Improvement of finger millet productivity through genetic enhancement and promotion of end-user product utilization options for market demand By Dr. Nelson Wanyera Plant Breeder 1 Assets/Infrastructure Asset Number Remarks Office space 4 Walls cracked, roof falling off Lab 1 Being used by Dr. Olupot Vehicles 2 One project vehicle, old nissan recently imobilzed Motor cycle 1 Working, needs minor repairs Stores 1 Security needed, broken into twice Laptop 1 Working Camera 1 Project 2 Background and problem • Most of the finger millet in Uganda is produced by subsistence-oriented families. • Typically, they do not use external inputs and labor is limited for effective weed control. • Yields are constrained by frequent drought and low soil fertility, and deficiencies of N and P. • Population pressure has forced finger millet farmers to reduce fallow periods or expand cultivation to marginal lands. • Consequently, this has increased erosion, depleted nutrient stocks, provoked the build-up of weeds and other pest and denuded large areas natural vegetation. 3 Background cont. • Major finger millet stresses are blast disease, drought, stem borers and Striga spp. • To redress the declining productivity, stabilize production and, in the long term, improve profitability in finger millet production systems, a complementary package of easily adopted technologies must be developed for resource-poor farmers. • The major focus of this project is productivity enhancement through integrated genetic and natural resource management. • New multiple stress-resistant cultivars with improved yield potential will continue to be developed. 4 Research Team Scientist Responsibility Institution Wanyera Nelson Leader/Breeder NaSARRI Obuo John Peter Agronomist NaSARRI Elobu Pius Soil fertility NaSARRI Nabeta Naomi Socioeconomist NabZARDI Lubadde Geofrey Pathologist NaSARRI Akol Richard Technician NaSARRI 5 Overall Objective • To increase finger millet productivity and farmers’ income through genetic improvement, enhanced access to quality seed, better use of agronomic practices, production of value-added products, farmer empowerment in knowledge and access to inputs 6 Specific Objectives • High yield and stability of finger millet varieties, with good tillering ability, medium plant height with strong straw. • To develop early and medium maturing varieties resistant to lodging, diseases (blast), Striga weed, drought and for specific end -use • To evaluate local and introduced finger millet varieties for grain quality, malting potential and yield for local and industrial use. • To improve yields through the use of integrated agronomic management technologies. • To promote millet-based products and value addition technologies in finger millet. • To establish strong partnership with clients and other endusers Research Report • • • • • Collection and characterization of germplasm Crosses and segregating populations Variety Trials Popularization / demonstration and scaling up Develop farmer-based seed production and delivery systems • Fertilizer use and application • Value addition (millet-based flour) 8 Achievements Characterization • 700 accessions evaluated for morphological, agronomic and nutritional traits • Evaluated in multiple environments (5 each) for yield and other agronomic traits • Location-wise promising genotypes identified for on-station and on-farm testing 9 Activity: Collection and characterization of germplasm Characterization for nutritional traits Biochemical analysis Crop Average Betacarotene content Finger millet 0.85 ug/100g Foxtail millet 0.79 ug/100g Ca (mg kg- 1700-5100 2700-3100 1) (IE 4476) Pearl millet 25.00 ug/100g Protein (%) 5.4-12.7 (IE 6537, PESE 1) maize 171 ug/100g Trait Range Collection Controls Fe (mg Kg- 16.8-88.4 1) (IE 4708) 24.7-40.3 Zn (mg kg- 3.0-31.0 1) (IE 3120) 17.8-22.0 6.7-8.2 10 Activity 1.2: Evaluation for biotic and abiotic stresses • Sources of resistance to blast disease in finger millet • Greenhouse screening – 22 highly resistant, 43 resistant to leaf blast • The best selections at 5 hotspots, based on yield and blast reaction: ‘Kabale’, ‘IE 2522’, ‘Uganda coll. 1 sel 2’, ‘Atutnuru’, ‘Acc 58 FMB /01’, ‘KNE 67’, ‘P 226’, ‘P 6-4-(3)’, ‘KNE # 392’, and ‘IEL 41’. • 5 accessions (IE 2911, 2957, 4497, 6337 and 7018) resistant to blast at all 5locations • IE 4491, SEC 915 and IE 6165 resistant to striga 11 Activity 1.3: Evaluation for drought • 50% reduction in shoot biomass production under drought stress • IE 2440, 3693, 4115, 5165, 2042, 2312, 3475, 4028, 4121, 4491, 5106 7079 and Seremi 2 – most drought tolerant accessions 12 Activity 1.4: Identification of traits-specific parents • Trait specific accessions identified for different agronomic traits • Early flowering 51-55 days (range: 51-96 days): 10 accn. • More fingers: 9-9.4 (range: 6.1 to 9.4): 3 accn. • More basal tillers: 