Object Oriented Analysis and Design

Report
Drawing System
Sequence Diagrams
SSD
Objectives


Identify System Events.
Create System Sequence diagrams
for the events.
2
Sequence Diagrams


Sequence Diagrams depict the objects
and classes involved in the scenario and
the sequence of messages exchanged
between the objects needed to carry out
the functionality of the system.
Sequence diagrams can be used to drive
out testable user interface requirements.
3
SSD—System Behavior


System behaves as “Black Box”.
Interior objects are not shown, as they
would be on a Sequence Diagram.
:System
4
System Sequence Diagrams





Use cases describeHow actors interact with system.
Typical course of events that external actors
generate and
The order of the events.
System Sequence Diagrams should be done
for the main success scenario of the usecase, and frequent and alternative scenarios.
5
Notation


Object: Objects are instances of
classes. Object is represented as a
rectangle which contains the name of the
object underlined.
Because the system is instantiated, it is
shown as an object.
:Object1
6
Notation (2)

Actor: An Actor is modeled using the
ubiquitous symbol, the stick figure.
actor1
7
Notation (3)

Lifeline: The Lifeline identifies the existence of the
object over time. The notation for a Lifeline is a
vertical dotted line extending from an object.
8
Notation (4)

Message: Messages, modeled as
horizontal arrows between Activations,
indicate the communications between
objects.
messageName(argument)
9
Example of an SSD


Following example shows the success
scenario of the Process Sale use case.
Events generated by cashier (actor)makeNewSale()
enterItem(itemID, quantity)
endSale()
and
makePayment(amount).
10
SSD for Process Sale scenario
11
System Sequence Diagrams and
Use Cases


System Sequence Diagram is generated from
inspection of a use case.
Constructing a systems sequence diagram
from a use case1.Draw a line representing the system as a
black box.
2.Identify each actor that directly operates
on the system. Draw a line for each such
actor.
12
System Sequence Diagrams and
Use Cases
3.From the use case, typical course of
events text, identify the system
(external) events that each actor
generates. They will correspond to an
entry in the right hand side of the
typical use case. Illustrate them on the
diagram.
4.Optionally, include the use case text
to the left of the diagram.
13
SSDs are derived from use cases.
14
System Events and System
Boundary

1.
2.
Identifying the System eventsDetermine the actors that directly interact
with the system.
In the process Sale example, the customer
does not directly interact with the POS
system. Cashier interacts with the system
directly. Therefore cashier is the generator of
the system events.
15
Defining system boundary
(system itself).
16
Naming System Events and
Operations
System event
 External input event generated by an actor.
 Initiates a responding operation by system.
System operation
 Operation invoked in response to system
event.
17
Naming System Events and
Operations(2)


System events and their associated system
operations should be expressed at the level of
intent rather than in terms of the physical input
medium or widget.
In order to improve the clarity, it is appropriate
to start the name of the system event with a
verb (for exampleadd….,enter….,end….,make…. etc.,). It also
emphasizes the command origination of these
events.
18
Naming System Events and
Operations(3)

For example “enterItem” is better than
“scan” as it captures the intent of
operation rather than what interface is
used to capture the system event
(design choice).
19
Choose event and operation names
at an abstract level
20
Showing Use Case Text


It is desirable to show at least fragments
of use case text for the scenario.
The text provides the details and
context, while the diagram visually
summarizes the interaction.
21
SSD with use case text
22
SSD and the Glossary



Since the terms used in SSDs are terse, they
may need proper explanation. If these terms
are not explained in use cases, glossary could
be used.
A glossary is less formal, it is easier to
maintain and more intuitive to discuss with
external parties such as users and customers.
However, glossary data should be meaningful,
otherwise it will be an unnecessary work.
23

similar documents