25-28 March 2014 Agen, FRANCE Uşak MEM Prese ntation

Report
Uşak İl Milli Eğitim
Müdürlüğü
UŞAK EU Projects Team
Avrupa Birliği Topluluk Programları
Comenius, Leonardo da Vinci, Grundtvig, Youth
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
AB Projeleri
Alt Başlık
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Outline
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Definitions
Statistics
Causes
Solutions
Evaluation/Conclusion
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Definition of Domestic
Violence
• Any incident of threating behaviour, violence or abuse between adults
who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of
gender or sexuality.
• Physical
• Psychological
• Verbal
• Sexual
• Financial
• Emotional
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Definition of Domestic
Violence
• Women experience various types and degrees of violence at their homes,
where they should feel safe; however, they are exposed to violence by the
people they rely on such as their fathers, brothers, and especially their
husbands/partners with whom they share their lives.
• Domestic violence against women suppresses women and makes them
dependent on their husbands/partners. Moreover, it causes women to
lose their self-confidence and self-respect, forms unpleasant model for
the next generation and destroys the physical and mental health of
women and children.
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Statistics
• Violence Against Women in Turkey
• Population of women: 37,688,700/75,705,100
Life expectancy of women (at birth): 75
School life expectancy for women: 11
• Women's adult literacy: 81%
Unemployment of women: 9.4%
Women engaged in economic activity: 24%
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Statistics
• According to formal datas, 28.000 women are abused last year in Turkey
and 95 of them are murdered.
• 1 in 3 women in Turkey have experience domestic violence.
• %42 of women in Turkey are exposed to physical and sexual abuse, and
the ages are usually 40-59.
• %44 of women in Turkey are exposed to emotional abuse at least once in a
period of their lives.
• The proportion of women exposed to economic abuse becomes 4 out of
10.
(National Research on Domestic Violance against Women in Turkey made by
Prime Ministry Directorate of General on the Status of Women, Turkish
Statistic Instutition and Hacettepe University, 2009)
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Gender Equality in Turkey
In 2001, the Turkish Civil Code was updated to put women on equal
footing in the family. Article 41 of the Constitution was revised to note
that the family in Turkish society is “based on equality between spouses.”
The new code also granted women equal rights to property acquired
during marriage, which, according to Women for Women’s Human Rights
(hereinafter, WWHR), “[assigned] an economic value to women’s
hitherto invisible labor for the well-being of the family household”
(WWHR, Turkish Civil and Penal Code Reforms from a Gender Perspective:
The Success of Two Nationwide Campaigns, 2005).
“Men and women have equal rights. The State shall have the obligation
to ensure that this equality exists in practice”
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Domestic Violence in
Turkey
The reform of the Turkish Penal Code in 2004 was achieved as result of a concerted
campaign by women’s civil society organizations. The new Penal Code represents an
important step forward in “ensuring that domestic violence is no longer viewed as
an acceptable, ‘ordinary’ phenomenon but rather as a ‘crime’” (Icon Institute Public
Sector, Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies, and BNB Consulting,
National Research on Domestic Violence against Women in Turkey, 2009). This
rejection of domestic violence as the status quo was affirmed in June 2009 when the
European Court of Human Rights ruled that Turkey had failed to fulfill its obligation
to protect Nahide Opuz and her mother from brutal domestic violence inflicted by
Opuz’s husband. The judgment represented the first time the Court had spelled out
a state’s obligations in regard to domestic violence, stressing that such violence is
not a private matter but instead an issue that requires state intervention
(International Centre for the Protection of Human Rights, European Court finds
Turkey in violation of obligations to protect women from domestic violence, 2008).
