Comp Exam Study Guid - Department of Public Administration

Comp Exam
Study Guide
Table of Contents
• History
(Classical, Neoclassical, Modern, New Public Mgmt)
◦ (Political Control, Reputation, Decision-Making, etc)
• Reform
◦ (Scientific Mgmt, War on Waste, Watchful Eye, and Liberation
• Performance Management
◦ (National Performance Review, Managing for Results,
Accountable Government Initiative)
• Budgeting
◦ (Planning, programming and budgeting, Zero-based, Performancebased, Incremental)
• Methodologies
◦ (Quantitative and qualitative tools)
Positivism/ Scientific Management
(1890 – 1920s)
◦ Woodrow Wilson (1887) “Study of
 Progressivism: Pendelton Act of 1883
◦ Frank Goodnow (1900) “Politics and
 Field’s legitimacy lies in administrative law
◦ Frederick W.Taylor (1911) “Scientific
 One best way to accomplish tasks and manage
◦ Henri Fayol (1916) “General Theory of
 Universal approach to administrative management
Principles of Public Administration
(1920s – 1950s)
◦ Mary Parker Follett (1918) “The New State”
 Contradicted Scientific Management, only later accepted
 Offered the first feminist perspective, web approach,
◦ Chester Barnard (1938) “Functions of the
 Influence of values on decision-making, power of
 Reconcile top down goals with bottom up compliance
◦ Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick (1937)
“Papers on the Science of Administration”
 Principles of P.A. – POSDCORB (Planning, Organizing,
Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and
Public Administration as Political
Science (1940s – 1970s)
◦ Herbert A. Simon (1946) “Proverbs of P.A.”
 Attacked Wilson’s P.A. Dichotomy as contradictory
 P.A. should be based on study of human behavior
 Humans are not rational and should not be perceived as
◦ Robert Dahl (1947) “Science of P.A.: 3
 Bureaucratic Efficiency vs. Democratic Values
 Rethink normative assumptions about sharp dichotomy
 Expand “rational” man to include human behavior
 Embrace historical, economic and social conditions and impacts
◦ Dwight Waldo (1948) “The Administrative
 Administration is inherently political, Reject dichotomy
Human Relations/ Social
Sciences(1930s – 1950s)
◦ Robert K Merton (1940) “Bureaucratic Structure and
 Argued that Scientific Mgmt is inhumane and undemocratic, called
for development of a theoretic basic social science, focus groups
 Weber’s bureaucracy has characteristics that lead to inefficiency
◦ Herbert A. Simon (1950) “Administrative Behavior”
 Bounded Rationality and the concept of satisficing
◦ Marshall Dimmock (1951) “Free Enterprise and the
Administrative State”
 Business uses economic power for profitability rather than to
promote the national interest
 Administration is law in action
◦ Charles Lindblom (1959) “Science of Muddling Through”
 Political process lead to an incremental approach to policy
“Modern” / New Public
Administration(1930s – 1950s)
◦ Minnowbrook Conference (1968)
 Hosted by Waldo; Add equity as a social value
 P.A. underwent an identify crisis as it tried to redefine itself
◦ Aaron Wildavsky (1964) “Politics of the Budgetary
 Applied Lindblom’s incremental theory to budgeting
◦ Ted Lowi (1969) “End of Liberalism”
 Govt expands relentlessly to meet special interest demands
◦ Graham Allison (1971) “Essence of Decision”
 Cuban Missile Crisis: 3 Paradigms - Rational Actor,
Organizational Process and Political Process Models
◦ Vincent Ostrom (1973) “Intellectual Crisis in
American Public Administration”
 P.A. lacks the cumulative and empirical strength of other
Minnowbrook Conference (1968)
P.A. can be neither neutral nor objective
 Technology can be dehumanizing
 Hierarchy can be an ineffective
organizational strategy
 Bureaucracies tend toward agency survival
 Cooperation and consensus are more
effective than exercise of authority
 Modern P.A. built on post-behaviorist and
post-positivist logic
Research Strands
◦ Osborne and Gaebler - Entrepreneurial Spirit
◦ Etzioni, Galston, Chrislip, Selznick - Rebuilding community and
◦ Goodsell, Rohr, Stivers – Philosophical, institutional, and theoretical
redefinition of P.A.
