CHAPTER 5 - Suffolk County Community College

Report
CHAPTER 5:
Classroom Assessments
Observations
Assessment In Early Childhood Education
Fifth Edition
Sue C. Wortham
Developed by:
Dr. Margarita Pérez, Worcester State College
Chapter Objectives
1. Understand the purposes for teacher assessments
2. Understand the purposes of observation
3. Use different types of observation
4. Conduct observations of physical, social, cognitive,
and language development by using appropriate
observation strategies
Informal Teacher-conducted
Assessments
• Obtain more specific information than
standardized tests about each child relative to
the instructional objectives of the class
• Can be used for placement, diagnostic evaluation
and instructional planning
• For preschool, teacher-designed evaluation
strategies are a first step in evaluation
Disadvantages Of Using
Classroom Assessments
Improper development and implementation of
teacher-designed assessments:
• validity and reliability are questionable
• there is misapplication and inappropriate use
• there may be confusion over what constitutes
mastery and what kind of assessment is
appropriate to determine mastery
Beaty’s Reasons for Observing and Recording
the Development of Young Children
1. To make an initial assessment of the child’s abilities
2. To determine a child’s areas of strength and areas
needing strengthening
3. To make individual plans based on observed needs
4. To conduct an ongoing check on the child’s progress
5. To learn more about child development in particular
areas
6. To resolve a particular problem involving the child
7. To use in reporting to parents or to specialists in health,
speech, and mental health
8. To gather information for the child’s folder, for use in
guidance and placement
Assessment of Young
Children with Disabilities
Play-based assessment is a more effective way of
assessing than testing children who may be delayed in
development.
Arena assessment by transdisciplinary teams of
professionals simultaneously observe the child’s play.
Transdisciplinary play-based assessment (TPBA) is used
to observe children’s development in structured and
unstructured play situations to study child–child and
parent–child interactions.
Skills of the Observer
• Know what to look for, how to record the desired
information, and how to explain the behavior
• Have knowledge of developmental theories and
stages of development to identify the significant
events of an observation
• Use this knowledge to interpret the child’s level of
development and to determine the need for
experiences to further the child’s development
Ecobehavioral assessment
• Assessment of behavior in natural
environments
• Systematic observation of the child
• Criterion referenced rather than norm
referenced
Ecobehavioral assessment
• Behavior of child is described
• The relationship with environmental
variables are analyzed
• Behaviors change in different situations
and with different informants
• Focus is on naturalistic observations
Ecobehavioral assessment
• A) Analyzes the physical and social
environment of the school
1) grouping of students
2) instructional materials utilized
3) instructional methods
4) schedule of the school day
5) physical location
Ecobehavioral assessment
• B) analyzes the teacher’s behavior
1) physical location
2) verbalizations
3) response to the student’s behavior
What is a Behavior?
• 1) Observable
• 2) Definable
• 3) Measurable
- frequency (how often does it occur?)
- duration (how long does it occur?)
• Place a B or N in each blank, depending whether the term is a
specific Behavior or Not a specific behavior
_______ 1. Angry
_______ 11. Happy
_______ 2. Hits classmates and yells _______ 12. Walks to the
door
_______ 3. Is bad
_______ 13. Loves food
_______ 4. Does not complete
_______ 14. Eats all the
homework
food on the plate in 1 minute
______ 5. Is sad
_______ 15. Good boy
______ 6. Cries 4 times during the day _______ 16. Sings at
recess
______ 7. Good student
_______ 17. Verbally
abusive
______ 8. Pays attention
_______ 18. Uses swear
words 20 times in 10 minutes
______ 9. Raises hand
_______ 19. Is afraid
______ 10. Neurotic
_______ 20. Hides in the
corner when confronted by the class bully
Types of Observation
The purpose for gathering information helps determine
the best observation method to use.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Anecdotal records
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
Event sampling (frequency recording)
Duration recording
Latency recording
Time sampling
Running records
Specimen records
Checklists
Rating scales
Anecdotal Record (narrative summary)
An objective account of an incident that tells what
happened, when, and where.
• It is a prompt, accurate, and specific account of an
event.
• It includes the context of the behavior.
• Interpretations of the incident are recorded separately
from the incident.
• It focuses on behavior that is either typical or unusual
for the child being observed.