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Sexual Assault
The reform of Turkish Penal Code in 2004 was achieved as result of a concerted
campaign by women’s civil society organizations. Aimed at holistic reform, the
campaign succeeded in redefining sexual crimes as crimes committed against
individuals rather than crimes against society, family, or public morality. WWHR
noted that in the penal code “all references to vague patriarchal constructs such
as chastity, morality, shame, public customs, or decency have been eliminated
and definitions of such crimes against women brought in line with global human
rights norms” (WWHR, Turkish Civil and Penal Code Reforms from a Gender
Perspective: The Success of Two Nationwide Campaigns, 2005).
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Honor Killings
Honor killings were addressed in two ways in the Penal Code reform of 2004.
First, Article 29 on “unjust provocation” was modified to limit its scope to
“unlawful acts” and render it inapplicable to honor killings; previously, the
provision had been used to rationalize shorter sentences on the grounds that the
violation of a man’s honor was justification of murder. Second, article 82 on
aggravated homicide was updated to include a clause that referred to honor
killings, albeit as “homicides by motivation of custom.” The use of the term
“custom killings” has raised concerns among women’s NGOs, which argue that
using the term will “provide a legal loophole that limits the scope of the article to
only a certain type of honor killing, such as family assembly verdicts, or as if it
only exists in certain regions where certain customs prevail” (Executive
Committee for NGO Forum on CEDAW – Turkey, Shadow NGO Report on Turkey’s
Sixth Periodic Report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
against Women, July 2010).
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Trafficking
(1) Persons who provide, kidnap or shelter or transfer a person (s) from one place
to another unlawfully and by force, threat or violence or misconduct of power or
by executing acts of enticement or taking advantage of control power on helpless
persons in order to force them to work or serve for others or to send them away
where he is treated almost like a slave, are sentenced to imprisonment from eight
years to twelve years and punished with punitive fine up to ten thousand days.
(2) In case of execution of acts which constitute offense in the definition of first
subsection, the consent of the victim is considered void.
(3) In case of kidnapping, providing, sheltering or transfer of a person(s) who is
under the age of eighteen, the offender is subject to the punishments indicated in
the first subsection even if he did not execute the acts causing offense.
(4) Security precautions are applied for the legal entities committing such
offenses.
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Solutions
1. Legal Arrangements:
Realization of the legal arrangements on gender discrimination and domestic
violence against women and elimination of enforcement related defects;
2. Social awareness and mental transformation:
Creation of public awareness and mental transformation on gender equality
and domestic violence against women in order to eradicate attitudes and
behaviors that generate and reinforce domestic violence;
3. Advancement of women’s socio-economic status:
Making the necessary arrangements for strengthening the socio-economic
status of women,and ensuring the full enforcement of such arrangements;
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Solutions
4. Protective services:
Ensuring organization and implementation of attainable protective services
towards women victimized by domestic violence and their children (if any);
5. Curative and rehabilitation services:
Ensuring organization and provision of curative and rehabilitation services
towards women victimized by domestic violence and the perpetrators, and;
6. Inter-sectoral cooperation:
Establishing a mechanism of cooperation amongst institutions and relevant
sectors with regard to the service delivery to women victimized by domestic
violence and their children (if any).
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Solutions
7. Research
Analysis of relationship between partner characteristics and the experience
of partner violence as reported by the women, including analysis of men’s
attituteds towards domestic violence, using the qualitative data.
8. Effective Implementation
Reforms have arguably been ground-breaking in terms of establishing an
effective legal framework for addressing violence against women in EU, in
particular with regards to domestic violence and sexual violence,
unfortunately it is not possible to speak of an advance of parallel proportions
in terms of effective implementation and broad enough impact. While a
comprehensive in depth analysis of the inadequacies of implementation
extends the scope and focus of this paper, this section will seek to draw
attention to a few examples to highlight the ongoing discrepancy.
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Solutions
9. Examples of Impact of the Legal Reforms
While the necessary measures for effective implementation remain to be met, the
legal reforms have led to subsequent positive developments in terms of precedent
court cases. In addition, violence against women has become more of a topic of
debate in the parliament and there have been further –though limited in scope and
depth- initiatives by the government. Simultaneously, public and media attention to
the issue has also increased, which has led to media campaigns and more
mainstream awareness.
