DSM 5: A Primer - National Association of Social Workers

Report
DSM 5: A Primer
Lloyd L. Lyter, Ph.D., LSW
Professor
Marywood University, Scranton, PA
Sharon C. Lyter, Ph.D., LCSW
Professor
Kutztown University of PA
Brandywine Division, NASW PA
5 November 2013
1
Abstract
• Overview the development of the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
through DSM 5
• Address major revisions and their rationales from
DSM IV TR to DSM 5
• Address some specific diagnostic criteria and
implications
2
History of Diagnosing:
APA – pre-DSM
• In 1917, a "Committee on Statistics" from
“…..American Psychiatric Association
(APA), together with the National
Commission on Mental Hygiene, developed
a new guide for mental hospitals called the
"Statistical Manual for the Use of
Institutions for the Insane", which included
22 diagnoses.” DSM IV TR
3
History of Diagnosing:
DSM I
• 1952 -- DSM I
• 106 diagnoses
4
History of Diagnosing:
DSM II
• 1968 -- DSM II
• 182 diagnoses
5
History of Diagnosing:
DSM III
• 1980 -- DSM III
• 265 diagnoses
6
History of Diagnosing:
DSM III R
• 1987 -- DSM III R
• 292 diagnoses
7
History of Diagnosing:
DSM IV
• 1994 -- DSM IV
• 374 diagnoses
8
History of Diagnosing:
DSM IV TR
• 2000 -- DSM IV TR
• Same diagnoses as in
DSM IV
9
History of Diagnosing:
DSM 5
• 18 May 2013 -- DSM 5
• Approximately as many
diagnoses as DSM IV TR
• 3 Sections
– DSM 5 Basics
– Diagnostic Criteria & Codes
– Emerging Measures &
Models
10
DSM 5 Revision Principles
• Changes made for DSM-5 must be implementable
in routine specialty practices
• Continuity with previous editions should be
maintained when possible (maintaining good
qualities of DSM-IV)
• Unlike DSM-IV, there were no a priori
constraints on the degree of change between
DSM-IV and DSM-5
11
DSM 5 Revision Principles
• Development – across the life span
• Dimensional concepts – measurement of distress,
disability, and severity
• Incorporation of new knowledge – risk factors,
prevention, new syndromes
• “Living document”
• DSM 5
• DSM 5.1
12
Why do DSM-5’s Revisions Matter?
• Revisions are designed to produce more
accurate diagnostic criteria and nosology
• Earlier diagnosis
• Earlier treatment
• More accurate treatment
13
The Context of Development
in DSM-5
• Within the diagnostic criteria
Examples of how criteria may present in
children and adolescents
• Within the organization of chapters
Diagnoses arranged in lifespan
fashion, with disorders usually
diagnosed earlier in life placed first
14
Diagnostic Categories in DSM-5
• Revised organization of DSM’s diagnostic
categories
o Use of dimensions can inform a “metastructure” that clarifies etiologic and
pathophysiological relationships between
disorders
o The “spectra” approach
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
15
DSM-5
Organizational Structure
• Neurodevelopmental Disorders
• Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other
Psychotic Disorders
• Bipolar and Related Disorders
• Depressive Disorders
• Anxiety Disorders
16
DSM-5
Organizational Structure
• Obsessive-Compulsive and Related
Disorders
• Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders
• Dissociative Disorders
• Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
• Feeding and Eating Disorders
• Elimination Disorders
17
DSM-5
Organizational Structure
•
•
•
•
Sleep-Wake Disorders
Sexual Dysfunctions
Gender Dysphoria
Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct
Disorders
• Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders
• Neurocognitive Disorders
18
DSM-5
Organizational Structure
•
•
•
•
Personality Disorders
Paraphilic Disorders
Other Mental Disorders
Medication-Induced Movement Disorders
and Other adverse Effects of Medication
• Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of
Clinical Attention
19
Highlights of Changes from
DSM-IV-TR to DSM 5
• Naming and Numbering Convention
–
–
–
–
e.g. Communication Disorders
Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder (Stuttering)
315.35 (F80.81)
Note: Later-onset cases are diagnosed as 307.0
(F98.5) adult-onset fluency disorder.
