Unit 10 - Our Lady of Lourdes High School

Unit 10
A person’s characteristic pattern of
thinking, feeling and acting
2 major theories to why we develop our
• Freud's psychoanalytic approach
• Humanistic approach
One of the most influential and most
known psychologists
Inquisitive as a youth, searched for
answers to ailments with unknown
causes as a doctor
Psychoanalytic approach
Free association
• Patients relaxing and just saying whatever
comes into their minds, no matter how trivial
or embarrassing
Mental dominoes
• The mind is mostly hidden
• Our conscious awareness is only what we can see
• There is a vast amount that we cannot see
• Like an iceberg
Psychoanalytic approach
• Area where we can store temporarily
• What we do with our thoughts and desires
that we cannot act out
They are forcibly blocked
We may not be consciously aware of them all
the time
Psychoanalytic approach
Free associations would let some of
these repressed emotions out and may
answer some of the issues
• Freudian slips
Dreams are also important
• Manifest content – what we can remember, is
a censored expression of what we really want
(the latent content)
Personality structure
Personality comes from conflicts
between restraint and impulse
• Controlling our aggressive, pleasure seeking
biological urges
• How can we get pleasure from these urges
without feeling guilt or being punished?
Three interacting systems
Id – unconscious psychic energy that is
constantly pushing us to fulfill basic
• Reproduction, survival, and aggression
• Operates on the pleasure principle
• Immediate gratification
• Newborns
• Drug abusers
Three interacting systems
Ego – executive part of the mind
• Acts as a mediator
• Operates on the reality principle
• How can I get what I want in a realistic way
• Contains our partly conscious perceptions,
thoughts, judgments, and memories
Three interacting systems
Superego –emerges around 4 or 5
• The moral compass
• Consider not only the real, but the ideal
• How should we behave?
• Strives for perfection
• In direct contrast with the id
• Ego handles the battle
Personality development
Psychosexual stages
• The id will focus on different areas as children
• Pleasure will be derived from different
erogenous zones
Psychosexual Stages
Oral – 0 to 18 mos
• Mouth
• Biting, sucking, chewing
Anal - 18-36 mos
Phallic – 3-6 yrs
• Toilet training
• Oedipus complex
• Electra complex
Psychosexual Stages
Latency – 6 to puberty
Genital – puberty onward
• Dormant sexual feelings
• Maturation of sexual interests
• Threatening feelings get repressed and
behavior is learned through an identification
Children gain many of their parents values in
their superegos
Unresolved conflicts can lead to fixation
• Being stuck in one pleasure seeking stage
Freud’s defense mechanisms
Tactics used to reduce or redirect anxiety by
distorting reality
1. Repression – banishing anxiety causing things to
the unconscious
• Underlies all others
• Sometimes slips
2. Regression – retreating to a more child like state
3. Reaction formation – taking unacceptable
impulses and making them the opposite
• Homesickness in college?
• Thinking “I hate Dad” but saying “I love Dad”
Freud’s defense mechanisms
4. Projection – disguising impulses by
assigning them to someone else
“The thief thinks everyone else is a thief”
5. Rationalization – generating explanations
to hide the real cause
• Drinking to be sociable
6. Displacement – diverting attention to an
object that is more acceptable
• Taking frustration out on someone other than who
you are angry at
Freud’s defense mechanisms
7. Sublimation – taking something
unacceptable and using it as motivation
to create something that is
• da Vinci – Mona Lisa and his mother
8. Denial – protecting someone from a
painful event
• Denying child’s misconduct
Neo Freudians
Id Ego and Superego
Defense mechanisms
• All accepted but…
• More importance placed on conscious mind
• Sex and aggression aren’t all consuming
Adler and Horney
Childhood is important
• But social, not sexual, tensions are more
important to identity formation
• Adler’s Inferiority complex
• Horney – women aren’t as weak as Freud
thought, jealous of power in society
Carl Jung – collective unconscious
(evolutionary psy?)
Testing Personality
Projective tests
• Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
• Making up stories about ambiguous pictures
• Rorschach inkblot test
• Describe what you see
Evaluating Psychoanalytic
Research today contradicts much of
what Freud said
Overestimates parents involvement and
underestimates peer influence
• Infant amnesia
• We do try to neglect painful memories but it
has yet to be proven
• People relive their worst memories
The modern unconscious mind
Time to abandon Freud’s unconscious mind?
Unconscious also involves
Schemas that automatically control interpretations
Split brain functionality (severed corpus callosum)
Parallel processing – vision and thinking
Instant emotion
Not so spontaneous
False Consensus how much we think others agree with us
Terror management theory – awareness of our own
We behave differently when faced with death
Major problems with Freud
After the fact explanations
Cant predict how others will be affected
Never really meant to do those things
Looking back cant predict things, it can help explain
Important studies done on unconscious, sexuality,
defense mechanisms
Humanistic POV
Rather than looking at individuals as
“sick”, how do healthy people strive for
self realization?
