Social Reform Solutions to the Problems Of the Industrial Revolution Darwin 1859 Charles Darwin produced the theory that humans evolved over millions of years. Natural selection. Members of each species compete to survive. The most able survive and improve the species. Class Question If someone believes in the theory of Survival of the Fittest and applies it to humans who do you think that person will see as the weak humans during the Industrial Revolution and what do you think they will do about it? Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer Took Darwin's theories and applied them to human society. Spencer, not Darwin, was the first person to coin the phrase "survival of the fittest." Social Darwinism He believed that government intervention such as welfare for the poor, public education, and government healthcare, helped weak humans survive. Spencer believed that the poor should be allowed to die off thus making society stronger. Social Reformist Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham – People should be judged on the basis of their usefulness. – Government should promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. John Stuart Mill – Believed government should improve the lives of the poor. – Government should create policies that make the division of profits equal. Socialism Concentrate less on the lives of the individual and more on the needs of society. Government controls the distribution of goods. Businesses and farms belong to all the people, not individuals. Factors of production are owned by the people. Socialism was the belief in human nature, progress, and a concern for social justice. Utopian Socialism Self sufficient communities where the work is shared. All people would have equal wealth. All fighting in the world would end. Robert Owen set up a Utopian factory community. Marxist Socialism Karl Marx – German Philosopher – Promoted a radical theory of “scientific socialism” – Worked with German Economist Friedrich Engles. – Wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848. What is Communism under Marx Marx believed; – In two social classes – The Bourgeoisie or the owners of the factories and the raw materials which are processed in them. – The Proletariat, or the workers who are forced to sell their labor to the Bourgeoisie. What is Communism under Marx Marx believed that the Industrial Revolution had caused the rich to become richer and the workers to become more impoverished. Marx said that the only way society could become equal if is the workers rose up and overthrew the owners. – “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have the world to win. Workingmen of all counties, unite.” The Communist Manifesto History was a class struggle between wealthy capitalist (bourgeoisie) and working class (proletariat) In order to make profits the capitalist took advantage of the working class (Lower wages). The proletariat would – Rise up and overthrow the capitalist system – Create their own government. – Take control of the means of production. – Establish a classless, communist, society. – Wealth would be shared. Marxism/Communism The Communist Manifesto produced only a few uprisings in 1848 which were quickly put down. However Marxist thought will inspire revolutionaries like – – – – Lenin-Russia (1917) Mao Zedong-China (1930’s) Ho Chi Minh-Vietnam (1950’s) Fidel Castro-Cuba (1950’s) Reforms In the later part of the 19th century people began to see the social consequences of the Industrial Revolution – – – – Poor Long hours little pay Child labor Slums in cities It was clear that social reforms were needed! Reforms Advances in Education – Public schools are set up. Michael Sadler (The Sadler Report) – Lead to the Factories Regulation Act of 1833. Prohibitive children under 9 from being employed. Limited the number of hours worked for children under 18. Factory Act of 1833 In 1833 the Government passed a Factory Act to improve conditions for children working in factories. – – – – – – – No child workers under 9 years of age Employers must have a medical or age certificate for child workers Children between the ages of 9-13 to work no more than 9 hours a day Children between 13-18 to work no more than 12 hours a day Children are not to work at night Two hours schooling each day for children Four factory inspectors appointed to enforce the law throughout the whole of the country. – Make conditions safer in the factories However, the passing of this Act did not mean that overnight the mistreatment of children stopped. National Child Labor Committee By 1904 reformers ended child labor. Labor Unions During the Industrial Revolution workers had rioted or went on strike usually when – food prices were too high – High unemployment Most of these riots often lead to no change in the working conditions Labor Unions By the 1830’s-1840’s however workers understood that if they stood together during strikes they might change their plight in the factory system Labor Unions Unions were developed to support workers – Unions assisted in Gaining better working conditions More pay Shorter work days Shorter work weeks Safety in the workplace Pensions Health Insurance In Britain the labor unions often times formed political parties. The most famous was the Labour Party which is still a force in politics in Britain today. Labor Unions Towards the end of the Industrial Revolution factory owners realized that – Healthy – Happy – Well paid work force Meant – More productivity – Loyal workers Women Factory work offered higher wages for women. Women however only made 1/3 of what a man makes. Women became reformist – Serviced the poor – Fought against slavery – Fought for the rights of women Global Impact of Industrialization Migration – From 1845 to 1900’s Polish, Italian, Russians, Jews move to the United States. Starvation in Ireland – Potato famine causes many to starve and die in Ireland. Many Irish move to United States and Canada. Economic Systems Traditional – – – – Based on agriculture Limited barter trade Neolithic Civilizations Early River Valley Civilizations Economic Systems Market – Based upon Supply and Demand – Usually focus on consumer goods – Little government control. – Free Market – Adam Smith – Capitalism Economic Systems Command – Controlled by strong, centralized government – Usually focuses on industrial goods – Little attention paid to agriculture and consumer goods – Marxism/Communism – Soviet Union/China Economic Systems Mixed – Combination of Market and Command economic systems – Market forces control of most consumer goods – Government directs industry in need areas. – The United States today Economic Vocabulary Factors of Production – which are the resources necessary to produce goods and services. These factors include human resources, natural resources, and capital or money resources. – Labor – Materials – Money Economic Vocabulary Human Needs and Wants. – Attention must be paid to the resources humans need to survive, and to those goods and services that serve to enhance living. – Housing – Food – Clothing Economic Vocabulary Scarcity – Scarcity is the conflict between limited resources and unlimited need. When scarcity of any resource occurs, new factors of production must be explored for humans to continue to survive. – Lack of oil for gasoline production means new methods of energy for vehicles must be found, electric.