Industrial Statistics in India: an overview

Report
Industrial Statistics in India:
An Overview
Dr. Bivas Chaudhuri, Director, CSO, India
Sourav Chakrabarty, Director, NSSO, India
Overview

Organized Manufacturing Sector

Unorganized Manufacturing Sector

Economic Census

Business Register

Annual Survey of Services Sector
Annual Survey of Industries (ASI)
 Survey of Registered Manufacturing Units Continuing Since 1960

Coverage:

Sections 2(m)(i) and 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948.
Bidi and Cigar manufacturing establishments registered under the Bidi and Cigar
Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act 1966.
OTHER THAN Government Units
Data are collected under The Collection of Statistics Act, 1953/2008
Around 2,60,000 units in the Frame
ASI
"Manufacturing Process“ has been defined [vide section 2(k)]
in the Factories Act, 1948 as:
"Any process for(i) making, altering, ornamenting, finishing, packing, oiling, washing,
cleaning, breaking up, demolishing or otherwise treating or
adapting any article or substance with a view to its use , sale ,
transport , delivery or disposal; or,
(ii) pumping oil, water or sewage ; or,
(iii) generating, transforming or transmitting power; or,
(iv) composing types for printing by letter press, lithography,
photogravure or other similar process or book binding; or,
(v) constructing, reconstructing, repairing, refitting, finishing or
breaking up ships or vessels.
(vi) preserving or storing any article in cold storage"
Cont…


Geographical Coverage: The ASI extends to the entire
country.
Reference Period: The reference period (year) for ASI is
the financial year (April-March) for all items.
◦ Reference period for ASI 2011-2012 is the financial year April 2011
– March 2012.
Survey Period: The actual survey period for ASI is
generally September to April every year.
 Industrial Classification: NIC 2008 developed on the
basis of UN ISIC Rev. 4 is being adopted from ASI 2008-09
onwards.
 Product Classification: NPCMS, 2011 developed based
on Sections 0 to 4 of CPC, Ver. 2.0 has been used from
ASI 2010-2011 onwards.

ASI
•
At present, the Standing Committee on Industrial Statistics (SCIS)
is the advisory committee for conducting the Annual Survey of
Industries, headed by a renowned academics .
•
Follows major guidelines of IRIS, 2008
•
Follows ISIC and CPC in classification
IRIS-2008 and its Implementation
IRIS-2008
Sr
Action Taken
.
no
1
ISIC Rev 4 (R. 4c)
NIC 2008
2
CPC Ver. 2 (R. 4c)
NPCMS 2011
3
Scope of Industrial Statistics
(R. 5)
As per ISIC, Rev. 4
Sect. B: Mining & quarrying
Sect. C: Manufacturing
Sect. D: Elect., gas etc.
Sect. E: Water supply etc.
4
Short-term business statistics
in the form of indices (R.10)
IIP with base 2004-05
[base year under revision]
5
Unregistered units (R. 11)
NSS enterprise survey
Sampling Design in ASI

List Frame: Chief Inspector of Factories

Sampling Design : Stratified Circular Systematic

Strata : Census and Sample
Census Sector:
a) All industrial units belonging to the six less industrially
developed states/ UT’s.,
b) Units having 100 or more workers, and
c) After excluding the Census Sector units as defined above,
d) All units belonging to the strata (State by 4-digit of NIC-2008)
having less than or equal to 4 units are also considered as
Census Sector units.
Cont…

Sample Sector: Remaining units are arranged in order
of their number of workers and samples are then drawn
circular systematically considering sampling fraction of
18% within each stratum (State X Sector X 4-digit NIC) for
all the states with a view to cover max. 60,000 units per
year.

Residual Frame: After selecting the central sample in
the way mentioned above, the remaining units in the
sample sector are treated as residual frame for selection
of sample units for the States/UTs.
Cont…
ASI 2011-12
• Central
Sample:
61,866
• Stratum:
State X
NIC 4-d
Census
(27,058)
Sample
(34,808)
State
Sample
(37,521)
• Stratum :
District X
NIC 3-d
• Residual
Frame:
1,56,572
,
Estimation of Sampling Error in ASI


For the sample sector units only.
For all-India, the estimated variances of the
estimates will be as follows:
ˆr (Yˆ )  Va
ˆr (Yˆ )
Va
i
i

For ratio : at all-India,
where
MSˆE ( Rˆ ) 
Xˆ , Yˆ

1
ˆ (Yˆ )  2 Rˆ Covˆ( Xˆ , Yˆ )  Rˆ 2Vˆ ( Xˆ )
V
( Xˆ ) 2

= estimate of population total X, Y for the characteristics x, y
ˆ
Y
ˆ 
R
ˆ
X
Estimates of RSE
 