• Using people’s self reported feelings and
• Self Actualization – 2nd from the top
• Need to realize our fullest potential
• Self Transcendence – the top
• Looking for meaning beyond yourself
Studied healthy, creative people
• Lincoln, Jefferson, E Roosevelt
Carl Rogers
Person Centered Perspective
• People are generally good
• “We are all acorns”
• We can all grow and reach fulfillment as long
as we are raised with three things
• Genuineness – being open with our feelings
• Acceptance – having unconditional positive regard
(completely accepting another person)
• Empathy – sharing our feelings and mirroring them
Self Concept
All the thoughts and feelings we have in
response to the question “Who am I?”
• If it’s a positive answer – view the world more
• If its negative – we fall short of where we feel
we should be in our lives
Assessing the self
Questionnaires –
Rogers – describe how you actually are and how you
would like to be
• The closer these two were, the more positive outlook
there was
Can you get the answers you want from a
standardized test?
Many feel conversation is a better method than filling
in bubbles
Evaluating Humanistic
Maslow and Rogers have had a huge
impact on education, childrearing and
parenting, management
Influenced much of popular psychology
• Is a positive self concept important to
happiness and success?
Are people basically good and capable of self
Concepts are too vague and subjective
Too naïve?
• Is there a human capacity for evil?
• Terrorism
• Nuclear War
• Every thing will work out
• Its hopeless, why bother to try
Trait Perspective
There are also stable patterns of
behavior that can be used to define
Fundamental traits
• Less concerned with explaining traits, but
rather describing them
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
• Thinking type vs feeling type
Exploring traits
We are each a complex group of multiple
Factor analysis
• Statistics used to determine traits – answering
questions that are related, but worded
Eysenck – extra/introverted
emotionally stable/unstable
Exploring traits
• Brain activity may shape personality
• Extraverts tend to need more brain stimulation
• Genes
• Breeding animals can make them more
intra/extraverted or more passive or aggressive
• Silver Foxes
Testing Traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Test
• Originally developed to search for disorders,
can be used to get an idea of a personality
• Scored objectively, not subjectively
• Problems?
The Big 5
• Careful or careless
• Helpful or uncooperative
• Calm or anxious
• Imaginative or practical
• Affectionate or reserved
The Big 5
Generally accepted by psychologists
Stay stable through life
Almost half the time are inheritable
Can be used to predict other traits
• Conscientious do better in school
• Extraverted tend to be more night owls
Evaluating Trait Perspective
Its more than just traits
• Different environments can bring out different
• Traits do stabilize over time, but behaviors
can change
• People don’t act with predictable constancy all the
• But you can predict what they will do on average
Judging Personality
Person Situation controversy
Traits and behaviors don’t have to be the same
Look at the average across time
Music Preferences
Asking about what type of music someone likes says a lot about their
Facebook pages
How can you present yourself here?
Bedrooms and offices
Cleanliness or messy can also say quite a bit
A person’s writing voice – how they present info when writing
Social Cognitive Perspective
Albert Bandura
• Behavior is influenced by the interaction
between peoples traits and their social
• We learn by observing others and modeling our
behavior after theirs
• Reciprocal determinism
• Influences are mutual
• Behavior, cognition, and environment all interact
Reciprocal determinism
Different people choose different environments
The environment you choose to be in shapes your
Personality shapes how we interact and react
Anxious people react to things differently and see the
world differently
Personalities help create situations to which
we react
How we view and treat people influences how they
treat us
Personal Control
How much can you control your
• External Locus of Control
• Outside forces determine our fate
• Learned helplessness
• Internal Locus of Control
• We control our own destiny
• Generally achieve more in school
• Better at dealing with stress
Optimism vs Pessimism
Too Optimistic?
• Enjoy better health
• Better relationships
• Fear of failure is a good thing (pessimism to a
Can blind us to real risk
Social Cognitive Evaluation
Focuses too much on the here and now
• Doesn’t take into account enough information
about individuals
Our biological traits matter more than
may be realized
Exploring the Self
Self – the center of personality
Possible selves
• Organizer of thoughts, feelings and actions
• Thinking about all the people we could be
• Can motivate us to do great things
Self Esteem
Feelings of self worth
Spotlight effect
• Overestimating others thoughts about what
they are thinking about you
Thinking that every one is looking at you
Benefits of self esteem
People who feel good about themselves live
happier lives
Can be used to predict employment and salary later
on in life
Feeling well follows doing well?
Side effect?
Negative self feelings cause more judgmental
feelings of others
Self serving bias
Readiness to perceive ourselves as
• People accept responsibility for good deeds
more than bad, and success instead of failure
Most people see themselves as better than
All of us have inferiority complexes?
• Quick to defend our actions as right
Problems with self serving bias
What about those who feel worthless?
Self directed put downs are subtly
• No one likes me – you haven’t met everyone
(can be reassuring)
Prepare us for possible failure
Looks at who they were not who they are
• At 18 I was a jerk, I am much more sensitive today
Culture and the Self
Individualism – priority given to your own
goals over the group
• Sense of “me”
• Move in and out of groups easily
• More loneliness/divorce/stress
Collectivism – group over self
• Deeper more stable attachments
• Avoiding direct confrontation

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