◦ White, Stivers, Spicer, Box – Values and ideas concerning the very nature
of human existence
New Bureaucratic Analysts:
◦ Light, Selden, Behn, Cooper – Reevaluate the relationship between
politics and administration
From Management to Governance:
◦ Kettl, Moore, Lynn, Rainey – Best practices, steering and networks
New Public Management
New Public Management
Governance Orthodoxy
◦ David Osborne and Ted Gaebler (1992) “Reinventing
 Shift toward privatization and decentralization. Governments
Steer, not row
Empower communities to solve own problems
Encourage competition
Be driven by missions, rather than rules
Meet needs of customer, not bureaucracy
Concentrate on earning money, rather than spending it
Invest in preventing problems, instead of curing crises
Decentralize authority
Influence market forces rather than create public programs
Tenets of NPM
◦ 1) Productivity, 2) Marketization, 3) Service Orientation,
4) Decentralization, 5) Policy and 6) Accountability
New Public Management
◦ Donald F. Kettl (2000) “Global Public Management
 Describes Westminster Reforms in NZ and UK
◦ Milward, Provan and Else (2000) “Governing the
Hollow State”
 Concerns of accountability and oversight in contracting
◦ Robert and Janet Denhardt (2007) “New Public
Service: Serving, not Steering”
 Oppose Osborne and Gaebler: Serve citizens not just
Serve citizens, not customers
Seek the public interest
Value citizenship over entrepreneurship
Think strategically, act democratically
Recognize that accountability is not simple
Serve rather than steer
Value people, not just productivity
Early America
Founding Father’s Views
Alexander Hamilton:
◦ With James Madison and John Jay, Challenged
Jefferson in Federalist Papers, favored elites
◦ Strong national government and executive
Thomas Jefferson:
◦ Weak executive, bottoms up approach
◦ Bureaucracy’s accountability to the public
James Madison:
◦ Mixed government balanced by opposing
interest groups/ pluralism
Time Periods in P.A.
Rohr’s three periods of political foundings:
◦ Founding of the Republic (1787-1795)
◦ Founding of PA (1883-1899)
◦ Founding of the Administrative State (1933-1941)
Skrownek’s building of a new American State
◦ Patchwork (1877-1900)
◦ Reconstruction (1900-1920)
Stillman’s four eras of U.S. PA Thought
POSDCORB Orthodoxy (1926-1946)
Social Science Heterodoxy (1947-1967)
Reassertion of Democratic Idealism (1968-1988)
Refounding Movement (1989-Present)
Reform Movements
Civil Service Reform, circa 1877 – 1883
◦ Pendelton Act of 1883: Introduced merit/professionalism to civil service
Progressive Reform, circa 1879 – 1920
◦ New York Bureau of Municipal Research (1906): First council-manager
form of government in Stanton,VA (1908)
◦ Interstate Commerce Commission (1920): Established federal regulation
Scientific Management, circa 1910 – 1970
◦ Preferred by Presidents and popularized by POSDCORB
Watchful Eye, circa 1970s
◦ Favored by Congress, response to Watergate and Vietnam
New Public Management Reform, circa 1979
◦ Shift towards business and general management practices
War on Waste, circa 1980s
◦ Favored by Congress, welfare fraud trials
Liberation Management, circa early 1990s
◦ Favored by Presidents, let managers and workers find creative solutions
Theories of Public
Political Control of Bureaucracy
Agency Theory: Bureaucracies are out of control or at the
least difficult to control
◦ Rosemary O’Leary, “The Nevada Four” – go native
Principal-Agent Theory: Legislature (principal) relies on
bureaucrats (agents) due to complexity of problems
◦ Balla (1998) – Congress relied on HCFA due to Medicare’s
complex fee schedules
Capture Theory: Agencies are heavily influenced by elites
or constituents, Iron Triangle dominated by business interests
◦ Evan Ringquist, “Political Control and Policy Impact at EPA” –
Public participation is low, but businesses don’t control policy
Client Responsiveness Theory: Respond to constituents’
needs, Street level bureaucrats
◦ Michael Lipsky, “Street level bureaucrats” – Teachers, cops
Representative Bureaucracy
Organizations perform better when they
mirror the demographics of clients
John Rohr (1986) argues that bureaucracy
cures constitutional defect of adequate
Selden, Brudney and Kellough (1998)
