WJ III Cognitive PP

Report
WJ III Training
Use and Interpretation of the
Tests of Cognitive Abilities
Carroll’s Three-Stratum Theory
(1993)
Multiple factor view of intelligence
Narrow
Broad
General
General, Broad, and Narrow Abilities
g
General
Intelligence
Gf
Fluid
Intelligence
Gc
Gsm
Crystallized
Intelligence
General
Memory &
Learning
Gv
Broad
Visual
Perception
Ga
Broad
Auditory
Perception
Glr
Broad
Retrieval
Ability
Narrow Abilities (70 currently identified)
Gs
Broad
Cognitive
Speediness
Broad (II) Gf-Gc Abilities Subsume
Narrow (I) Abilities: Gf Example
Gf
Fluid
Intelligence
General Sequential
Reasoning
(RG)
Induction
(I)
Quantitative
Reasoning
(RQ)
Speed of
Reasoning
(RE)
Piagetian
Reasoning
(RP)
Cognitive Performance Model
BE CAREFUL USING THIS MODEL
Stores of Acquired
Knowledge
(Gc, Gq, Grw)
Thinking Abilities
(Glr, Gv, Ga, Gf)
Cognitive Efficiency
(Gsm, Gs)
Facilitator-Inhibitors
(Internal, External)
COGNITIVE
PERFORMANCE
Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
• The breadth and depth of knowledge of a culture
• The ability to communicate one’s knowledge
(especially verbally)
• The ability to reason using previously learned
knowledge or procedures
• Originally described as “crystallized intelligence”
Tests comprising this cluster:
Verbal Comprehension
General Information
Gc
Comprehension
Knowledge
Language
Development
(LD)
Verbal
Comprehension
Picture
Vocabulary
Lexical
Knowledge
(VL)
General
Information
Listening
Ability
General
Information
Oral
Comprehension
(K0)
(LS)
Academic
Knowledge
© 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.
COG 1 Verbal Comprehension
• Requires naming pictured objects, providing
synonyms or antonyms, and solving analogies
• 4 subtests: Picture Vocabulary, Synonyms,
Antonyms, and Verbal Analogies (no derived scores)
• Basal/Ceiling Rules apply to each subtest: 3 lowest
correct / 3 highest incorrect
• Use Suggested Starting Points
Clusters
Broad Ability
GIA, BIA
Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
Verbal Ability
Narrow Abilities
Comprehension-Knowledge
Language Development (LD)
Lexical Knowledge (VL)
Predicted Achievement
COG 11 General Information
• Requires answering questions presented orally
• 2 subtests: Where and What (no derived scores)
• Basal/Ceiling Rules apply to each subtest: 4 lowest
correct / 4 highest incorrect
• Know correct pronunciation of all items
Clusters
GIA
Verbal Ability
Comprehension-Knowledge
Knowledge
Broad Ability
Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
Narrow Ability
General (verbal) Information (KO)
Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)
• Ability to store information and fluently retrieve it
later through association
• Associative storage & retrieval
• Length of intervening time is not critical feature
• Not to be confused with acquired stores of
knowledge (Gc and Gq)
Tests comprising this cluster:
Visual-Auditory Learning
Retrieval Fluency
Glr
Long-Term
Retrieval
Associative
Memory
(MA)
Visual
Auditory Learning
& Delayed Recall
Meaningful
Memory
(MM)
Story RecallDelayed
Ideational
Fluency
(FI)
Retrieval
Fluency
Naming
Facility
(NA)
Rapid Picture
Naming
Memory for
Names & DR
© 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.