– Everything not in parentheses represents ICD 9
– Everything in parentheses represents ICD 10
– 1 October 2014
20
Highlights of Changes from
DSM-IV-TR to DSM 5
• DSM 5 – Non-axial assessment system
– Axes I, II, and III from DSM IV are collapsed
into one category
– Separate notations for important psychosocial
and contextual factors and disability
– WHO Disability Assessment Schedule under
further study
21
Changes re: Children from
DSM-IV-TR to DSM 5
• Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in
Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
• Neurodevelopmental Disorders
– Intellectual Disability (Intellectual
Developmental Disorder)
– Autism Spectrum Disorder
22
Intellectual Disability (Intellectual
Developmental Disorder)
•
The term mental retardation was used in DSM-IV.
However, intellectual disability is the term that has come
into common use over the past two decades among
medical, educational, and other professionals, and by the
lay public and advocacy groups. Moreover, a federal statue
in the United States (Public Law 111-256, Rosa’s Law)
replaces the term “mental retardation with intellectual
disability. Despite the name change, the deficits in
cognitive capacity beginning in the developmental period,
with the accompanying diagnostic criteria, are considered
to constitute a mental disorder.
23
Autism Spectrum Disorder
• ASD now encompasses the previous DSM-IV autistic
disorder (autism), Asperger’s disorder, childhood
disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental
disorder not otherwise specified. ASD is characterized by
1) deficits in social communication and social interaction
and 2) restricted repetitive behaviors, interests, and
activities (RRBs). Because both components are required
for diagnosis of ASD, social communication disorder is
diagnosed if no RRBs are present.
24
Schizophrenia Spectrum and
Other Psychotic Disorders
• Two changes were made to DSM-IV Criterion A
for schizophrenia.
– The first change is the elimination of the special
attribution of bizarre delusions and Schneiderian firstrank auditory hallucinations (e.g., two or more voices
conversing)
– The second change is the addition of a requirement in
Criterion A that the individual must have at least one of
these three symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, and
disorganized speech. At least one of these core
“positive symptoms” is necessary for a reliable
25
diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Spectrum and
Other Psychotic Disorders
•
•
•
•
•
•
Schizotypal (Personality) Disorder
Delusional Disorder
Brief Psychotic Disorder
Schizophreniform Disorder
Schizophrenia
Schizoaffective Disorder
26
Schizophrenia Spectrum and
Other Psychotic Disorders
• Substance/Medication-Induced Psychotic
Disorder
• Psychotic Disorder Due to Another
Medical Condition
• Catatonia pp. 119-121
27
Schizophrenia Spectrum and
Other Psychotic Disorders
• Other Specified Schizophrenia Spectrum
and Other Psychotic Disorder
• Unspecified Schizophrenia Spectrum and
Other Psychotic Disorder
28
Mood Disorder Changes from
DSM-IV-TR to DSM 5
• Bipolar and Related Disorders
–
–
–
–
Bipolar I Disorder
Bipolar II Disorder
Cyclothymic Disorder
Substance/Medication-Induced Bipolar and
Related Disorder
– Bipolar and Related Disorder Due to Another
Medical Condition
29
Mood Disorder Changes from
DSM-IV-TR to DSM 5
• Depressive Disorders
– Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
• Attempt to compensate for over diagnosis of bipolar
disorder in children
– Major Depressive Disorder
– Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)
– Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
30
Anxiety Disorders
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Separation Anxiety Disorder
Selective Mutism
Specific Phobia
Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)
Panic Disorder
Agoraphobia
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
31
Obsessive-Compulsive and
Related Disorders
•
•
•
•
•
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Hording Disorder
Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)
Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder
32
Trauma- and Stressor-Related
Disorders
•
•
•
•
•
Reactive Attachment Disorder
Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Acute Stress Disorder
Adjustment Disorders
33
Dissociative Disorders
• Dissociative Identity Disorder
• Dissociative Amnesia
• Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder
34
Somatic Symptom and Related
Disorders
• Somatic Symptom Disorder
• Illness Anxiety Disorder
• Conversion Disorder (Functional
Neurological Symptom Disorder)
• Psychological Factors Affecting Other
Medical Conditions
• Factitious Disorder
35
Feeding and Eating Disorders
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pica
Rumination Disorder
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Binge-Eating Disorder
36
Elimination Disorders
• Enuresis
• Encopresis
37
Sleep-Wake Disorders
• Insomnia Disorder
• Hypersomnolence Disorder
• Narcolepsy
38
Sleep-Wake Disorders
Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders
•
•
•
•
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea
Central Sleep Apnea
Sleep-Related Hypoventilation
Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders
39
Parasomnias
• Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Arousal
Disorders
• Nightmare Disorder
• Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior
Disorder
• Restless Legs Syndrome
40
Sexual Dysfunctions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Delayed Ejaculation
Erectile Disorder
Female Orgasmic Disorder
Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder
Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder
Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
Premature (Early) Ejaculation
41
Gender Dysphoria
• Gender Dysphoria*
– In Children
– In Adolescents and Adults
– * “The current term is more descriptive than the
previous DSM IV term gender identity disorder
and focuses on dysphoria as the clinical
problem, not identity per se.”