studied active representation among
minorities in the FmHA and found a
difference between active and inactive
Bureaucratic Politics
Revolve around questions of political power in the key
organizational dimensions of:
◦ Bureaucratic Behavior
◦ Institutional Structure
◦ Distribution of Power
Game Theory: Highly formulized and mathematical
approach to explaining behavior and choices
Graham Allison (1971) “Essence of Decisions”
◦ Examined executive decision-making during the Cuban Missile
 Rational Actor Model
 Organizational Processes Model
 Political Processes Model
Bureaucratic Reputation Theory
Agency autonomy is based on
organizational capacity and political
Daniel Carpenter (2001) “The Forging
of Bureaucratic Autonomy”
◦ Post Office under Anthony Comstock
assumed moral guardianship against porno
and gambling
Max Weber’s Bureaucracy
Hierarchy of authority
 Impersonality
 Written rules of conduct
 Promotion based on merit
 Specialized division of labor
 Efficiency
Program Roots
Evolved and borrowed from Political
Science, Business, Economics, Sociology,
Management and Law
 P.A. is both an art and a science,
academics and practitioners
 ASPA is a pan-generalist organization
 Academic programs generally fall under
◦ Political Science
◦ Business/ Management
◦ Policy and Public Affairs
Trends Transforming Bureaucracy
America as the last global superpower
2. Populations shifts and immigration
3. Reliance of foreign markets
4. Growth of info and service industries
5. New technologies and complexity
6. Hostile opposition to government
7. Smaller and less self-sufficient households
8. Widening young/old and poverty gaps
9. Shifting fundamental values
Market Failures
Weimer and Vining (2003):
◦ Public Goods: Federal Highway Administration
◦ Externalities: Environmental Protection Agency
◦ Information Asymmetry: Food and Drug
◦ Monopolies and Oligarchies: Federal
Communications Commission
“Greatest Good” Principle:
◦ Allocation of goods to maximize the social
welfare functions form theories of Rawlsianism
and Utilitarianism
Public Policy
Public Policy Models
Thomas R. Dye
◦ Institutional model
 Emphasizes formal and legal aspects of government
◦ Process model
 Political Systems Theory: Political response to demands
◦ Rational model
 Based on Public Choice, motivations of individual actors
◦ Incremental model
 Builds on past decisions and grows slowly and steadily
◦ Group model
 Pluralism: Diverse and competing interests for an equilibrium
◦ Elite model
 Wealthy and policy-planning insiders influence values and preferences
◦ Public choice model
 Bureaucrats, politicians and citizens all act in their own best interests
◦ Game theory model
 Statistical approach to behavior and decision making
Policy Analysis Tools
◦ Estimated Population = Pop. In a base year + (Avg. Growth Increment X
Time Periods)
◦ Assuming that past trends/ events will continue
Criteria Alternatives Matrix:
◦ Evaluating, rating and comparing different alternatives on multiple
◦ Net Present Value = Discounted Benefits-Discounted Costs
◦ Present Value = Future Value X Discount Factor
Benefit Cost Ratio:
◦ BCR = Discounted Benefits/ Discounted Costs (Greater than 1)
Deflating Money
◦ Current Dollar Value = (Current dollars X Base Year Implicit Price
Deflator)/ Current Year IPD
Cost Benefit Analysis
◦ Monetary value is assigned to inputs and outcomes of a processs
Classics of Organizational
Classical Organization Theory
◦ Adam Smith (1776) “Wealth of Nations”
 Division and specialization of labor in a pin factory
◦ Henri Fayol (1916) “General Principles of
 Universal approach to administrative management
◦ Max Weber, I922 (1946) “Nature of Social Action”
 Modern concept of bureaucracy with strict hierarchical
structure, set rules and regulations, professionalism and merit
◦ Luther Gulick (1937) “Notes on the Theory of
 Principles of P.A. – POSDCORB (Planning, Organizing, Staffing,
Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting)
Neoclassical Organization Theory
◦ Chester Barnard (1938) “Economy of Incentives”
 Power of persuasion to motivate and induce workers
◦ Herbert Simon (1946) “Proverbs of Administration”
 Attacked Wilson’s P.A. Dichotomy as contradictory, e.g. division based on
purpose, place, process or clientele?