RSˆE Yˆ
 
ˆ 
RSˆE R
 
ˆ r Yˆ
Va
Yˆ
 100
  100
ˆ
MSˆE R
ˆ
R
Control of Non-Sampling Error

Record based survey

Experienced field investigators

Training to the field investigators

Close monitoring of field work

Data validation and scrutinization
ASI Schedule Structure
◦ Part I
Structured in 14 blocks
◦ Part II
Structured in 2 blocks
ASI Schedule Structure (Part I)
BLOCK A&B : Identification particulars
• BLOCK C :
Fixed Asset
• BLOCK D :
Working Capital
• BLOCK E :
Employment
• BLOCK F :
Other Expenses
• Block G :
Other Output/Receipts
• BLOCK H :
Indigenous Input
• BLOCK I :
Imported Input
• Block J:
Products & By-products
• Block K:
ICT indicators
• Block L:
Energy conservation measures
• Block M&N:
Particulars of field operation & Comments
of Scrutinizing Officer.
•
New Initiatives & Future Plan
Modern system of Collection of ASI Data

e-schedule
◦ ASI 2008-09 on pilot basis
◦ ASI 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 complete e-schedule

ASI Web-portal (www.csoisw.gov.in)
◦ ASI 2012-13 (first time)
 Frame updation
 Data Collection
 Data Processing
 Data Dissemination
Pooling of Central and State level ASI data
 District (sub-state) level estimates
Selected ASI Results.docx
Estimate of structural ratios and technical co.docx

Issues

Concordance in classification
Suggestions
 In Division 11, Manufacturing of low alcoholic drinks (below 8%) like
Breezer may be separated out from 11011.
 In Division 13, sub-classification of Khadi industries is required at 5-digit
level under 1312, 1313, 1391-99 in NIC 2008.
 In Division 20, Manufacturing of Caustic Soda, Caustic Potash, main
input items of all soap and detergent industries needs a separate sub-class
classification.
 In Division 26, Manufacture of Surveillance equipment should be included
in a sub-class under class 2630.
 Under Division 27, a new upcoming industry with big domestic market
Manufacture of Kitchen Chimney may be included in class 2750.
 Under Division 31: Manufacture of Furniture, another activity
Manufacture of decorative and ornamental articles ( non-precious) may be
included.
 Non-availability of separate classification of a major polluting activity
like Manufacture of chlor-alkali ( caustic soda, caustic potash).
Issues for UNSD

Non availability of proper classificatory environmental
indicators related activity and product. An indicator
can be prefixed with the existing ISIC code.

Problem on concordance at ultimate digit to prepare
time-series data. Defining ‘P’ is a problem.
Mixed Activity
Examples of industries red,orange,green category.docx
Issue of Concordance.docx
Estimate of RSE for few basic parameters at 2.docx

CSO (IS Wing) Publications




Annual Survey of Industries- Vol. - I (in e-media from 2009-10)
Annual Survey of Industries – Vol. – II (In CD)
National Product Classification for Manufacturing Sector
(NPCMS) – 2011
National Industrial Classification – 2008

The Journal of Industrial Statistics (bi-annual in March and
September since 2012)

The Time Series data of ASI over last 25 years or more.
Data Dissemination

ASI Data are disseminated both in printed and electronic forms
according to the National Data Dissemination Policy of the Govt. of
India.

The printed publications are available at Sales Counters of Controller
of Publication, New Delhi.

ASI data, published tables and customised special tables are now
available in electronic media on request on chargeable basis.

The unit level data and customised tables are available at O/o the
Deputy Director General, Computer Centre, Ministry of Statistics. & P.
I. , East Block-10, R. K. Puram, New Delhi - 110066 .

