Atmospheric Particulate Matter in Proximity to Mountaintop Coal Mines

Report
Atmospheric Particulate Matter in
Proximity to Mountaintop Coal Mines
Allan Kolker1, Mark A. Engle1,2, William H. Orem1, Calin A.
Tatu1, Michael Hendryx3, Michael McCawley3, Laura Esch3,
Nick J. Geboy1, Lynn M. Crosby1, and Matthew S. Varonka1
U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Geological Survey
1U.S.
Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA
3West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
2The
Introduction
• Mountaintop mining (MTM) is a common method of
coal extraction in parts of the U.S. Appalachian region.
• The method exposes coal for production by explosion
and removal of non-coal bearing siliceous overburden.
• Past studies have primarily concerned the impact of
overburden disposal in stream valleys on aquatic life.
• Recent epidemiologic work suggests disparities in the
rates of some diseases between comparable MTM and
non-MTM areas1.
1Hendryx
et al., 2011, J. Community Health
Approach
• The present study considers the potential for human
exposure to air- and water-sourced contaminants from MTM
activities.
• Initial results from air sampling studies are presented here.
• Samples collected include:
1)
2)
3)
High-volume 24-hour sampling of sized ambient particulate
matter. Separate inorganic and organic sampling.
Geochemical window-wide samples for inorganic and organics.
Extended sampling on greased surrogate deposition surfaces.
• Study compares active MTM areas with internal (coal mining
by other methods) and external (no coal mining) controls.
Study Area
• Study area in south
central West Virginia
(WV), USA.
• Control areas in southern
WV (internal control) and
southeastern WV
(external control).
• Sampling in June, Aug.,
Dec., 2011; Feb., May,
2012
• Results to date for 2011.
PA
OH
MD
WV
VA
Sampling Activities
Exposed TSP Filters
MTM
INT.
CNTRL.
Total suspended particulate (TSP) samplers
EXT.
CNTRL.
Sampling Activities
Geochemical window wipes
Greased surrogate deposition surfaces
Comparison of MTM
Areas E and T with
External Control
(June, 2011)
Anthropogenic
Sources
Crustal
Sources
June, 2011
V
As
Cd
Al
Ga
Rb
Ce
E/EC fine
T/EC fine
E/EC coarse
T/EC coarse
2.4
1.7
ND
ND
1.8
1.6
ND
ND
2.0
1.7
2.4
3.4
15.8
8.4
9.5
7.5
20.1
12.1
6.8
5.5
9.3
5.2
7.6
5.6
10.6
6.5
10.1
5.9
Results indicate more
pronounced enrichment
in “crustal” elements
(e.g. Al, Ga, Rb, Ce) in
MTM areas E and T vs.
external control (EC).
Comparison of MTM
Areas E and T with
Internal Control
(August, 2011)
Anthropogenic
Sources
Crustal
Sources
Aug., 2011
V
As
Cd
Al
Ga
Rb
Ce
E/IC fine
T/IC fine
E/IC coarse
T/IC coarse
ND
ND
ND
ND
1.2
0.90
ND
ND
0.90
2.1
2.7
1.3
1.1
1.4
0.73
1.2
0.28
0.39
0.69
1.2
1.1
1.3
0.90
1.1
1.1
1.4
0.74
1.1
Results indicate similar
enrichment in most
“crustal” elements (e.g.
Al, Ga, Rb, Ce) in MTM
areas E and T vs. internal
control (IC).
Comparison of MTM
Area S with Internal and
External Controls
(December, 2011)
Anthropogenic
Sources
Crustal
Sources
V
As
Cd
Al
Ga
Rb
Ce
S/IC fine
22
5.6
5.3
37
11
17
49
S/EC fine
14
3.1
2.7
15
8.3
13
20
S/IC coarse
25
ND
3.4
20
23
14
46
S/EC coarse
13
ND
4.4
25
23
24
20
Dec. 2011
Results indicate higher
concentration of nearly
all constituents in MTM
area S vs. internal (IC)
and external (EC) control
sites.
Comparison of WindowWipe Samples in MTM
Areas and Controls
(June and August, 2011)
MTM
Int. Cntrl.
Ext. Cntrl
Anthropogenic
Sources
Crustal
Sources
V
As
Cd
Al
Ga
Rb
Ce
0.59
0.89
2.39
120
490
382
17
50
33
0.26
0.30
0.40
0.46
0.42
0.58
0.26
0.36
0.55
1
1
1
Results indicate enrichment in
“anthropogenic” elements (Se,
As, Bi, Cd, Ni, Sn) is less in MTM
areas than internal control,
consistent with dilution by
“crustal” material in proximity
to MTM operations.
Window Wipe from MTM area
GC-MS Total Ion Chromatogram
5000000
4500000
2500000
2000000
1500000
Benzo[a]pyrene
3000000
Chrysene
Anthracene
3500000
Benzo[a]fluoranthene
Heptacosane
4000000
1000000
Benzo[ghi]perylene
5500000
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene
6000000
Hentriacontane
6500000
Results for organics in MTM
areas are dominated by alkylated
low mol. wt. compounds and low
mol. wt. PAH’s (circled) indicating
contribution by a coal source, as
opposed to coal combustion.
Nonacosane
7000000
Fluoranthene
7500000
Heneicosane
Pyrene
Hexadecanoic acid
8000000
Benzyl butyl phthalate
8500000
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-et
TIC: 042312122011-OW-11-200uL.D\data.ms
Abundance
9000000
500000
Time-->
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
22.00
24.00
26.00
28.00
30.00
32.00
34.00
36.00
38.00
40.00
42.00
44.00
46.00
48.00
50.00
52.00
54.00
Hi-Vol Fine Air Filter from MTM Residential Property
GC-MS Extracted Ion Chromatogram
2000000
1800000
1600000
1200000
1000000
800000
Benz[a]anthracene
Chrysene
Phenanthrene
1400000
600000
400000
200000
Benzo[ghi]perylene
2200000
Benzo[a]fluoranthene \ Benzo[k]fluoranthene
2400000
Pyrene
Ion 178.00
Ion 202.00
Ion 228.00
Ion 252.00
Ion 276.00
2600000
Benzo[e]pyrene
Benzo[a]pyrene
Perylene
2800000
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene
Fluoranthene
Abundance
0
Time-->
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
22.00
24.00
26.00
28.00
30.00
32.00
34.00
36.00
38.00
40.00
42.00
44.00
46.00
48.00
50.00
52.00
54.00
Conclusions
• Proportions of crustal elements in MTM areas studied are greater
than, or similar to, those in external and internal controls,
respectively.
• Concentrations of anthropogenic elements derived primarily from
combustion sources, are proportionally lower in MTM areas relative
to control areas.
• These results are consistent with dilution of anthropogenic
elements by locally-derived siliceous material.
• Organics are dominated by low molecular weight alkylated
compounds consistent with derivation from coal itself rather than
coal combustion.
Ongoing Work
• Integrate air- and water quality sampling.
• Further use of surrogate surfaces to obtain
time-integrated particulate samples.
• Integrate environmental sampling with
epidemiologic studies conducted by WVU.
• Focus environmental sampling on specific
communities with evidence of health impacts.

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