◦ Phillip Selznick (1948) “Foundations of the Theory of
 Individuals may have different goals than the organization
 Cooptation is a way of managing opposition and so preserving stability
and the organization
◦ Cyert and March (1959) “Behavioral Theory of Organizational
 How decisions are taken within a firm, Compromise between different
individuals and groups within an organization that have their own
aspirations and conflicting interests
Behavior/ Human Resources
◦ Mary Parker Follett (1926) “Giving of Orders”
 Web of Inclusion, better to work with employees rather than just
give orders, encourage participation
◦ Abraham Maslow (1943) “Theory of Human Motivation”
 Pyramid- from the bottom-up: 1) Physiological, 2) Safety, 3)
Love/Belonging, 4) Psychological Needs/ Esteem, 5) SelfActualization
◦ Douglas MacGregor (1957) “Human Side of Enterprise”
 Theory X and Y: Different views on human motivation tactics,
Can become a self-fulfilling prophecy
◦ Irving Janis (1971) “Groupthink”
 Desperate drive for consensus at any cost
“Modern” Structural Organizations
◦ Burns and Stalker (1961) “Mechanistic and
Organic Systems”
 Mechanistic: Stable, hierarchic, precise roles and rules,
Organic: Changing, networks, innovation, community
◦ Blau and Scott (1962) “Concept of Formal
 Collective Actors, Formal Organization: fixed set of rules,
Informal Organization: interlocking social structure
◦ Henry Mintzberg (1979) “Five Basic Parts of the
 1) Strategic Apex, 2) Middle line, 3) Operating core, 4)
Technostructure, 5) Support Staff
Power and Politics
French and Raven (1959) “Five bases of Social Power”
1) Referent, 2) Expert, 3) Reward, 4) Coercive, and 5) Legitimate
Cohen and March (1974) “Leadership in an Organized
◦ Garbage can theory: decision making is neither
consequential nor sequential
Henry Mintzberg (1983) “Power Game and the Players”
Resources, Technical Skills, Body of Knowledge, Formal Power,
and Access to Power
Internal Coalitions: CEO, Operators, Line Managers, Analysts,
Support Staff and Ideology
External Coalitions: Owner, Associates, Employee Associations,
Publics, Directors
Culture and Change/ Environment
Edgar Schein (2004) “Concept of Organizational Culture”
◦ Set of shared beliefs and expectations based on societal norms
Katz and Kahn (1966) “Systems Concept”
◦ Open systems, seek optimal solutions, not just
“one best way”
Bolman and Deal (2003) “Reframing Organizations”
Structural = Factories
Human Resources = Families
Political = Jungles
Symbolic = Temples
Performance Management
Performance Management
Presidential Trends
◦ Clinton: National Performance Review
 Office of Reinventing Government
 America @ it’s Best – Work better and cost less
◦ Bush: Managing for Results
 PART (Program Assessment Rating Tool)
 Traffic Light Signal with executive discretion
◦ Obama: Accountable Government Initiative
 Reform contracting, Promote accountability, Close IT
gap, Recruit top talent and Cut waste,
Performance Management Tools
S.M.A.R.T.: David Ammons (2000)
Balanced Scorecard: Kaplan and Norton (1993)
Internal Processes
Innovation and Learning
Research Methodology
A New Model of Governance
Milward, Provan and Else (1993)
“Hollow State” – Metaphor for public
service provision outsourced to may
providers and reducing direct provision
 Lynn, Heinrich and Hill (2000)
“Governance and Performance” – How
can public-sector regimes, agencies,
programs and activities be organized to
achieve public purposes?
Theory-Building Research
Atheoretical – Builds on theory through
2. Disciplined Configurative – Use theories to
explain a case
3. Heuristic – Identify new variables, hypotheses
and causes
4. Theory Testing – Assesses validity and scope
of a theory
5. Plausibility Probes – Preliminary studies on
untested theories
6. Building Blocks – Identifying common
Qualitative Methods
Case Studies
◦ In-Depth Review can include Interviews, Archival Documents, Observations, and
Path Dependency
◦ How the set of decisions one faces for any circumstance is limited by the decisions
one has made in the past
Process Tracing
◦ Tracing the causal process from the independent variable of interest to the dependent
Congruence Method
◦ To fully understand an organization’s performance, must understand the organization
as a system that consists of some basic elements
◦ Time Bound, related specifically to the past, present or future
Critical Junctures
◦ David (1985) QWERTY keyboards vs Dvorak
Counterfactual Analysis
◦ “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”.