Follow This Case
Matt, a 4th grade student, seems to react in a negative manner
towards his peers. During his reading class, he pushed
another student and said a sarcastic remark to his teacher
when he was instructed to get his reading homework out to
pass toward the front of the class.
During this reading class, Matt’s teacher requested that the
special education teacher observe to assist her with figuring
out why Matt seemed to be having difficulty. The special
education teacher completed an anecdotal recording.
Anecdotal Recording of Matt
Matt entered the classroom. He went to his desk and talked to the
student sitting next to him. The student responded. When the teacher
requested that the students prepare for their oral reading period, Matt
continued talking with his peer. The peer asked Matt to leave him
alone. Matt continued talking to the student and the student replied
“Leave me alone. Stop talking. We are going to get into trouble.” At
this point, Matt shoved the student. Peer repeats request. The teacher
instructed the students to hand in their reading questions that were
assigned for homework. The peer told Matt, “ Pay attention. Get
your homework out.” At this point, Matt replied, “I didn’t do the
stupid homework.” The peer laughs.
Functional Behavioral Assessment
IDEA requires assessment teams to conduct
functional behavioral assessments (FBA).
• “what is the function of the behavior?”
• Task avoidance or escape, sensory
stimulation, attention, continuing a reinforcing
activity
– Antecedents
• Difficulty of assignment, noise levels,
fatigue
– Behavior
– Consequences
• Reinforcement or punishment
Write each in the following format:
Antecedents
Behaviors
Consequences
Antecedents
Behaviors
Consequences
Matt enters the
room.
Matt talks to his
peer.
The peer responds.
Teacher gives
command.
Matt talks to his
peer.
The peer responds.
Peer tells Matt to
stop.
Peer tells Matt
to get
homework out.
Matt pushes peer.
Matt talks to peer.
The peer responds.
The peer responds
(laughs).
Event Recording
Event recording-Recording the frequency of a target
Behavior; also called frequency counting.
Matt’s teacher and the special education teacher reviewed the
anecdotal recording. They determined that Matt’s talking
was being reinforced by the responses of his peer. In other
words, talking to the peer served the function of receiving
peer attention. The special education teacher asked Matt’s
teacher if Matt behaved in the same manner during other
classes. The teacher decided to complete an observation for
other classes and other days to see if the behavior was consistent.
The next slide illustrates the data.
Event Recording for Matt
Target Behavior: Talking to Peers
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Reading 1111 11
1111 1111
1111 1111 11
Spelling 111
11
11
Writing
1111
11
Math 1
11
11
1
Review the frequency count presented on the
Previous page. Discuss the following questions.
1. Is Matt’s behavior consistent in all of the other periods
observed?
2. When does the behavior seem the most
problematic?
3. Is the behavior the same across the three
days of the observations?
4. What hypotheses can you generate or, in other words, what
other information would
you want to find out to help you understand the behaviors?
Special Education Teacher and General
Classroom Teacher Discussion
The teachers discussed the data and made the following
Observations. Matt’s talking is consistently more problematic
during reading class. His talking seemed to increase through the
week in reading class.
The questions that the teachers decided they wanted to answer
were:
How is Matt achieving in reading? How does Matt feel about the
reading tasks he is required to do? For example, does he dislike
the oral reading time or the written homework for the stories
read in class?
Special Education Teacher and General
Classroom Teacher Discussion
Other questions they considered were:
Does Matt have friends in his other classes? (The peer he
talked with is only in his reading class.)
Are there factors outside the classroom that prevent him
from completing his homework for reading?
Because reading is the first class of the day, are there factors
that occur in the mornings before school or on the way to
school that impact his behavior (setting events)?
Does Matt use his time in class to complete his work?
Frequency or Event Recording
Latency Recording
Latency recording- Observations involving the amount of time that
elapses from the presentation of the stimulus until the response occurs.
One intervention that Matt’s teacher implemented was a change in
seating arrangement. Matt was no longer sitting next to the same peer.
He continued to have some difficulty in reading class.
As the teachers discussed Matt’s behaviors, one of the factors that seems
to influence Matt’s ability to make academic progress was the length of
time it required Matt to complete his assignments. His teacher noted that
Matt seems to take a long time getting organized and getting to work.
His teacher decided to complete a latency recording. For comparison, the
teacher also completed a latency recording for 2 peers sitting beside
Matt.
