Advanced Telecom Research Center

High Resolution and Advanced
Lecture 3
Prof. Dr. Scott Madry
Research Associate Professor,
University of North Carolina, USA
High Resolution and
Advanced Systems
High Resolution History
1994 Clinton decision to license 1m data
 Commerce Dept. granted 9 companies licenses
for 11 satellite systems
 Origins-US Corona in 1960’s-film-30cm (1
 1972-US Landsat 1-80 m
 1982-US Landsat 4-30 m
 1986 FR SPOT 1 20 and 10 m
 1987 RU Russian film data 5 m (limited geog.
and dates)
High Resolution History
1992 RU Russian film data 2m
 1993-US Bush admin. eases barriers to allow 3
 1994-US Clinton admin. eases barriers to allow
.8 m with “shutter control” in war and to certain
 1996-India launches 5 m satellite
 2000-Commerce Dept. licenses three .5 meter
U.S. Private Remote Sensing
U.S. policy supports a competitive U.S. commercial
remote sensing industry for several reasons
 U.S. companies are authorized to develop and launch
commercial remote sensing satellites under:
– Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992
– PDD 23: US Policy on Foreign Access to Remote Sensing
Space Capabilities (President Clinton, 1994)
– U.S. Commercial Remote Sensing Policy (President Bush,
2003) Replaces PDD23 but similar
Military and civil agencies to rely on U.S. commercial
systems for imaging needs
Shutter Control
Shutter Control: 1992 Land Remote Sensing Act gives
the U.S. Department of Commerce the legal authority
to limit the collection and distribution of commercial
satellite imagery, i.e. “shutter control”, “when national
security, international obligations, or foreign policy
interests may be compromised”.
 The government may place operational conditions or
limitations on SAR or hyperspectral systems seeking
 The US government also limits remote sensing of
US License
The Licensee is obligated to “operate the system in a manner
that preserves the national security and observes the
international obligations and foreign policies of the United
Maintain and make available to the US government a record of
all satellite tasking operations for the previous year
Data collection and/or distribution may be limited by the US
government during periods when “national security or
international obligations and/or foreign policies may be
compromised.”. This restriction is commonly known as “shutter
The government of any country has the right to unenhanced
data and images of territory under their jurisdiction.
US License
The US government has the right to unenhanced data
for archival purposes. These data would be available to
public after a reasonable period of time
 Data to be purged by a licensee must be offered to the
US government for archival purposes and would be
immediately available to the public
 The US government must be notified of any
substantial agreements that the licensee intends to
enter with any foreign nation, entity or consortium.
The foreign party must comply with license
U.S. Commercial Hi Res Remote
Sensing Satellites
Space Imaging Eosat
Lockheed Martin Space Systems,
Raytheon Systems Company,
Mitsubishi and Hyundai.
 Purchased Eosat (Landsat /Indian
data distributor)
 First launch from Vandenburg in
Sept. 1999
 Offering
.5m digital airborne Imaging system
1 and 4m IKONOS
5m Indian IRS
15m Landsat 7
Space Imaging
Ikonos Images
(EarthWatch) Earlybird
Pixel size 3 m (at nadir)
 Image size 3 km x 3 km per
 30 degree inline and 28 crosstrack
 Starting array sensor-stereo capable
 Sensor characteristics: Panchromatic
sensor Multispectral sensor
 Exposure 15 km x 15 km per
 15 m (at nadir) 470 km orbit
 First launch failed in 1999
 Decision not to re-launch and develop
1 meter system
Ball Aerospace and Hitachi
Digitalglobe, Quickbird-2001
Launch date October, 2001
 Earlier launch in 2000 failed
 Sensor characteristics
Panchromatic sensor
Multispectral sensor
 Image size 17 or 32 km
 11 bit data (up to 2048
levels of gray scale)
 Pixel size 0.61 m (at nadir)
2.5 m (at nadir)
NGA NextView Contract
September 2003, NGA awarded the
first NextView agreement to
DigitalGlobe, Inc.
 US$ 500 Million over 4 years
 The NextView agreement assures
access, priority tasking rights, volume
(area coverage), and broad licensing
terms for sharing imagery with all U.S.
Government potential mission partners.
 Funds for development of new .5 meter
PAN, 2 m color ‘Worldview’ Satellite
Orbital Sciences Corp. Orbimage
Orbview 1 (10 km weather)
– 1995
Orbview 2 (1 km global veg)
– 1997
Orbview 3 (1 and 4 m by 8 km)
– June 26 ‘03 launch (Pegasus)
Orbview 4 (hyperspectral 200
channels plus 1 and 4 meter)
 Taurus launch failure 09/21’01
Orbview 3 One Meter Pan
Orbview 3 Four Meter
NGA NextView Contract
OrbImage awarded a 4 year, US$500
million contract by the National
Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA,
formerly the National Imagery and
Mapping Agency, NIMA), valued at
approximately $500 million.
 The contract will provide ORBIMAGE
with both long-term revenue
commitments as well as capital for the
development of OrbView-5,
ORBIMAGE’s next-generation highresolution Imaging Satellite.
 Space Imaging lost the competition
ImageSat International N.V
ImageSat Int. N.V. – Netherlands
Antilles company with offices in
Lamassol, Cyprus and Tel Aviv, Israel.
 Commercial ‘Ofeq’ Israeli spy
 EROS A1 8 sats w/ 1.8 m resolution 14
km alt. 270 Kg- Dec 2000 launch
 EROS B1-B6 have .82 meters
resolution in 2006
Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd.
Founded 1985 by Surrey University,
Earth Observation Microsatellites
range from 35-70 kg.
50m 3-spectrum band remote sensing
and NIR meteorological imagery
30m 4-spectrum band remote sensing
15m panchromatic remote sensing
100m resolution 4-spectrum band, 800
km swath waves, providing images/2
“Surrey Knowhow Transfer”
 18
month program
 Your team helps build
your satellite
 Algeria, Nigeria, China,
Turkey, Thailand, ROC,
Argentina, South Africa
 SPIN-2
2 meter Russian
film data
 TerraServer-Microsoft
massive RS database
online (3.7 Tb of data or
2,000 books of 500 pp.)
 Sell digital data direct
from the website
Google Earth
Real-time imagery viewer
Fly from space to your neighborhood
Type in an address and zoom right in.
Search for schools, parks, restaurants,
and hotels.
Get driving directions.
Tilt and rotate the view to see 3D
terrain and buildings (some areas).
Save and share your searches and
Even add your own annotations.
The Future of the Future
MEMS-Microelectromechanical systems and
nano technology will begin to impact remote
“Smart Dust” – Sensors so small they float in
the air (Kris Pister-U.Cal Berkeley) selfpowered smart sensors with a 5 sq mm
computer (asprin tablet), costing 10 cents
now (down to dust size for a penny)
Intelligent multitasking, sensors that
communicate and make “group decisions”
with on-board processing and linked with insitu systems to trigger when, where and what
to acquire, process, and distribute
In Conclusion
 Ultra
high resolution systems are
opening new areas of space remote
sensing applications
 “Dual Use” issues are important
 New technologies like hyperspectral
systems will become the norm and
improve data extraction and analysis
 Micro technologies are on the horizon
Major questions
How many of these do we need? What are the
Archiving/storage/protection/retrieval of data
Open skies vs. national interests and national
“Global good” vs. national interests/private profit
Is more really better? Global .1 meter/256
channels/12 bit daily data? How can we handle this?
Who will use it?
It’s just a tool, the use of the tool is in human hands,
we will decide how they are used.
Q1. Define the RED colored terms
highlighted in this presentation

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