Quantitative Data and Methods
Levels of Measurement:
Nominal – Limited options, such as gender
Ordinal – Order, such as grades
Interval – Rank, such as temperature
Ratio – Percentage with natural zero
Intercept: Point where line crosses Y axis
Expected change in Y for one unit change in X,
holding others constant
Significance of each variable, if more than 2
reject null – there is a linear relation
If small than reject null hypothesis
R-Squared: Goodness of fit, Proportion of variation in
Dependent Variable explained by Independent Variables
Skewness: Tilt of the bell curve
Kurtosis: Peak of the bell curve
Confidence Interval: Range where the true value lies for the
population, a = .05, 95% certain to capture the true value
Standard Deviation: Average distance each score is from the
mean S = √ [Σ(Xi – Mean)2 ÷ (n – 1)]
Standard Error:
BLUE: Best Linear Unbiased Estimators
Seven Assumptions of CLRM:
Linear Relationship
No Covariance
Random distribution
No Autocorrelation
More observations than I.V.
No outliers
Quantitative Terms
Ordinary Least Squares (OLS): Method of finding the linear
model which minimizes the sum of the squared errors
Time Series: Follows one case over time
Panel Data: More than one case over time
Pooled Data: Different cases over time
Weighted Average: Takes into account the number of cases in
each category
Index of Qualitative Variation:
◦ IQV = Observed Differences ÷ Max Possible Differences
◦ MPD = [(# of cases)2 × (# of categories)] ÷ (2 × # of categories)
Central Limit Theorem:
◦ If an infinite # of random samples of equal size selected, sampling
distributions approach normality
Coefficient of Relative Variation:
◦ Used to compare distribution with different units
Performance Management Tools
Results Based Management:
◦ Ensuring all processes, products, and services
contribute to the achievement of desired
Activity Based Costing:
◦ Assigns cost based on how much is actually
Competitive Benchmarking:
◦ Comparing and measuring against other
Performance Management
Government Performance and
Reporting Act of 1993, strategic plans:
◦ Establish top-level agency goals, objectives and
annual program goals
◦ Define how it intends to achieve these goals
◦ Demonstrate how it will measure agency and
program performance in achieving goals
History of Budgeting
Performance Budgeting:
◦ Proposed by the Hoover Commission of 1949
Program, Planning and Budgeting
System (PPBS):
◦ President LBJ had Robert McNamara
implement in the Pentagon during Vietnam
Zero-Based Budgeting:
◦ President Carter adopted during the 1970s
Sample Comp Questions
Comp Question: Overview
Provide a general overview of the field in an essay with a
comprehensive assessment of the field’s evolution, its status today
as an academic discipline, and the direction of the field in the
 Evolved from political science, business, law and sociology
 Changes and grew to meet emerging societal demands
 Future trends in Public Service, sustainability, information technology and disaster
◦ Leading contributors
 Wilson, Follett, Gulick, Waldo, Simon, Dahl, Osborne & Gaebler, Denhardts
◦ “Big questions” that define the field
 What is P.A. and its role? What is the “good life”?
◦ Questions answered
 Administration is political and constitutionally legitimate
◦ Questions remaining
 Is governance more effective than the direct provision of government?
 How much government is appropriate?
 The scope of public administration varies with the people’s conception of good life,
which changes with the times
Comp Question: Performance
Critically assess the various approaches to agency
performance developed by PA:
◦ What challenges do we face in measuring performance in
the public sector?
 Democratic values are at odds with bureaucracy
 Motivation is not the same as business, e.g. equity
◦ What are some of the key propositions and findings about
effective public organizations?
 Culture must form from the top and include stakeholders
◦ Design a strategy to assess the effectiveness of the
organization’s performance.
 Regression model with business growth as dependent variable
 Shift-share analysis to measure clusters and integration
◦ Identify and defend possible performance measures.