6-8.1 (range 3.33 to 8.1): 8 accn. • Long earheads, 150-166 mm (range: 51 to 166 mm): 2 accn. • High grain yield, 2.5-2.711 t ha-1 (range 0.46 to 2.71 t ha1): 5 accn. • High in all grain nutrients: 8 accn. – IE 588, 2921, 4443, 4476, 4817, 4708, 4709, and 6546 13 Activity : Agronomic evaluation/Identifying parents • High nutrient accessions – IE 4708 (highest Fe – 88.4 mg kg-1) – IE 4476 (highest Ca – 5100 mg kg-1) – IE 4709 (good for all nutrients with multiple disease resistance) – All three are wild types, very low yield (<0.601 t ha-1) • IE 6546 – high nutrient values, resistantance to diseses fairly high yields • IE 6537 – high protein and Ca, moderate disease resistnce, low yield • IE 2957 – high yield, under drought stress 14 Crosses and segregating populations • 20 new crosses involving 10 elite lines were made and used bulk method to advance generations • 150 F4 progenies studied for disease epiphytoties • Backcross populations is on-going to incorporate specific resistance to blast 15 Variety Trials • Elite and advanced lines conducted at Serere, Kumi, Kuju and Aduku field stations. • Harvesting is in progress but trial performance was good at all locations • 15 Multilocation trial sites were Serere, Kumi, Kujju, Aduku, Ngora and Kaberamaido • More on-farm trials comprising 10 finger millet genotypes selected from previous multilocation yield trials were conducted in the districts of Kaberamaido, Lira, Apac and Gulu. • 10 candidate varieties have been described. 16 Popularization/demonstrations and scaling up • Multiplication of foundation seed and breeders’ seed on-station and on-farm • Multiplication of seed was done on-station- varieties PESE 1, SEREMI 2, SX 6, SEC 915 and SEREMI 3 (3000 Kg of each var) • for multiplication under the farmer – to – farmer seed loan scheme • The loan scheme was aimed at creating awareness • We work in collaboration with an NGO (CLEAR UGANDA) based in Mbale district concerned about food security and land rights for women 17 Popularization cont. • Demonstrations – set up in Kumi, Kaberamaido, Lira, Apac, Gulu and Soroti districts during April 2012 for varieties and fertilizer use – Released and pre-release varieties were included in the demonstration fields – Five field days were held at the demonstration sites at least in Lira, Gulu and Mbale. – farmers prefer early maturing varieties with big heads with strong straw 18 Sustainable Seed systems development • Access to good quality seed is an issue for smallholder farmers • Supply or sell Small seed packets of improved varieties to interested farmers • Farmer-based seed loan schemes • Links with private seed companies – Pearl Seeds Ltd, Victoria Seeds and NASECO 19 Value addition (millet-based flour) • Studies on processing and value addition (malting, Weaning foods, milk-based beverages and infant foods) are in progress in collaboration with MUK. • Malting qualities of all released varieties and prerelease varieties being done in collaboration with MUK, Brewing industry. • Creating public awareness - FM radio (4 radio talks were made on Open Gate Radio Mbale), participated in Food and Agriculture show in Abi, National Agriculture show in Jinja, food fair in Kampala and print material 20 Processing 21 Team report • Public Private Partnership is working well especially in product development. 22 Partners/Collaborators • Universities – Warwick, UK; University of Georgia, USA; Makerere University, Kampala • Government extension services (NAADS) • Private sector companies – e.g. Family Diet, Maganjo grain Millers for product development • Religious organizations – promotion and mobilization • Farmer groups and associations-primary clients • NGOs – CLEAR Uganda, SAVE the CHILD, AT-UG, • IARCs – ICRISAT for backstopping (germplasm) 23 Planned Annual outputs 2012/2013 Outputs Activities Budget High yielding, stable varieties developed Characterization, evaluation, breeding, selection, Trials, etc 78,000,000 Sustainable integrated crop Row planting, fertilizer use, 64,000,000 and soil management legume integration, etc options generated Value addition and competiveness of FM enhanced Product development, Recipes, Malt, food and non-food products 51,000,000 Farmer based seed production and delivery developed Training, seed packets, seed loans, linkages with seed companies 52,000,000 Dissemination to uptake pathways and end users Training, foundation seed, Linkages with NAADS/ZARDIs 59,000,000 Total 304,000,000 24 Challenges • Climatic changes – the weather is very unpredictable • Resistant varieties lodging heavily 25 Publications summary • Manuscripts are under review 26 Acknowledgements • • • • • • • • Government of Uganda NARO The McKnight Foundation CCRP Bill and Melinga Gates Foundation (BMGF) ICRISAT Farmers, Farmer groups and associations CLEAR Uganda – Mbale SAVE the CHILD Thank you for listening!