets are used ,for example, to make light switches.
ELASTOMERS CHARACTERISTICS
AND APPLICATIONS
While elastomers also have a crosslinked structure .
They have a looser mesh than thermosets ,
giving rise to a degree of elasticity .
Once shaped , elastomers also cannot be reshaped by heating .
elastomers re used for example , to produce automobile tires .
THERMOPASTICS CHARACTERISTICS
AND APPLICATIONS
Thermoplastics have linear or branched molecular structure
which determines their strength and thermal behavior :they
are flexible at ordinary temperatures .at approx.120 – 180 0c,
thermoplastics become a pasty/liquid mass .
The service temperature range for thermoplastics is
considerably lower than that for thermosets .
The thermoplastics polyethylene [pe] ,
polyvinylchloride [pvc]and polystyrene are used,for example ,
in packaging applications
Plastics offer a variety of environmental benefits .
However, their production, applications, and disposal has many
environment concerns .
Plastics and the environment provides State – of – the – art
technical and research information on the complex
relationship between the plastic and polymer industry and the
environment, focusing on the sustainability,
environmental impact, and cost-benefit tradeoffs associated
with different technologies.
The contributors also focus on the effectiveness of recent
technologies in mitigating environmental impacts,particularly
those for managing plastics in the solid waste stream .
Plastic and design engineers , polymers chemists , material
scientists , and ecologists will find plastics and the environment to
be a vital resource to this critical industry.
RAW MATERIALS
•Waste plastics.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION:
Take1 kg of waste plastics of some kind [ldpe,hdpe] cut it into piece and dry it .
The waste plastic is put inside the reactor after drying it.
The reactor must designed to withstand high temperature of about 3500c-400oc.
It has an inlet at the top for collecting the vapour.
Start the burner for heating the reactor and measure the temperature .
When the temperature reaches 150oc the vapour start to come down to the
Condenser.
The heating is continued for about 11/2 hours till the vapour stop collecting.
After 1 or 11/2 hrs the plastics are decomposed.
At the time larger carbon molecules are break into smaller molecules.
There is no need of using catalyst for the process.
The top of the reactor inlet is connected with the spiral condenser where the
vapours are condensed.
Finally the fuel from condensed vapours are collected .
Approximately 700ml of thermo fuel will be collected from per kg of waste plastics.
Thermocouple is used to measure high temperature .
.
SAMPLE:THERMOFUEL FROM WASTE PLASTIC
DESCRIPTION : Light Brown liquid with very pungent smell
Aniline Point:
650c
Carbon Residue : 0.725 Wt %
Smoke Point :23 mm
DISTILLATION RANGE AND CARBON NUMBER DISTRIBUTION
Initial Boiling Point
: 69 0 c
Naptha Range 140 0 c
:
18%
Kerosene Range 140 0 c to 270 0 c : 61%
Diesel Range : 270 0 c to FBP
: 21%
Final Boiling Point :345 0 c
Corrosion is less.
No need of engine modification.
Residue can be used as paraffin wax.
Less amount of residue and large amount of product.
CONCLUSION
The production of thermofuel from waste plastics is one of the
better methods to save the environment profitably. The collected fuel
had been tested in C.P.C.L.[REASERCH AND DEVELOPMENT] and the
sample test result have been enclosed with this report which shows its
stability in this world as a fuel. We here by conclude that our project
will be a pillar to save the environment and source for fuel.

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