42
Disruptive, Impulse-Control,
and Conduct Disorders
• Parts of DSM IV TR Diagnostic Groupings
– Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy,
Childhood, or Adolescence
– Impulse Control Disorders Not Elsewhere
Classified
– Personality Disorders
• Antisocial Personality Disorder
43
Disruptive, Impulse-Control,
and Conduct Disorders
•
•
•
•
•
•
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Conduct Disorder
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Pyromania
Kleptomania
44
Substance-Related
and Addictive Disorders
• Substance Related and Addictive Disorders
– Substance Use Disorders & Substance Induced
Disorders
– Gambling Disorder
• Recommended for Further Study in DSM-5
– Internet Gaming Disorder
– Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with
Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
45
Diagnoses Associated
with Class of Substances
Table 1, p. 482, DSM 5, matches the 13 possible
substance-related disorders with the 10
categories of substances (including “other”) to
identify the possible diagnoses in the
“substance use” & “substance induced”
categories. The table is helpful in determining
the diagnoses possible for each substance the
individual uses, once that assessment has been
made.
46
Substance Related Disorders
Table 1, p. 482
47
Neurocognitive Disorders
• Neurocognitive Domains (p. 593)
–
–
–
–
–
–
Complex Attention
Executive Function
Learning and Memory
Language
Perceptual-Motor
Social Cognition
48
Neurocognitive Disorders
• Delirium
• Major and Mild Neurocognitive Disorders
– Major Neurocognitive Disorder
– Mild Neurocognitive Disorder
• Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder
Due to Alzheimer’s Disease
• Major or Mild Frontotemporal
Neurocognitive Disorder
49
Neurocognitive Disorders
• Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder
With Lewy Bodies
• Major or Mild Vascular Neurocognitive
Disorder
50
Neurocognitive Disorders
• Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Due to Traumatic Brain Injury
Due to HIV Disease
Due to Prion Disease
Due to Parkinson’s Disease
Due to Huntington’s Disease
Due to Another Medical Condition
Due to Multiple Etiologies
51
Personality Disorders
• Cluster A – Paranoid, Schizoid,
Schizotypal
• Cluster B – Antisocial, Borderline,
Histrionic, Narcissistic
• Cluster C – Avoidant, Dependent,
Obsessive-Compulsive
• Section III – A 6 category model
52
Paraphilic Disorder
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Voyeuristic Disorder
Exhibitionistic Disorder
Frotteuristic Disorder
Sexual Masochism Disorder
Sexual Sadism Disorder
Pedophilic Disorder
Fetishistic Disorder
Transvestic Disorder
53
Other Diagnostic Categories
• Other Mental Disorders
– Due to Another Medical Condition
– Other Specified Mental Disorder
– Unspecified Mental Disorder
• Medication-Induced Movement Disorders
and Other Adverse Effects of Medication
54
Other Diagnostic Categories
• Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of
Clinical Attention
– Problems Related to Family Upbringing
V61.20 (Z62.820)
55
Section III
Emerging Measures and Models
• Assessment Measures
• Cultural Formulation
• Alternative DSM 5 Model for Personality
Disorders
• Conditions for Further Study
56
The End
• Comments
• Question and answer
• Thank you!
57

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