COG 2 Visual-Auditory Learning
• Controlled learning task, corrective feedback
• Requires recalling verbal labels for visual symbols
presented in various combinations
• Begin with Introduction 1 for all subjects
• Discontinue testing when cutoff is met
• Score based on number of errors
Clusters
Broad Ability
GIA
Thinking Ability
Long-Term Retrieval
Predicted Achievement
Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)
Narrow Ability
Associative Memory (MA)
COG 10 Visual Auditory Learning - Delayed
• Changed to relearning task with corrective feedback
• Administer 30 minutes to 8 days after Test 2 VAL
• Score based on number of errors
• Begin with Line 1 for all subjects
• Administer all lines (items) to all subjects
• Synonyms & no response are errors
Broad Ability
Clusters
Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)
Delayed Recall
Narrow Ability
Associative Memory (MA)
COG 12 Retrieval Fluency
• Requires naming as many items in a category as
possible in one minute (60 is maximum per item)
• 3 items: things to eat or drink, first names, animals
• Administer all items to all subjects
• 1-minute time limit for each item
• Do not count duplicate responses
• Do not ask subject to repeat
Clusters
Broad Ability
GIA
Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)
Thinking Ability
Narrow Ability
Long-Term Retrieval
Ideational Fluency (FI)
Cognitive Fluency
COG 18 Rapid Picture Naming
• Requires quickly naming pictured objects in a row of 5
• Begin with samples and then Item 1 for all subjects
• 2-minute time limit
• Accept synonyms as correct (e.g., kitty for kitten)
• Do not accept responses that are similar but not
synonyms (e.g., glass for cup)
Broad Ability
Clusters
Cognitive Fluency
Processing Speed (Gs)
Narrow Abilities
Naming Facility (NA)
Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv)
• Ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize and think
with visual patterns
• Ability to store and recall visual representations
• Fluent thinking with stimuli that are visual in the
“mind’s eye”
Tests comprising this cluster:
Spatial Relations
Picture Recognition
Gv
Visual-Spatial
Thinking
Spatial
Relations
(SR)
Visualization
(Vz)
Spatial
Relations
Visual
Memory
(MV)
Picture
Recognition
Spatial
Scanning
(SS)
Planning
Closure
Speed
(CS)
Visual
Closure
Block
Rotation
© 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.
COG 3 Spatial Relations
• Requires selecting the component shapes
to construct a whole
• Multiple points possible per item (0, 1, 2, 3)
• Begin with Introduction for all subjects
• Discontinue testing when cutoff is met
Clusters
Broad Ability
GIA
Thinking Ability
Visual-Spatial Thinking
Predicted Achievement
Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv)
Narrow Abilities
Visualization (Vz)
Spatial Relations (SR)
COG 13 Picture Recognition
• Requires identifying 1-4 previously seen items
• Begin with samples and Item 1 for all subjects
• Discontinue testing when cutoff is met
• Stimulus is shown for only 5 seconds
• Score 1 point for each picture recalled in any order
Clusters
GIA
Thinking Ability
Visual-Spatial Thinking
Broad Ability
Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv)
Narrow Ability
Visual Memory (MV)
Auditory Processing (Ga)
• Ability to analyze, synthesize, & discriminate
auditory stimuli
• Ability to perceive and discriminate speech
sounds that may be presented under
distorted conditions
• Does not require comprehension of language
Tests comprising this cluster:
Sound Blending
Auditory Attention
Ga
Auditory
Processing
Phonetic
Coding: Analysis
(PC:A)
Incomplete
Words
Word
Attack
Phonetic
Coding: Synthesis
Speech Sound
Discrimination
(PC:S)
(US)
Sound
Blending
Spelling
of
Sounds
Resistance to
Auditory Stimulus
Distortion
(UR)
Auditory
Attention
Sound
Patterns
© 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.
COG 4 Sound Blending
• Requires identifying & pronouncing words that
are presented as a stream of individual sounds
• Begin with samples and then Item 1 for all subjects
• Ceiling: 6 consecutive highest items incorrect
• Words must be pronounced smoothly
• Do not repeat any items during test
Clusters
GIA
Thinking Ability
Auditory Processing
Phonemic Awareness
Predicted Achievement
Broad Ability
Auditory Processing (Ga)
Narrow Ability
Phonetic Coding (PC)
COG 14 Auditory Attention
• Requires detecting differences in sounds as
background noises increase in volume
• Begin with training items (1-57) presented orally
• Administer samples and then Item 1 to all subjects
• Ceiling: 6 consecutive highest items incorrect
• Use recording for all test items
Clusters
Broad Ability
GIA
Auditory Processing (Ga)
Thinking Ability
Narrow Abilities
Auditory Processing
Speech Sound Discrimination (US)
Resistance to Auditory Stimulus
Distortion (UR)
Broad Attention
COG 8 Incomplete Words
• Requires identifying & pronouncing words
presented with one or more phonemes missing
• Begin with Sample A (Pre) or Sample B (K and up)
• Ceiling: 6 consecutive highest items incorrect
• Word must be pronounced as a complete word
Broad Ability
Clusters
Phonemic Awareness
Auditory Processing (Ga)
Narrow Ability
Phonetic Coding (PC)
Fluid Reasoning (Gf )
• Ability to reason, form concepts, & solve problems
(using unfamiliar information or novel procedures)
• Basic reasoning processes
(minimal effect of learning & acculturation)
• Manipulating abstractions, rules, logical relations
Tests comprising this cluster:
Concept Formation
Analysis-Synthesis
Gf
Fluid
Reasoning
General
Sequential
Reasoning
(RG)
AnalysisSynthesis
Induction
(I)
Quantitative
Reasoning
(RQ)
Applied
Problems
Concept
Formation
Speed of
Reasoning
(RE)
Decision
Speed?
