Modern Computer Systems - an Overview In this lecture we discuss the following material: • what makes up a computer system • the internals of a computer • software (makes the computer useable) • various types of computers Covering Unit 1 of the text by Norton The Parts of a Computer System • What is a Computer? • Hardware • Software • Data • Users The Parts of a Computer System - What is a Computer? A computer is an electronic device used to process data. • A computer can convert data into information that is useful to people. • A complete computer system includes four distinct parts: Hardware Software Data User The Parts of a Computer System - Hardware • A computer's hardware consists of electronic devices; the parts you can see and touch. • The term "device" refers to any piece of hardware used by the computer, such as a keyboard, monitor, modem, mouse, etc. The Parts of a Computer System - Software • Software – also called programs – consists of organized sets of instructions for controlling the computer. • Some programs exist for the computer's use, to help it manage its own tasks and devices. • Other programs exist for the user, and enable the computer to perform tasks for you, such as creating documents. The Parts of a Computer System - Data • Data consists of raw facts, which the computer can manipulate and process into information that is useful to people. • Computerized data is digital, meaning that it has been reduced to digits, or numbers. The computer stores and reads all data as numbers. • Although computers use data in digital form, they convert data into forms that people can understand, such as text, numerals, sounds, and images. The Parts of a Computer System – Users • People are the computer's operators, or users. • Some types of computers can operate without much intervention from people, but personal computers are designed specifically for use by people. 01101111 10001111 01101010 10000000 01001010 Looking Inside the Machine - The CPU The procedure that transforms raw data into useful information is called processing. This function is divided between the computer's processor and memory. The processor is also called the central processing unit (CPU). It manages all devices and performs the actual processing of data. The CPU consists of one or more chips attached to the computer's main circuit board (the motherboard). Looking Inside the Machine - Memory • Memory also consists of chips attached to the motherboard. • Memory holds data and program instructions as the CPU works with them. This memory is called Random Access Memory (RAM). • The CPU can find any piece of data in RAM, when it needs it for processing. • RAM is volatile, meaning it holds data only when the power is on. When the power is off, RAM's contents are lost. Looking Inside the Machine – How Memory is Measured • The smallest usable unit of measure for memory is the byte – the amount of memory required to hold one character, like the letter A or the numeral 2. • Computers work with larger chunks of data, measured in multiple bytes, as shown below: Unit Approx. Value (bytes) Actual Value (bytes) Kilobyte (KB) Megabyte (MB) Gigabyte (GB) Terabyte (TB) 1,000 1,000,000 1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000,000 1,024 1,048,576 1,073,741,824 1,099,511,627,776 Looking Inside the Machine – Input and Output Devices • Input devices accept data and instructions from the user or from another computer system. The keyboard and mouse are examples of input devices. • Output devices return processed data back to the user or to another computer system. The printer and monitor are examples. • Communications devices (such as modems and network interface cards) perform both input and output, allowing computers to share information. Looking Inside the Machine - Storage Devices • Storage devices hold data not currently being used by the CPU. Data is commonly stored on a magnetic or optical disk. Each type uses a special medium for storing data on its surface. • A disk drive is a device that reads data from and writes data to a disk. Most new computers feature a floppy disk drive, a hard disk drive, and an optical disk drive. • The most common optical storage devices are CDROM and DVD-ROM drives. Software: Bringing the Machine to Life • What is Software? • System Software • Application Software Bringing the Machine to Life – What is Software? • Software is a set of electronic instructions that tells the computer how to do certain tasks. A set of instructions is often called a program. • When a computer is using a particular program, it is said to be running or executing the program. • The two most common types of programs are system software and application software. Bringing the Machine to Life – System Software • System software exists primarily for the computer itself, to help the computer perform specific functions. • One major type of system software is the operating system (OS). All computers require an operating system. • The OS tells the computer how to interact with the user and its own devices. • Common operating systems include Windows, the Macintosh OS, OS/2, and UNIX . Bringing the Machine to Life - Applications • Application software tells the computer how to accomplish tasks the user requires, such as creating a document or editing a graphic image. • Some important kinds of application software are: Word processing programs Database management Graphics programs Web design tools and browsers Communications programs Entertainment and education Spreadsheet software Presentation programs Networking software Internet applications Utilities Multimedia authoring The Shapes of Computers Today - Supercomputers • Supercomputers are the most powerful computers. They are used for problems requiring complex calculations. • Because of their size and expense, supercomputers are relatively rare. • Supercomputers are used by universities, government agencies, and large businesses. The Shapes of Computers Today - Mainframe Computers • Mainframe computers can support hundreds or thousands of users, handling massive amounts of input, output, and storage. • Mainframe computers are used in large organizations where many users need access to shared data and programs. • Mainframes are also used as e-commerce servers, handling transactions over the Internet. The Shapes of Computers Today - Minicomputers • Minicomputers are smaller than mainframes but larger than microcomputers. • Minicomputers usually have multiple terminals. • Minicomputers may be used as network servers and Internet servers. The Shapes of Computers Today – Workstations • Workstations are powerful single-user computers. • Workstations are used for tasks that require a great deal of number-crunching power, such as product design and computer animation. • Workstations are often used as network and Internet servers. The Shapes of Computers Today – Microcomputers, or Personal Computers • Microcomputers are more commonly known as personal computers. The term "PC" is applied to IBM-PCs or compatible computers. • Full-size desktop computers are the most common type of PC. • Notebook (laptop) computers are used by people who need the power of a desktop system, but also portability. • Handheld PCs (such as PDAs) lack the power of a desktop or notebook PC, but offer features for users who need limited functions and small size. Review • List the four parts of a computer system. • Identify four types of computer hardware. • Provide examples of input and output devices. • Name and describe three types of storage devices. • Differentiate the two main categories of software. • List the five most common types of computer systems. • Differentiate workstations from personal computers. • Identify four types of personal computers.