Unit 8 * Post WWII Georgia

Report
AKS 41:
POST WWII GEORGIA
*The student will evaluate key post-World War
II developments of Georgia from 1945 to 1970*
a. Analyze the impact of the
transformation of agriculture on
Georgia’s growth.
b. Explain how the development of
Atlanta, including the roles of mayors
William Hartsfield and Ivan Allen Jr.,
and major league sports, contributed to
the growth of Georgia.
c. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall
AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION
WWII
AFTER
•Agriculture was no longer as important after WWII
• During the war many had moved from farms to work
in wartime industries and factories.
• Demand for cotton fell when synthetic fabrics such as
rayon and nylon began to be used
• Trees, peanuts, soybeans and corn were planted
instead of cotton
• Poultry became a major industry
AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION
WWII
AFTER
• Farm machinery allowed fewer
workers to work more land
• Farms grew – 1940 average
size was 110 acres and in 1950
it was 1299 acres
• Population shifted from rural areas to urban areas
(cities)
•In 1940 66% of GA’s population was rural and 34%
was urban
•In 1970 40% of GA’s population was rural and 60%
was urban
DEVELOPMENT OF ATLANTA
• Returning veterans were able to attend college on the
G.I. Bill or buy houses
• Suburbs or residential areas around cities were built
• Businesses moved to the state for various reasons
•Mild climate
•Low business and individual tax rates
•GA was a non-union state so businesses could pay
lower wages and not deal with labor demands from
unions
DEVELOPMENT OF ATLANTA
•Growth of aviation created more
jobs (Hartsfield-Jackson Airport)
•Interstate highway system was
developed under President Eisenhower in the 1950s.
•GA’s economy diversified. By 1954, around 800 new
industries had started in Atlanta
•Almost 1200 national corporations had Atlanta offices
•People moved to GA for the jobs
•Descendents of African Americans who left after the Civil
War began to return as racial discrimination was replaced
by moderation, integrated schools, improved economic
opportunities and a higher standard of living
DEVELOPMENT OF ATLANTA
•
•
Atlanta annexed (adding territory to an existing city or
town) over 100 square miles
Today, more than half of the state’s population is in
the Atlanta metropolitan area
WILLIAM B. HARTSFIELD
• Served as mayor of Atlanta for
6 terms 1937-1941 and 1942-1961
• Helped make Atlanta an
aviation hub for the Southeast
• Chose the site for the Atlanta
airport
• Helped lead the city in the area of civil rights
•1946 - After white primaries were outlawed, he organized a
biracial coalition that worked on voter registration drives.
•1948 – hired 8 black police officers for restricted duties
WILLIAM B. HARTSFIELD
• 1958 – asked state to allow Atlantans to decide whether to
keep integrated schools open
•State was refusing to fund integrated schools
• 1960 – state committee found overwhelming support for
keeping schools open
•Atlantans thought keeping public schools open was more
important than issues involving school integration
WILLIAM B. HARTSFIELD


•
•
1955 – city’s golf courses integrated without
incident
1957 – city busses integrated
August 30, 1961 – four all-white high schools in
Atlanta were integrated without incident
1961 - local Chamber of Commerce joined Hartsfield
and local African American leaders in ending lunch
counter segregation
IVAN ALLEN JR.
•Served as mayor of Atlanta for 2 terms from 1962 –
1970
•Continued Mayor Hartsfield’s approach to peaceful
integration
•Ordered removal of the “Colored” and “White” signs on
all entrances and exits to City Hall
•Removed restrictions on African
American police officers
•Integrated city’s fire dept and city
government
IVAN ALLEN JR.
• Oversaw construction of a number of public facilities
including the Peachtree Center and Atlanta Fulton
County Stadium
• With new businesses moving to Atlanta skyscrapers
and office buildings were built in the downtown area
•He is credited with bringing professional sports to
Atlanta
MAJOR LEAGUE SPORTS
Sport
Team
Facts
Baseball
Braves
Came from Milwaukee in 1966, plays at
Turner Field, won World Series in 1995
Football
Falcons
1966 league expansion team, plays in
Georgia Dome
Basketball
Hawks
Came from St. Louis in 1968, plays in
Phillips Arena
Hockey
Thrashers
1997 league expansion team, plays in
Phillips Arena (NOT ANYMORE!!)
ELLIS ARNALL
• Governor from 1943 – 1947
• First to serve a 4 year term
• Youngest governor in the nation
• Corrected problems with the
university accreditation that Gov.
Eugene Talmadge created.
• General Assembly passed a constitutional
amendment that made the Board of Regents a
separate organization, no longer under the control of
the governor’s office.
ELLIS ARNALL
• Removed the prison system from the governor’s control
• Established Board of Corrections to oversee prisons
• Established Pardon and Parole Board
• Abolished the poll tax
• Led GA to become the first state to grant 18 year olds
the right to vote in state elections
• When young men were drafted during WWII he argued
that individuals who were
old enough to fight for their
country were old enough to
vote.

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