Quantitative
Concepts
Number
Series
Number
Matrices
© 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.
COG 5 Concept Formation
• Controlled learning task, corrective feedback
• Requires identifying & stating the rule governing
a set of colored geometric figures
• Begin with Introduction 1 (Pre-Grade 1) or
Introduction 2 (Grade 2 and up)
• Discontinue testing when cutoff is met
Clusters
GIA, BIA
Thinking Ability
Fluid Reasoning
Executive Processes
Predicted Achievement
Broad Ability
Fluid Reasoning (Gf)
Narrow Ability
Induction (I)
COG 15 Analysis-Synthesis
• Requires analyzing the components of an incomplete
logic puzzle and identifying the missing component(s)
• Controlled learning task, corrective feedback (1-28)
• Begin with Color Pretest and then Introduction
• Discontinue testing when cutoff is met
• Items 26-35, 1-minute time limit for each
Clusters
GIA
Thinking Ability
Fluid Reasoning
Broad Ability
Fluid Reasoning (Gf)
Narrow Ability
General Sequential Reasoning (RG)
Processing Speed (Gs)
• Ability to perform automatic cognitive
tasks, particularly when measured under
pressure to maintain focused attention
• Attentive speediness
• Usually measured by tasks that require rapid
cognitive processing but little thinking
Tests comprising this cluster:
Visual Matching
Decision Speed
Gs
Processing
Speed
Perceptual
Speed
(P)
Rate-of-test Taking
(R9)
Semantic
Processing Speed
(R4)
Visual Matching
Pair Cancellation
Decision Speed
Cross
Out
© 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.
COG 6 Visual Matching
• Ages 2-4 Version 1 (in Test Book)
• Requires pointing to 2 pictures that are the same in row
• 2-minute time limit
• Ages 5 and up Version 2 (in Test Record)
• Requires quickly circling two identical numbers in row of 6
• 3-minute time limit
Clusters
Broad Ability
GIA, BIA
Cognitive Efficiency
Processing Speed
Predicted Achievement
Processing Speed (Gs)
Narrow Ability
Perceptual Speed (P)
COG 16 Decision Speed
• Requires marking the 2 of 7 objects in a row that go
together or are most alike (uses SRB)
• Begin with samples and then Item 1 for all subjects
• 3-minute time limit
• Both pictures must be identified for credit
(must be two that are most alike, not just loosely related)
• Scoring overlay provided
Clusters
Broad Ability
GIA
Cognitive Efficiency
Processing Speed
Cognitive Fluency
Processing Speed (Gs)
Narrow Ability
Semantic Processing Speed
Short-Term Memory (Gsm)
• Ability to apprehend and hold information in
immediate awareness and then use it
within a few seconds
• Memory and learning abilities in Carroll’s model
Tests comprising this cluster:
Numbers Reversed
Memory for Words
Gsm
Short-Term
Memory
Working
Memory Span
(MS)
Memory for
Words
Memory
(MW)
Numbers
Reversed
Auditory Working
Memory
Memory for
Sentences
© 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.
COG 7 Numbers Reversed
• Requires repeating series of random numbers
backwards
• Items 1-10 given orally, rest from audio recording
• Basal/Ceiling Rules apply to groups of items: 3 lowest
in group correct / 3 highest in group incorrect
Clusters
GIA
Cognitive Efficiency
Short-Term Memory
Working Memory
Broad Attention
Predicted Achievement
Broad Ability
Short-Term Memory (Gsm)
Narrow Ability
Working Memory (MW)
Basal/Ceiling Example
1. Starts with Samples C and D.
2. Continues with Item 11.
3. Items 11-13 are correct so
basal is established.
(3 lowest in group correct)
4. Items 16-18 are incorrect
so ceiling is established.
(3 highest in group incorrect)
1
2
What is Number Correct?
