Chapter 20 The U.S. Looks Overseas

Report
Chapter 20
The U.S. Looks Overseas
HOW DID THE U.S.
DEMONSTRATE ITS
GROWING INTEREST IN THE
PACIFIC AND IN LATIN
AMERICA
Bullet Points p. 699
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Read pgs. 678-685
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Ch 20 Sec 1
•I can understand how
the U.S. acquired new
territory and expanded
trade in the Asia-Pacific
region
Ch. 20 Sec 1
Eyes on the Pacific
• Manifest Destiny – U.S. should
have borders from Atlantic to
Pacific
???
• Why not go further west?
• Americans did just that
Japan
• Mid 1800’s
Americans
wanted trade
with Japan
• Japan was a
closed country
Japan
• What they didn’t have was a strong navy
• Pres. Millard Fillmore sends Commodore
Matthew C. Perry and his fleet – 1553
• Japanese thought they were ready
Japan
• Perry arrives with ships
• Gives Japanese letter from
President and leaves
Were the Japanese
impressed?
Japan
• Yes they were
• 1 year later Perry returns
• Japan grants America
trading rights
• Changes Japan forever
Alaska
• 1867 – Alaska belonged to Russia
• Russia wants American influence, not
British
• 1869 – Russia sells for $7.2 million (2
cents per acre)
• Many in U.S. against sale
• Did not know of riches
U.S. Expansion
• America was isolationist (avoid
other countries)
• Europeans were imperialists
(empire building)
• Late 1800’s, U.S. wanted
territories
Turner Thesis
• Western frontier has been
conquered
• No more expansion
•Was he ever wrong!!!
Economic Growth
• U.S. has powerful
economy
• U.S. did not want
1. To be denied
raw materials
2. To be denied
global market
Economic Growth
• Key is a strong
navy
• Control the
seas – (Alfred
T. Mahan)
From this
To this
To This
Other Reasons for Expansion
•Protect overseas
trade
•Spread American
values
Samoa
• U.S. Navy and American shipping
companies needed a refueling stop in
Pacific
• Germany and Britain also wanted the
same
• Almost went to war
• 1899, Germany and U.S. divided control
Hawaii
• After 1820, American sugar
planters set up plantations
• Planters gained power and forced
king to give them power in
government
• When king died, Queen tried to
limit power
Hawaii
• With help of
U.S. Marines,
planters seized
control of
Islands (1893)
• Congress
annexed Hawaii
in 1898
China
• Late 1800’s, war
weakens China
• European
powers & Japan
try to divide up
China
China
• U.S. fears exclusion
• U.S. wants, “Open Door”
policy
WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
• The right of all nations to
trade with China
China – Boxer Rebellion
• Chinese object – form secret group
• This group – The Boxers – attacked
foreigners
• Chinese gov’t. helped
China
• U.S. and other countries send 18,000
troops
• Defeat Boxers, kill Chinese and loot
Beijing
China
• U.S. insists on Open Door
policy
• Insists China not be carved up
• China survived but with
foreign influence
Bullet points p. 699
•
Read pgs. 688 - 692
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Ch 20 Sec 2
The Spanish – American War
•I can understand the
causes and effects
of the Spanish –
American War
Cuba
• 90 miles south
of Florida
• Controlled by
Spain since
1492
• Cubans revolt
1868
Cuba
• First revolt failed
nd
• 2 revolt, 1895
• People put in
reconcentration camps
• 200,000 die
José Martí
• Cuban poet
• Inspired
Cubans from
exile in U.S.
• Got to Cuba
but killed
American Reaction
• Americans sympathetic
• Want to oust Spanish
• Protect American investments in
Cuba
50 mil. Rice, sugar, RR’s, iron
mines
• Presidents Cleveland and McKinley
said NO intervention
U.S. Press
• U.S. Newspapers urged intervention
• William R. Hearst of New York
Journal one of the worst
Remember the Maine
• 1898 – Fighting in the streets of
Havana, Cuba
• President McKinley sent U.S.
Battleship Maine to Cuba to protect
American interests
Remember the Maine
• With this big battleship
in the harbor, what
could possibly go wrong
at 9:40 PM on Feb. 15,
1898?
Remember the Maine
To Hell with Spain
• Press and public blame Spanish
• Cause of the explosion still
unknown
Spanish Naval mine
Sunk by Navy to provoke war
Fire in coal bunker
WAR!! WAR!! WAR!!
• Asst. Secretary of Navy T. Roosevelt thinks
Congress will declare war
• Sent Adm. Dewey to Spanish held Philippine
Islands
WAR!! WAR!! WAR!!
• April 20, 1898, Congress declares
war on Spain
• May 1, 1898, Dewey attacks
Spanish fleet in Philippines.
• Sinks entire squadron
• No American losses
War in Cuba
• TR (who is that?????)