Latency Recording
Stimulus
Time to Respond
Instruction
Matt
Peer 1
Peer 2
Get reading
Books out
145 seconds
20 seconds
5 seconds
Take out
Paper
90 seconds
15 seconds
12 seconds
120 seconds
18 seconds
10 seconds
Begin
Chapter
questions
Terry Overton
Assessing Learners with Special
Needs, 5e
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Analyzing the Data
As you can see, Matt seems to take significantly more time
responding to requests in reading class.
Can you suggest some strategies or interventions
that might be beneficial to try?
Matt’s teacher analyzed Matt’s permanent products in his
academic subjects. His teacher noted that Matt’s skills seemed to
be somewhat weak in the areas of reading decoding, reading
comprehension, and writing. Discuss the impact of his academic
skills on his behavior and the impact of his behavior on his
academic achievement. Review the other types of informal
academic and behavioral assessment that should be used next.
Momentary Time Sampling
T: Observation 1 = 20%
T: Observation 2 = 60%
C: Observation 1 = 80%
C: Observation 2 = 100%
Running Record
A record of the situation so that future readers can visualize
what occurred.
• more detailed narrative that includes the sequence of
events--everything that happened and was said during the
observation period
• the description is objective
• comments or analysis of the behaviors are kept separately
from the record
• used in assessments of emergent literacy as informal
assessments conducted while the child is reading
Specimen Record
• similar to a running record, but more
detailed and precise
• used by researchers who are not part of
the classroom
• researchers may later code observation
information to analyze the findings
Observing Development
• Development is continuous, multidimensional
and sequential
Although each individual develops at a different
rate,
– stages do not vary; children do not skip a stage of
development
– all children progress, regardless of cultural or social
differences, through the stages in the same order; the
stages are universal
Purposes for Observing
Physical Development
• To learn how children develop gross- and
fine-motor skills
• To become familiar with the kinds of
physical activities young children engage
in as they practice the use of gross- and
fine-motor skills
• To become familiar with individual
differences in physical development
Purposes for Observing Social and
Emotional Development
• To learn how children develop social skills
• To become familiar with how children learn
about social interactions
• To understand how children differ in social skill
development
• To become familiar with the ways preschool
children handle their emotions
• To be aware of differences in children’s
emotional behaviors and responses
Purposes for Observing Cognitive
Development
• To understand how children use cognitive
abilities to learn
• To understand differences in children’s cognitive
styles
• To understand how the child uses play and
interaction with materials to extend his or her
cognitive abilities
• To become familiar with how children think and
what they are capable of learning
• To evaluate what children have learned
Purposes for Observing Language
Development
•
•
•
•
To understand the child’s ability to use
language to communicate
To understand the difference between
egocentric and socialized speech
To learn how the child uses syntax, grammar,
and vocabulary in the process of expanding
and refining his or her language
To become aware of differences in language
development among individual children
Purposes for Observing Language
Development for English Language
Learners (ELLs)
• To determine how ELLs are progressing in
learning English
• To determine ELLs individual needs for
language experiences
• To determine a child’s dominant language
when placed into a bilingual program
Advantages of Observation for
Assessment: Validity
Observations are ecologically valid when the
observer can:
• observe children engaged in the everyday life of
the classroom
• notice the child’s behaviors and the background
factors that influence the behaviors
• focus on the behavior or information that is
needed
Disadvantages of Observation for
Assessment: Validity
The validity of the observation may be in doubt if the
observer:
• misses details
• focuses on the wrong behaviors
• becomes less attentive during the observation
period
• experiences observer bias
– when there are preconceived notions about the
child, which effect the interpretation
• observes the incident out of context
• affects children’s behavior with his/her presence
Observation Guidelines
• Determine the purpose of the observation
to identify the site
• Appropriate observer behaviors during
observation visit: unobtrusiveness
• Ethics during the observation visit:
confidentiality
• Avoiding personal bias
Behavioral and Social
Cognitive Approaches
•Learning is a relatively permanent change
in behavior that occurs through experience.
There are five major approaches to
learning.
49
Behavioral and Social
Cognitive Approaches
• Behaviorism: Behavior is explained by
observable experiences.
