Unit 3 •The Cardiovascular System Components • Cardiovascular system is made up of many different areas of your body. • Heart • Blood Vessels • Blood • Circulatory System • The lungs also play a role in helping the CV System? • What do the lungs do to the blood in our body? Components Cont. • Each Component is vital in allowing blood to flow through our bodies. With out all of them working together effectively our bodies may not function properly. • Think of dominoes that are all lined up together if one of them falls they all go down. Heart • Hearts job is to pump oxygen and other nutrients to all cells in the body. • The HRT helps remove waste and Carbon Dioxide from out cells. • This is done by continually pumping blood throughout the body. • The HRT is the most important muscle in our body and can grow stronger and weaker like any muscle. Heart Structure • HRT is about the size of your fist and located on the left-center side of your chest in the center of your lungs. • The HRT is made up of four chambers. Each chamber has a valve that opens and closes with blood flow. Blood Supply for the Heart The Muscular walls of the HRT are constantly active and need lots of oxygen and energy from blood. The HRT has its own network of Blood Vessels called Coronary Arteries. Blood Supply for the Heart There are 2 main arteries (which carry blood from the heart to the body) that cover the heart and divide over its surface. There 2 main veins (which carry used deoxygenated blood back to the heart) that also cover the surface for the heart. Blood Supply for the Heart The lower two chambers have much thicker muscular walls than the upper two chambers. There is a thin layer of HRT muscle that separates the right and left sides. 4 Chambers The Right Atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body (head). The blood then passes through a valve and goes down to the right ventricle. From the Right Ventricle the blood is pumped to the lungs where it gets oxygen. Chambers Cont. The Blood then comes from the lungs through veins back into the heart in the Left Atrium. The blood then passes through a valve and makes its way into the Left Ventricle. From the Left Ventricle the blood that has come from the lungs and is oxygenated gets pumped through the Aorta and into the rest of the body. Chambers Cont. The blood then goes through the body and back to the beginning of the process. The contracting of the heart takes about a second or less. Circulatory & Respiratory The Heart CV Diseases ATHEROSCLEROSIS • Fatty deposits (plaque) that cause the walls of your arteries to become hardened and narrow. • This restricts blood flow! • Results may include stroke, or blood clots. Healthy Artery Mid-Stage Atherosclerosis Unhealthy Artery Heart Attack • Occurs when an area of the heart muscle is deprived of blood and oxygen. • This happens because an artery has been clogged and tissue begins to die. • Symptom include sharp pain, tingling and numbness in the left arm. Heart Cont. Strong Heart • Has less fatty deposits. • Can pump more blood using less energy. • Lower Resting Heart Rate. Weak Heart • Enlarged bigger than your fist. • More fatty deposits located on the surface around it. • Must use more energy to pump the same amount of blood as a healthy heart. H e h a y l t U n h e a l t h y Blood • The blood that flows through this network of veins and arteries is whole blood, which contains three types of blood cells: – red blood cells (RBCs) – white blood cells (WBCs) – platelets • Red blood cells are shaped like slightly indented, flattened disks. • RBCs contain the iron-rich protein hemoglobin. • Blood gets its bright red color when hemoglobin picks up oxygen in the lungs. • As the blood travels through the body, the hemoglobin releases oxygen to the tissues and turns dark red.. Blood • The body contains more RBCs than any other type of cell, and each has a life span of about 4 months. • Each day, the body produces new RBCs to replace those that die or are lost from the body. Blood Blood • White blood cells are • Blood contains far fewer WBCs than red blood a key part of the cells, although the body body's system for can increase WBC defending itself production to fight infection. against infection. • WBCs, and their life spans • They can move in vary from a few days to and out of the months. bloodstream to • New cells are constantly reach affected being formed in the bone marrow. tissues. Blood Blood • Platelets made in the bone marrow. • They help in the clotting process. • When a blood vessel breaks, platelets gather in the area and help seal off the leak. • Platelets survive only about 9 days in the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells. • A clot begins to form when the blood is exposed to air. • The platelets sense the presence of air and begin to break apart. • They react with the fibrinogen to begin forming fibrin, which resembles tiny threads. • The fibrin threads then begin to form a web-like mesh that traps the blood cells within it. • This mesh of blood cells hardens as it dries, forming a clot, or "scab." Blood • Blood contains other important substances, such as nutrients from food that has been processed by the digestive system. • Blood also carries hormones released by the endocrine glands and carries them to the body parts that need them.