Darwin’s Theory of Evolution The Puzzle of Life’s

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Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
The Puzzle of Life’s Diversity
Chapter 15-1
Image from: Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
WRITE A DEFINITION:
EVOLUTION:
change over time; the process by which modern
organisms have descended from ancient
organisms
THEORY:
a well-supported testable explanation of
phenomena that have occurred in the natural world
FOSSIL:
the preserved remains of ancient organisms
http://www.millan.net
REMEMBER !
The total variety of all the
organisms in the biosphere
= ________________
BIODIVERSITY
Where did all these different organisms
come from?
How are they related?
What scientific explanation can
account for the diversity of life?
ANSWER:
A collection of ______________,
Scientific facts
observations and ___________
hypotheses
__________,
known as
________________________
EVOLUTIONARY THEORY
The person who contributed the
most to our understanding of
evolution was
Charles Darwin
______________________
http://harrier.users.netlink.co.uk/Darwin_sm.jpg
In 1831, at age 22, he joined the crew of
H.M.S. Beagle as a naturalist for
the _______________
a ________
5 year voyage around the world.
Image from: Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
DARWIN WONDERED?
different
Why do Argentina and Australia have ________
animals
______ even though they have ________
similar
ecosystems
grassland ____________?
Why are there no rabbits
______ in Australia and
no ________
kangaroos in England?
Why have so many species
disappeared?
How are these ______
extinct species
related to living species?
http://www.rc.umd.edu/praxis/mitchell/images/dinosaur1.gif
Who Was Charles Darwin?
While on his voyage around the world
Beagle Charles Darwin
aboard the H.M.S.
____________,
spent about one month observing life on the
________________.
Galápagos Islands
There, he encountered some unique animals,
tortoises
such as finches
______ and ________.
http://www.darwinadventure.com/pictures/galapagos_giantortoise.jpg
http://mikebaird.com/ecuador/images/galapagos_off_ecuador_ng_map.jpg
The Galάpagos Islands are close together
climates
but have very different _______.
Some were hot and dry, with
little vegetation.
Others had more rainfall and were
rich in vegetation
Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
Each island had
unique
its own _____
_________
assortment of
plant and animal
species.
Giant Tortoises of the Galápagos Islands
Section 15-1
and on Pinta Island, tortoise necks
were somewhere in between
Pinta
Pinta Island
Tower
Marchena
Intermediate shell
Fernandina
James
Santa Cruz
Isabela
Santa Fe
Hood Island
Floreana
Isabela Island
Hood
Saddle-backed shell
On the desert-like Hood Island,
tortoises had long necks…
Dome-shaped shell
…while
Go to on the lush rainforest of Isabela Island,
Section:tortoises had short necks…
After his voyage, Darwin spent a great
deal of time thinking about his findings.
Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
He began to wonder if animals living on
different islands had once been members
same species that had
of the ____________
developed different
_________ characteristics
after becoming isolated
_______ from one
another in different habitats.
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
Ideas that Shaped Darwin’s Thinking
Chapter 15-2
Image from: Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
James Hutton
In 1785 ______________
proposes that the EARTH
shaped by
was _______
geological forces
_________________
occurring over
very long
__________
periods of
time, and is
millions of years old.
_______________
http://www.creationism.org/books/TaylorInMindsMen/TaylorIMMc03.htm
Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
Charles Lyell
In 1833 ___________
explains that the geological
processes still ___________
occurring now
have shaped Earth’s
features over
long
periods of time
________________
http://www.biologydaily.com/biology/Sir_Charles_Lyell
Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
SINCE THEN
Theory of Pangaea
…and continental
drift
http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/usgsnps/animate/A08.gif
http://www.wasatchcomputers.net/gallery/elk_fight.jpg
REMEMBER !
Chapter 3
competition
Living things must compete for
food, shelter, space, mates
http://www.nndb.com/people/250/000024178/malthus.jpg
Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
Thomas
Malthus (1798)
_____________________
He observed that babies were being born
faster than people were dying. He
reasoned that if the human population
continued to grow, sooner or later there
insufficient space & food
would be _______________________
http://www.educa.rcanaria.es/fundoro/00.corsi.htm
Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
Jean-Baptiste
Lamarck (1809)
___________________________
was one of first scientists
to recognize living things
changed
over time and that
_______________
all species were descended
________ from
other species.
Lamarck published his hypothesis of
Inheritance of Acquired traits
________________________
the year Darwin was born.
The male fiddler crab uses its
front claw to _________mates
attract
predators
and fight off _____________.
repeated use, the
Through _________
front claw becomes ________.
larger
The fiddler passes on this
acquired
__________
characteristic to
its offspring
http://www.geocities.com/arnold_schwarzenegger_pictures/
What’s wrong with Lamarck’s hypothesis?
Lamarck didn’t know about
genes and how traits are
inherited
_______.
If you lifted weights your
whole young adult life, and
then you had children, would
your kids be more muscular?
ACQUIRED traits can ____
PASSED ON
NOT be __________
NO! ________
to their offspring.
What’s right with Lamarck’s hypothesis?
Lamarck was first to
develop a scientific
hypothesis about
evolution
_______
and recognize that
organisms are
adapted to their environments
________________________
http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~he599900/giraffeeating.jpg
Match the letter of the idea with
the man or men who proposed it:
Malthus
Hutton
Lyell
a.
b.
c.
d.
Lamarck
The earth is really old, and slowly changes
Living things pass acquired changes on to their offspring
Sooner or later growing populations run out of resources
Living things change slowly over time because of competition for resources,
and pass those changes on to their offspring
c.
Malthus
Hutton
a.
Lamarck
Lyell
b.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
The earth is really old, and slowly changes
Living things pass acquired changes on to their offspring
Sooner or later growing populations run out of resources
Living things change slowly over time because of competition for resources,
and pass those changes on to their offspring
Concept Map
Section 15-3
Evidence of
Evolution
includes
The fossil record
Geographic
distribution of
living species
Homologous
body structures
Similarities
in early
development
which is composed of
which indicates
which implies
which implies
Physical
remains of
organisms
Common
ancestral
species
Similar genes
Similar genes
Go to
Section:

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