Enquiries relating to procurement of data can be made at : Email :
[email protected] Telephone :+91-11-26104194 ( Mr. D. R. Dagar,
Deputy Director).
Top Five Industries in China based on GVA for the year 2007-08
ISICRev 3
Description
271
Basic Iron and
Steel
242
Value
Added at
Producers'
prices
(in billion
USD)
Wages
and
salaries
(in
billion
USD)
No. of
employee
s
(in
Thousan
d No.)
No. of
enterpr
ises
(in
Numbe
r).
GFCF
(in
billion
USD)
122.26
12.42
3044
7161
171.63
Other Chemicals
73.75
10.58
3037
17954
65.10
241
Basic Chemicals
60.09
6.76
2212
11042
105.98
272
Basic Precious
and Non-Ferrous
Metal
58.72
5.30
1487
6117
56.96
269
Non-metallic
Mineral Products
n.e.c
55.75
8.83
3774
21258
69.09
Sources: UNIDO, 2011
Top Five Industries in India based on GVA for the year 2007-2008
ISICRev 3
Description
Value Added
at
Producers'
prices
(in billion
USD)
Wages
No. of
and employee No. of
salaries
s enterprise
(in
(in s
billion Thousand (in
USD)
No.) Number)
GFCF
(in
billion
USD)
Basic Iron and
271 Steel
20.53
2.51
562.8
4098
7.44
Refined
Petroleum
232 Products
17.34
0.48
76.1
524
1.66
Other
242 Chemicals
10.57
1.99
665.4
8209
3.12
Non-metallic
Mineral
269 Products n.e.c
8.68
1.05
613
15234
3.28
Basic
241 Chemicals
7.65
1.02
207.6
2921
2.19
Sources: UNIDO, 2011
Value added per employee (in USD) in China and India for the year 2007-2008
Sources: UNIDO, 2011
Wage and Salary per employee (in USD) in China and India for the year 2007-2008
Sources: UNIDO, 2011
Value added per enterprise (in USD) in China and India for the year 2007-2008
Sources: UNIDO, 2011
Economic Census
 6th EC [ 2013] is in the field
 Data are expected by 2013 end.
Economic Census.docx
Business Register

The initiatives have already been taken.

State DES are involved in preparation of business
register.

On pilot basis States are updating the 5th EC Directory
of Establishments for the preparation of Business
Register.

On completion of 6th EC, State DES would update the
Business Register at District level.
Annual Survey of Services Sector
Service Sector

Non agricultural and non-manufacturing
◦ It includes construction, wholesale or retail trade, hotels and
restaurants, transport, storage & warehousing, communication,
financing, insurance, real estate and business services, community,
social and personal services, schools, hospitals, recreation and
cultural services, community services such as temples, etc.



Government units are excluded.
All over India
Pilot survey was conducted during 2012-13
◦ 5th EC data used as frame
◦ Full Survey is proposed after 6th EC Frame
Unorganised Enterprise Surveys
Objective..

To get estimates of various economic and
operational characteristics of unorganised
enterprises in different sectors viz
manufacturing, trade, services

Mainly two types of enterprises were consideredown account enterprises and establishments
Genesis..

Economic Censuses (EC)- the frame for the
follow-up surveys on non-agricultural enterprises
including the non-household based units in the
service sector
Enterprise Survey

The latest NSS enterprise survey was
conducted during its 67th round of operation
(2010-11)

The enterprises covered in NSS 67th round
were divided into three broad industry groups,
viz. (i) manufacturing, (ii) trade and (iii) other
service sector enterprises

This is the first time when NSS conducts
integrated enterprise survey
Sampling Design..

Generally stratified multi-stage design had been used by
NSS for enterprise surveys

The first stage units (FSU) were the census villages
(Panchayat wards in case of Kerala) in the rural sector
and Urban Frame Survey (UFS) blocks in the urban
sector. The ultimate stage units (USU) were enterprises in
both the sectors. In case of large FSUs, one intermediate
stage of sampling was the selection of three hamletgroups (hgs)/ sub-blocks (sbs) from each large rural/
urban FSU
Frame..

Census 2001 villages- Area Frame

EC-2005 list of enterprises – List Frame

Urban Frame Survey Blocks- Area Frame
Survey Period, Stratification, Allocation..

The survey period ( round) was of 1 year

The survey period was divided in to 4 equally spaced subrounds

A sample of 16,000 FSUs for central sample and 18,248
FSUs for state sample have been allocated at all-India level
stratum

Out of 16000 FSUs for central survey, 15898 FSUs were
actually surveyed
Some facts..









Schedule designed based on SNA concepts
NIC 2008 based on ISIC Rev. 4.0 was used
While calculating the value addition, ‘taxes on production’ was not used
considered as an ‘input’ (operating expenses) , although the same was
collected
Similarly while calculating the value addition, ‘production subsidy/interest
subsidy ’ was not used considered as an ‘output’ (receipts) , although the
same was collected
Information on NPISH was collected
Information on type of agreement of the enterprise with other units
were collected
Compensation of workers were collected to arrive at total emoluments
Use of ICT by enterprises
Valuation were made by using both production approach and factor
income approach
Survey Errors..

Non sampling errors are controlled by:
 Exhaustive training to the enumerators
 Exhaustive training to the data processing officials
 Pre data entry scrutiny
 Scrutiny at the data entry stage
 Outlier diagnostics

Sampling errors are computed and reported through
‘relative standard error’ on some important
characteristics of the enterprise

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