Social Reform - Churchville-Chili Central School District

Social Reform
Solutions to the
Of the
Industrial Revolution
1859 Charles Darwin
produced the theory that
humans evolved over
millions of years.
Natural selection.
Members of each species
compete to survive.
The most able survive and
improve the species.
Class Question
If someone believes in the theory of Survival of
the Fittest and applies it to humans who do you
think that person will see as the weak humans
during the Industrial Revolution and what do
you think they will do about it?
Social Darwinism
Herbert Spencer
Took Darwin's theories
and applied them to
human society.
Spencer, not Darwin,
was the first person to
coin the phrase "survival
of the fittest."
Social Darwinism
He believed that government intervention such
as welfare for the poor, public education, and
government healthcare, helped weak humans
Spencer believed that the poor should be
allowed to die off thus making society stronger.
Social Reformist
Jeremy Bentham
– People should be judged
on the basis of their
– Government should
promote the greatest
good for the greatest
number of people.
John Stuart Mill
– Believed government
should improve the lives
of the poor.
– Government should
create policies that make
the division of profits
Concentrate less on the lives of the individual and more
on the needs of society.
Government controls the distribution of goods.
Businesses and farms belong to all the people, not
Factors of production are owned by the people.
Socialism was the belief in human nature, progress, and
a concern for social justice.
Utopian Socialism
Self sufficient communities
where the work is shared.
All people would have equal
All fighting in the world
would end.
Robert Owen set up a
Utopian factory community.
Marxist Socialism
Karl Marx
– German Philosopher
– Promoted a radical theory
of “scientific socialism”
– Worked with German
Economist Friedrich
– Wrote the Communist
Manifesto in 1848.
What is Communism under Marx
Marx believed;
– In two social classes
– The Bourgeoisie or the owners of the factories and the raw
materials which are processed in them.
– The Proletariat, or the workers who are forced to sell their
labor to the Bourgeoisie.
What is Communism under Marx
Marx believed that the Industrial Revolution had caused
the rich to become richer and the workers to become
more impoverished.
Marx said that the only way society could become equal
if is the workers rose up and overthrew the owners.
– “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They
have the world to win. Workingmen of all counties, unite.”
The Communist Manifesto
History was a class struggle between wealthy capitalist (bourgeoisie) and
working class (proletariat)
In order to make profits the capitalist took advantage of the working
class (Lower wages).
The proletariat would
– Rise up and overthrow the capitalist system
– Create their own government.
– Take control of the means of production.
– Establish a classless, communist, society.
– Wealth would be shared.
The Communist Manifesto produced only a few
uprisings in 1848 which were quickly put down.
However Marxist thought will inspire
revolutionaries like
Lenin-Russia (1917)
Mao Zedong-China (1930’s)
Ho Chi Minh-Vietnam (1950’s)
Fidel Castro-Cuba (1950’s)
In the later part of the 19th century people
began to see the social consequences of the
Industrial Revolution
Long hours little pay
Child labor
Slums in cities
It was clear that social reforms were needed!
Advances in Education
– Public schools are set up.
Michael Sadler (The Sadler Report)
– Lead to the Factories Regulation Act of 1833.
Prohibitive children under 9 from being employed.
Limited the number of hours worked for children under
Factory Act of 1833
In 1833 the Government passed a Factory Act to improve
conditions for children working in factories.
No child workers under 9 years of age
Employers must have a medical or age certificate for child workers
Children between the ages of 9-13 to work no more than 9 hours a day
Children between 13-18 to work no more than 12 hours a day
Children are not to work at night
Two hours schooling each day for children
Four factory inspectors appointed to enforce the law throughout the
whole of the country.
– Make conditions safer in the factories
However, the passing of this Act did not mean that overnight
the mistreatment of children stopped.
National Child Labor Committee
By 1904 reformers ended child labor.
Labor Unions
During the Industrial Revolution workers had
rioted or went on strike usually when
– food prices were too high
– High unemployment
Most of these riots often lead to no change in
the working conditions
Labor Unions
By the 1830’s-1840’s however workers
understood that if they stood together during
strikes they might change their plight in the
factory system
Labor Unions
Unions were developed to support workers
– Unions assisted in
Gaining better working conditions
More pay
Shorter work days
Shorter work weeks
Safety in the workplace
Health Insurance
In Britain the labor unions often times formed political
parties. The most famous was the Labour Party which
is still a force in politics in Britain today.
Labor Unions
Towards the end of the Industrial Revolution
factory owners realized that
– Healthy
– Happy
– Well paid work force
– More productivity
– Loyal workers
Factory work offered higher wages for women.
Women however only made 1/3 of what a man
Women became reformist
– Serviced the poor
– Fought against slavery
– Fought for the rights of women
Global Impact of Industrialization
– From 1845 to 1900’s Polish, Italian, Russians, Jews
move to the United States.
Starvation in Ireland
– Potato famine causes many to starve and die in
Ireland. Many Irish move to United States and
Economic Systems
Based on agriculture
Limited barter trade
Neolithic Civilizations
Early River Valley Civilizations
Economic Systems
– Based upon Supply and Demand
– Usually focus on consumer goods
– Little government control.
– Free Market
– Adam Smith
– Capitalism
Economic Systems
– Controlled by strong, centralized government
– Usually focuses on industrial goods
– Little attention paid to agriculture and consumer
– Marxism/Communism
– Soviet Union/China
Economic Systems
– Combination of Market and Command economic
– Market forces control of most consumer goods
– Government directs industry in need areas.
– The United States today
Economic Vocabulary
Factors of Production
– which are the resources necessary to produce goods
and services. These factors include human
resources, natural resources, and capital or money
– Labor
– Materials
– Money
Economic Vocabulary
Human Needs and Wants.
– Attention must be paid to the resources humans
need to survive, and to those goods and services that
serve to enhance living.
– Housing
– Food
– Clothing
Economic Vocabulary
– Scarcity is the conflict between limited resources
and unlimited need. When scarcity of any resource
occurs, new factors of production must be explored
for humans to continue to survive.
– Lack of oil for gasoline production means new
methods of energy for vehicles must be found,

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