• Gave up his job as Asst. Sec. of
the Navy
• Formed Cavalry group, the Rough
Riders
• Poorly trained, poorly equipped
Rough Riders
• July 1, 1898
• TR leads men up San Juan
Hill in Santiago Cuba
• Black, white, it didn’t
matter
White regiments, black
regiments . . . Fought shoulder
to shoulder, unmindful of race
or color . . . And mindful only of
their common duty as
Americans.
First Lt. John J. Pershing
An American Empire
• Dec. 1898 – Spain surrenders
• Cuba independent
• Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam
and Wake Islands to U.S.
• U.S. pays $20 million
Debate on Treaty
YES
NO
• U.S. has
important naval
bases
• Expands
business
• Spread
democracy
• Violates
Declaration
• Self gov’t denied
• Risk of future
wars
Outcome
•Senate approves
treaty, , Feb. 1899
Governing
• Filipinos try for freedom
• Former U.S. allies in Philippines
fight U.S.
• 3 year war
• 4,000 Americans dead
• 20,000 Filipinos dead
• Philippines not free until 1946
Governing Caribbean
• Puerto Rico a territory with a
U.S. governor
• People become U.S. citizens
• U.S. developed economy and
education
Governing Caribbean
• Cuba becomes U.S. protectorate
 Cuba cannot make treaties
 Cannot borrow money
U.S can intervene in Cuban
affairs
Naval base at Guantanamo
Anopheles
Stephensi
Aedes
Aegypti
WHY ARE THESE 2 BUGS
IMPORTANT?
• They almost delayed one of
the worlds most important
projects.
WHAT WAS THAT PROJECT?
PANAMA
CANAL
Bullet Points p. 699
•
Read pgs. 693 - 697
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Ch 20 Sec 3
The U.S. & Latin America
•I can understand how
the U.S. used the
Monroe Doctrine to
justify intervention in
Latin America
Monroe Doctrine
• Named after President Monroe
WHAT DID IT SAY?
1. European countries stay out of the
Americas
2. We will stay out of European
affairs
3. If you don’t, there will be trouble
1898
• The Navy had to send this boat
From Here
To Here
But to do it,
they had to go
around this
A distance of
14,000 miles
and it took 2
months
What do we need?
•A short easily
defensible route
Isthmus of Panama
•What is an isthmus?
•A narrow strip of land
joining two larger area
of land
Isthmus of Panama
Where is it?
1902
• Panama was a province of
Columbia
• TR offered to rent for $10 mil
now and ¼ mil yearly
• Columbia wanted more and
said NO
Teddy don’t like
that!!
•So, what can he
do???
•Steal it from
Columbia
Grand Theft Country
• TR knew Panamanians did not like
Columbia
• Talked Panamanian leaders into a
revolt
• Sent gunboats to stop Columbian
navy
• U.S. recognized Panamanian
sovereignty
Gun Boat Diplomacy
Grand theft Country
•U.S. signs deal with
Panama
•Still can’t start canal
until health problems
solved
Disease
• Most people thought that yellow fever
and malaria were spread by bad air
• MAL = bad
• ARIA = air
• Two doctors found that it was spread by
mosquitoes
WHAT DO WE DO?
DISEASE
• Kill the skeeters
HOW?
• Drain the swamps and clear
the areas where the insects
breed
The Big Ditch
• 3 major jobs
1. Cut through a mountain
2. Dam a river to create a
lake
3. Erect the canal’s locks
The Mountain
• 9 mile ditch through the Cordillera Mountains
• Called the Gaillard cut
THE BIG STICK
WHY
• TR claimed the U.S. to be the
leader in the Americas
• Prevent European nations
from becoming too powerful
in the Americas
Roosevelt Corollary
• When U.S. neighbors get
into trouble with Europe,
the U.S. can use an
“INTERNATIONAL POLICE
POWER” and get involved.
Example
• European nations wanted
to use military force to
collect debts owed by
Dominican Republic
Corollary In Action
• TR sent Marines to Dominican
Republic and took over finances
Dollar Diplomacy
• TR out, Taft in.
• Economic ties best way to influence
other countries
• U.S. companies invest in Latin
America
BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN
THINGS GO WRONG?
A New President
Wilson
• Support democracy
• Put to the test
• Mexicans overthrew
dictator
• Resulted in Civil War
1914
• While trying to refuel a boat, a dispute arose
between Mexican soldiers and U.S. sailors
• Sailors taken prisoner but released
• U.S. invaded Mexico at Vera Cruz
1916
• Mexican
revolutionary Pancho
Villa attacks U.S. town
of Columbus NM
• Retaliation for arms
dealer selling guns to
Villa’s enemy
• Burns town
• U.S. responds
• U.S. sends
army to track
down Villa
• U.S. General
Pershing tracks
Villa for 11
months but
cannot capture
• U.S.
withdraws

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