3
4
COG 17 Memory for Words
• Requires repeating lists of unrelated words in
order (ranges from one word to a series of 7 words)
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 3 in group of 3 /3 in group of 3
• Words must be repeated in exact order presented
• Accept very similar sounding or rhyming responses
(e.g., son for some, bat for that)
Clusters
GIA
Cognitive Efficiency
Short-Term Memory
Broad Ability
Short-Term Memory (Gsm)
Narrow Ability
Memory Span (MS)
COG 9 Auditory Working Memory
• Requires listening to a series of words and digits
intermingled, then repeating words in sequence
first followed by digits in sequence
• Score items 2, 1, 0
(1 for words, 1 for digits)
Very similar sounding or rhyming responses are scored as correct.
• Basal/Ceiling Rules apply to groups of items: all 3 in
lowest group scored 2 / all 3 in highest group scored 0
Broad Ability
Clusters
Short-Term Memory (Gsm)
Working Memory
Broad Attention
Narrow Ability
Working Memory (MW)
PHONEMIC AWARENESS CLINICAL CLUSTER
Gf
Fluid
Reasoning
Gc
Verbal
Ability
Gv
VisualSpatial
Thinking
Glr
Long-term
Retrieval
Ga
Auditory
Processing
Gsm
Short-term
Memory
Gs
Processing
Speed
Sound
Blending
Ability to analyze, synthesize, and
manipulate sounds. Measures aspects
of phonological awareness
Incomplete
Words
Was the WJ-R Ga cluster
Can be combined with Sound
Awareness (ACH) for Phonemic
Awareness 3 cluster
WORKING MEMORY CLINICAL CLUSTER
Gf
Fluid
Reasoning
Gc
Verbal
Ability
Gv
VisualSpatial
Thinking
Glr
Long-term
Retrieval
• Ability to temporarily store and
perform a cognitive operation on
information
• Requires divided attention and
the management of the limited
capacity of short-term memory
Ga
Auditory
Processing
Gsm
Short-term
Memory
Numbers
Reversed
Aud Working
Memory
Gs
Processing
Speed
AUDITORY MEMORY SPAN CLINICAL CLUSTER
Gf
Fluid
Reasoning
Gc
Verbal
Ability
Gv
VisualSpatial
Thinking
Glr
Long-term
Retrieval
• Measurement of short-term
memory span/capacity.
Ga
Auditory
Processing
Gsm
Short-term
Memory
Memory for
Words
Memory for
Sentences
(DS)
Gs
Processing
Speed
ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY CLINICAL CLUSTER
Gf
Fluid
Reasoning
Gc
Verbal
Ability
Gv
VisualSpatial
Thinking
Glr
Long-term
Retrieval
VisualAuditory
Learning
Memory for
Names (DS)
Measurement of learning & recall
for new associations.
Ga
Auditory
Processing
Gsm
Short-term
Memory
Gs
Processing
Speed
COGNITIVE FLUENCY CLINICAL CLUSTER
Gf
Fluid
Reasoning
Gc
Verbal
Ability
Fluency/speed of retrieval
from stored knowledge
Gv
VisualSpatial
Thinking
Glr
Long-term
Retrieval
Ga
Auditory
Processing
Gsm
Short-term
Memory
Retrieval
Fluency
Fluency/speed of forming
simple concepts.
Fluency/speed of lexical
(vocabulary) access/recall
Gs
Processing
Speed
Decision
Speed
Rapid Pic
Naming
Ability to quickly and fluently perform
simple to complex cognitive tasks
Corresponding achievement
cluster: Academic Fluency
VISUALIZATION CLINICAL CLUSTER
Gf
Fluid
Reasoning
Gc
Verbal
Ability
Gv
VisualSpatial
Thinking
Glr
Long-term
Retrieval
Ga
Auditory
Processing
Gsm
Short-term
Memory
Gs
Processing
Speed
Spatial
Relations
Ability to envision patterns or objects
and perceive how they may appear if
altered.
Block
Rotation
(DS)
NUMERICAL REASONING CLINICAL CLUSTER
Gf
Fluid
Reasoning
Number
Series (DS)
Number
Matrices
(DS)
Gc
Verbal
Ability
Gv
VisualSpatial
Thinking
Glr
Long-term
Retrieval
Ga
Auditory
Processing
Ability to reason with mathematical
concepts.
Gsm
Short-term
Memory
Gs
Processing
Speed

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