•
•
Mental Processes The
observable thoughts,
feelings, and motives that
we experience
•
Associative
Learning
that two
50
Contiguity or Associated
Learning
• Learning by simple associations: Pairing
• Stimulus → Response
• Examples:
– Golden Arches = McDonalds
– Times tables (7 X 8 = 56)
– States & capitals (Lansing, MI)
Classical or Pavlovian
Conditioning
We learn to
associate
two stimuli
Behavioral and Social
Cognitive Approaches
Behavioral
Approaches to
Learning
Classical
Conditioning
Operant
Conditioning
53
Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
1849-1936
Russian physician/
neurophysiologist
Nobel Prize in 1904
studied digestive
secretions
Behavioral Approaches
•Classical Conditioning is a type of learning in which an
organism learns to connect or associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus
becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the
capacity to elicit a similar response.
•
55
Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and
naturally--triggers a response
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
unlearned, naturally occurring response to the
unconditioned stimulus
salivation when food is in the mouth
Classical Conditioning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
originally irrelevant stimulus that, after
association with an unconditioned stimulus,
comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned Response (CR)
learned response to a previously neutral
conditioned stimulus
• The Water Show
• Jeannette was happy when she heard her
family’s plan to go to a water sports show.
Then she heard the weather report, which
predicted temperatures exceeding 100
degrees. Jeannette suspected that the
weather would be hard to bear, but she went
anyway to the show. As she watched the
water skiers perform their taxing routines to
the blaring organ music, she became very
sweaty and uncomfortable. Eventually she
fainted from the heat. After the family outing,
Jeannette could never again hear organ
music without feeling dizzy and eventually
• The Troublesome Shower (example of an
acquired behavior via CC)
• Martin is taking a shower in the men’s locker
room after working out. While in the shower
he hears someone flush a toilet. Suddenly,
very hot water rushes out of the shower head
causing Martin to get slightly burnt. As he
continues to shower, he hears another toilet
flushing and immediately jumps out from
under the shower head.
• What is the unconditioned stimulus (US)?
_________________________________
• What is the unconditioned response (UR)?
Pavlov’s Classical
Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus
causes an
Unconditioned Response
Neutral Stimulus
+
Unconditioned Stimulus
=
Conditioned Stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
causes a
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Conditioned Response
Classical Conditioning: An
Example
Flash of camera (UCS)
Camera (NS)
causes
+
Blinking (UCR)
Flash of camera (UCS)
=
Camera (CS)
Camera (CS)
causes
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Blinking (CR)
Nausea Conditioning in
Cancer Patients
UCS
(drug)
UCR
(nausea)
CS
(waiting
room)
UCS
(drug)
UCR
(nausea)
CS
(waiting
room)
CR
(nausea)
John B. Watson
viewed psychology as
objective science
generally agreed-upon
consensus today
recommended study of
behavior without
reference to
unobservable mental
processes
not universally
accepted by all
schools of thought
Classical Classroom Examples
• A first grader feels ill when recess time
approaches because he was beat up on
the playground the last 3 days in a row.
• Certain smells that can elicit nauseous
sensations (Hopefully NOT from the
cafeteria!)
• Speech phobia : cold sweat, shaking
knees and hands
• Phobias in general
Behavioral Approaches
Classical Conditioning
• Generalization The tendency of a
new stimulus
similar to
the original
conditioned stimulus to
produce a similar response.
• Discrimination The organism
responds to
certain stimuli and not others.
• Extinction
The weakening of
the
65
Behavioral Approaches
Classical Conditioning
• Systematic Desensitization reduces
anxiety by getting the individual to associate
deep relaxation with successive
visualizations of increasing anxiety-producing
situations.
66
Behavioral Approaches
Operant Conditioning is a form of
learning in which the consequences of
behavior produce changes in the probability
that the behavior
will occur.
Thorndike’s Law of Effect
Behavior
Positive Outcome
Behavior
Strengthened
Behavior
Negative Outcome
Behavior
Weakened
67
Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
elaborated
Thorndike’s Law of
Effect
developed behavioral
technology
Behavioral Approaches
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
Operant Behavior - operates (acts) on environment
produces consequences
Consequences (rewards and punishments)
are contingent on the organism’s behavior.
Reinforcement (reward) increases
the probability that a behavior will occur.
Punishment decreases the probability
that a behavior will occur.
