An Introduction POETRY BASICS Poetry: A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form Form: the appearance of the words on the page Line: a group of words together on one line of the poem Stanza: a group of lines arranged together Identify… “A Word is Dead” By Emily Dickenson STANZA 1 A word is dead When it is said, Some say. How many lines? I say it just Begins to live That day. Stanza 2 KINDS OF STANZAS Couplet = Triplet (Tercet) = Quatrain = Quintet = Sestet (Sextet) = Septet = Octave = a two line stanza a three line stanza a four line stanza a five line stanza a six line stanza a seven line stanza an eight line stanza POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY Poet The author of the poem Speaker The “narrator” of the poem Addressee Person or thing the speaker is addressing Reader Person reading the poem aloud RHYTHM The beat created by the sounds of the word in a poem Rhythm can be created by using: Meter Rhyme Alliteration Refrain METER A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They then repeat the pattern throughout the poem. METER cont. Foot – unit of meter A foot can have two or three syllables Usually consists of one stressed and one unstressed syllables Types of feet The types of feet are determined by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables METER cont. TYPES OF FEET Iambic – unstressed, stressed Trochaic – stressed, unstressed Anapestic – unstressed, unstressed, stressed Dactylic – stressed, unstressed, unstressed FREE VERSE POETRY Unlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT have any Free verse poetry is very conversationalsounds like someone repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables It usually does NOT have rhyme talking to you. A more modern type of poetry. FREE VERSE - EXAMPLE “I Dream'd in a Dream” by Walt Whitman I dream’d in a dream I saw a city invincible to the attacks of the whole of the rest of the earth, I dream’d that was the new city of Friends, Nothing was greater there than the quality of robust love, it led the rest, It was seen every hour in the actions of the men of that city, And in all their looks and words. Walt Whitman is not around to ask what he meant in this poem…. What is your interpretation? Did he mean a real city or perhaps friendship? BLANK VERSE POETRY Written in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme. Excerpt from Macbeth by William Shakespeare Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow, Creeps in this petty pace from day to day, To the last syllable of recorded time; And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle! Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage And then is heard no more: it is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing. RHYME Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds A word always rhymes with itself LAMP STAMP Share the same short “a” vowel sound Share the combined “mp” consonant sound END RHYME A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line. Hector the collector Collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring. INTERNAL RHYME A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. From “The Raven” By Edgar Allan Poe Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. NEAR RHYME or EYE RHYME An “imperfect” rhyme or close rhyme. The words EITHER share the same vowel sound or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH! ROSE LOSE Different vowel sounds (long “o” and “oo” sound) Share the same consonant sound RHYME SCHEME A pattern of rhyme (usually uses end rhyme but not always) Use the letters of the alphabet to represent different rhyme sounds so that you can visually see the pattern. “The Germ” By Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, Though smaller than the pachyderm His customary dwelling place Is deep within the human race. His childish pride he often pleases By giving people strange diseases. Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? You probably contain a germ. ONOMATOPOEIA Words that imitate the sound they are making. The rusty spigot sputters utters a splutter, spatters, scatters, spurts, finally stops sputtering and splash! gushes rushes splashes clear water dashes. Match the line to its sound A plate being dropped on the floor A balloon being burst A gun being shot Someone eating crisps A light being switched on A fierce dog A small bell being rung TINKLE BANG POP SMASH CRUNCH GROWL CLICK ALLITERATION Consonant sounds repeated at the beginning of words. Think tongue twisters Consonance The repeating consonant sounds in a line or If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick? lines of poetry (can be anywhere in the words) “Silken, sad, uncertain, rustling” Assonance The repeating vowel sound in a line or lines of poetry Lake, fate, base, fade (all share the long “a” sound) I am the shadow REPETITION Using the same word or phrase more than once in a poem. Does not include pronouns or conjunctions Can sometimes be called the refrain if it’s a stanza that repeats By the classroom wall, I am watching you, And I know it all. Don’t try to run Or hide from me. There isn’t a thing I cannot see. Don’t cheat on a test, Or lie to a friend, I know the truth From beginning to end. I am the shadow By the classroom wall, I am watching you, And I know it all . . . And I know it all. And I know it all. I’m watching you, And I know it all.