10. Raise Social, Economic and Political Status of Women in EU:
Societal discrimination and traditional notions of women’s role in the
family adversely affect the ability of women to take advantage of educational and
employment opportunities and, as a result, their rate of economic, social and
political participation is low. Although women continue to improve their
professional standing particularly in urban areas they still lag far behind men.
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Legislation About Women
Rights
The 1980s have witnessed strengthening of the women’s movement both at the
international level and in Turkey itself, leading to an increase in the public
awareness of women’s rights. As a result, starting from the latter half of the 1990s,
the relevant national legislation has been undergoing a process of review and
important steps have been taken towards the establishment of gender equality
through various legal amendments.
A major legal act has been dealt to honour crimes with the new Turkish Penal Code
which entered into force on 1 June 2005. The de facto reduction of sentences in the
case of “honour killings” was abolished with the new Code.
Special training programs are being carried out for security forces, health care
personnel and other public servants who deal with women subjected to violence.
The Directorate General on the Status of Women and the Directorate General of
Social Services and Child Protection Agency also undertake training programs on the
human rights of women in collaboration with non-governmental organizations.
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Legislation About Women
Rights
Under Law No.5223, adopted on 14 July 2004, amending the Law on Civil Servants,
and the Communique published in the Official Gazette on 26 August 2004, the
period of maternity leave has been extended from 9 weeks to 16 weeks.
The Law on the organization and duties of the Directorate General on the Status of
Women, which was established in 1990, was adopted by the Parliament on 6
November 2004.
In addition to the amendments made to national legislation within the framework
of women’s rights, women issues and gender equality, the Turkish Government also
takes important steps in the international fora. Turkey is a party to the United
Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against
Women (CEDAW) since 1985, as well as to its Optional Protocol since 2002.
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Legislation About Women
Rights
On May 17, 2004, supremacy was given to international conventions concerning
basic rights and freedoms,
Including the CEDAW, over all national laws. This amendment placed CEDAW above
all other legal arrangements which may be in conflict with its provisions. In
accordance with this amendment, existing laws will have to be interpreted in the
light of CEDAW provisions and principles.
As an embodiment of the importance attached to struggling with violence against
women, Turkey co-sponsored the draft resolution entitled “Working towards the
Elimination of Crmies Committed in the Name of Honor” with the UK. The said draft
resolution was adopted on December 2004 during the 59th Session of the UN
General Assembly.
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Legislation About Women
Rights
On May 17, 2004, supremacy was given to international conventions concerning basic
rights and freedoms,
Including the CEDAW, over all national laws. This amendment placed CEDAW above all
other legal arrangements which may be in conflict with its provisions. In accordance with
this amendment, existing laws will have to be interpreted in the light of CEDAW
provisions and principles.
As an embodiment of the importance attached to struggling with violence against
women, Turkey co-sponsored the draft resolution entitled “Working towards the
Elimination of Crmies Committed in the Name of Honor” with the UK. The said draft
resolution was adopted on December 2004 during the 59th Session of the UN General
Assembly.
Moreover, Turkey has served as a host country to various initiatives such as the
conference held on December 14 – 15, 2006 in the context of EUROMED and Ministerial
Conference of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) on women’s issues held on
November 21 – 22, 2006.
Uşak Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü AB Projeler Ekibi
Violence Against Women in Turkey
Evaluation & Conslusion
1. Turkey is empowering the women day by day
2. There are several legislation development
3. Turkey established a special ministry called «Family
and Social Affairs Ministry»
4. Turkey is cooperating with EU and UN about
empowering women in society
5. Media is supporting about creating awareness to stop
the domestic violence
 UŞAK MİLLİ EĞİTİM
MÜDÜRLÜĞÜ
 AB Projeler Koordinasyon
Ekibi
 0 276 224 4872
 [email protected]
THANKS 

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