 Change in number and composition of businesses
 Reduction in local unemployment and poverty rates
Article Review for Comp Exam
Briefly summarize the main points of the article in
terms of research questions, hypotheses, major
findings and conclusion
◦ Provide a critical evaluation of the article, including:
Assumptions made to investigate the problem
Potential contributions of the research
Internal and external validity
Strengths and weakness of the data, methodology and overall
research approach
 Potential improvements you would suggest
◦ Provide an explanation of the implications of the research
to the theory and practice of public administration, as well
as discussions of the statistical and substantive significance
of major findings
Comp Question: Theory
Discuss the various theoretical and practical
approaches aiming to reconcile bureaucratic
government with democratic values and key finding of
the research assessing them
◦ Political Control of Bureaucracy
 Agency Theory: Hard to control bureaucrats
 Principal-Agent: Legislature defers to agencies to deal with
complex issues
 Bureaucratic Capture: Ruled by policy elites
 Client Responsiveness: Work for constituents
◦ Representative Bureaucracy
 Cures constitutional defect and improves outcomes
◦ Bureaucratic Politics
 “Who gets what when and how” – Harold Lasswell, 1936
 Political Power – Waldo, Simon, Dahl and Allison
Timeline: 1776 - 1890
Declaration of Independence
Federalist Papers, written by Hamilton, Madison
and John Jay
Constitution (no mention of administration)
Jefferson – decentralization, individual rights,
Madison – separation and balance of power
Jackson – strong executive, spoil system grows
Tocqueville – line between state and society is blurred
John S. Mill, wage incentives, span of control, unity of
President James Garfield is shot by Charles Guiteau
Pendelton Civil Service Act, Wilson’s essay
Interstate Commerce Act
Progressive Era begins, Reform against corruption
1906 – 1940s
New York Bureau of Municipal Research
Staunton,VA appoints 1st city manager, differs
from existing local governments
Taylor – Scientific Management
World War I
Max Weber, Bureaucratic form of organization
Maxwell School at Syracuse
White’s 1st P.A. textbook
Elton Mayo – Hawthorne Experiments,
Mary Parker Follett
Stock market crash
Roosevelt - New Deal
Luther Gulick – POSDCORB
Chester Barnard – Functions of the Executive
World War II, Robert K. Merton opposes Weber’s
Neoclassical – Simon, Waldo, Dahl
1960s to 1980s
Human Relations – Maslow, MacGregor, Janis
Lindblom – Incremental Approach to policy making
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Great Society
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems
Minnowbrook Conference hosted by Waldo ushers in
New Public Administration
Allison – Decision making paradigms
Peter Drucker points out problems with management by
objectives, goals don’t always match
Civil Service Reform Act allowed non-postal federal
workers the right to unionize
Mintzberg – Five basic parts of an organization,
Modern Public Management Reform
New Public Management imitates private sector,
Westminster reforms in U.K. and New Zealand
1992 - 2010
 1998
 2007
 2008
Osborne and Gaebler - Reinventing
Government, Steer, Don’t Row
Gore - National Performance Review
Light – Scientific Management, War on Waste,
Watchful Eye, Liberation Management
Donald Kettl – Global Public Management Revolution,
Milward, Provan and Else – Hollow State
Bolman and Deal – Organizational Frames: Structural,
Human Resources, Political, Symbolic
Ammons – SMART performance measures
Denhardt and Denhardt – Serve, Not Steer
Barack Obama elected President, economic crisis,
Larry Bartels, Unequal Democracy
EZ Program extended a year
Neshkova’s Class
Justifications for Government Policy (Weimer and Vining, 2003)
Government and Market in Theory (Lindblom, 1977)
Politics and Market in Practice (Williams and Collins, 1998)
Development of the American State (Rohr, 1986)
Emergence of Bureaucracy – (Skowronek, 1984) (Carpenter, 2001)
Theories of Bureaucracy (Frederickson & Smith, 2003) (Wilson,
Selden, Brudney and Kellough, 1998 (Representative Bureaucracy)
O’Leary, 1994 (Agent Theory)
Ringquest, 1995 (Capture Theory)
Balla 1998 (Principal-Agent Theory)
Interest Groups and Bureaucracy (Lowi, Golden,
 Reforming American Public Sector (Light, 1997)
 Contemporary Forces (Kettl, 2005)
 Federalism and Empirical Issues (Peterson, 1996

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