69
Reinforcement Examples
Primary Reinforcers:
Food
Water
Warmth
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Security
Sex
Reinforcement Examples
Secondary Reinforcers
Money
Grades
Stars
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Praise
Types of Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement – giving something that
the person wants that increases the behavior
Examples:
Praise
Teacher attention
Rewards
Negative reinforcement – taking away
something that the person does not want that
increases the behavior
Chores
Taking away time-out
Types of Punishment
Presentation Punishment (type I) – giving
something that the person does not want that
decreases the behavior
Detention
Extra work
Removal Punishment (type II) – taking away
something that the person wants that
decreases the behavior
Loss of recess
Loss of privileges
Behavioral Approaches
Generalization
Giving the same response
to similar stimuli.
Discrimination
Differentiating among stimuli or
environmental events.
Extinction
Previously reinforced response is no
longer reinforced and the response
decreases.
One way to deal with a
child’s temper tantrum is to
ignore it resulting in
extinction
74
Schedules of Reinforcement
 Continuous Reinforcement
 reinforcing the desired response each time it
occurs
 Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement
 reinforcing a response only part of the time
 results in slower acquisition
 greater resistance to extinction
Reinforcement Schedules
Types of Reinforcement Schedules
Continuous
Intermittent
Fixed
Interval
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Variable
Ratio
Ratio
Interval
Schedules of
Reinforcement:
Frequency and Predictability
Fixed Ratio:
reinforcer given
after fixed
number of
behaviors
Fixed Interval:
reinforcement
only at certain
periodic times
Variable Ratio:
reinforcer given
after
unpredictable
number of
behaviors
Variable
Interval:
reinforcement
at some times
but not others
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Francis sells jewelry to a local gift shop. Each time he
completes 10 pairs of earrings, the shopkeeper
pays him for them. This is an example of a
___________
schedule of reinforcement.
• A. Fixed ratio
• B. Variable ratio
• C. Fixed interval
• D. Variable interval
Sandra’s mail is delivered every day at 10:00. She
checks her mailbox several times each morning, but
only finds mail the first time she checks after 10:00.
This is an example of a __________ schedule of
reinforcement
• A. Fixed ratio
• B. Variable ratio
• C. Fixed interval
• D. Variable interval
Vernon is practicing his golf putting. On the
average, it takes him four tries before the ball
goes in the hole. This is an example of a
_________ schedule of reinforcement
• A. Fixed ratio
• B. Variable ratio
• C. Fixed interval
• D. Variable interval
Paula is an eager third-grader, and loves to be
called on by her teacher. Her teacher calls on her
approximately twice each period, although Paula
is never sure when her turn will come. This is an
example of a __________ schedule of
reinforcement
• A. Fixed ratio
• B. Variable ratio
• C. Fixed interval
• D. Variable interval
Role of Consequences:
Reinforcement
Premack Principle (“Grandma’s Rule”):
promoting less-desired activities by linking
them to more-desired activities
“If you eat your
vegetables, you
may have
dessert.”
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Reinforcement: Prompts and Shaping
Prompts: Added stimuli that are given just before the
likelihood that the behavior will occur.
─Get behavior going.
─Once desired behavior is consistent, remove
prompts.
Shaping: Involves teaching new behaviors by
reinforcing successive approximations of the desired
behavior.
─First, reward any response.
─Next, reward responses that resemble the
desired behavior.
─Finally, reward only target behavior.
81
LO 5.23
Real world example use of conditioning
Real World Example
Training a cat to use
the toilet will
involve:
Shaping.
Preparing “the
training arena.”
Positive
reinforcement on a
variable schedule.
Menu
Operant Chamber
Skinner Box
chamber with a bar
or key that an
animal
manipulates to
obtain a food or
water reinforcer
contains devices to
record responses
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Applied Behavioral Analysis:
Applying the principles of
operant conditioning to change
human behavior.
84
Classroom Uses of
Reinforcement
1. Identify behaviors you want from your students, then
reinforce them when they occur.
2. Tell students which behaviors you want; when they
occur, reinforce them and explain why the behavior
is desirable.
3. Reinforce appropriate behavior immediately.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Maintenance of Behavior in the
Classroom
When teaching a new behavior/skill, reinforcement
for correct responses should be:
•Frequent
•Predictable
When a behavior/skill is established,
reinforcement for correct responses should be:
•Less frequent
•Less predictable
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Reinforcement
Guidelines for the Classroom:
─Initial learning is better with continuous
reinforcement.
─Students on fixed schedules show less
persistence, faster response extinction.
─Students show greatest persistence on
variable- ratio schedule.
87
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Increasing Desirable Behaviors
.
1. Choose effective 2. Make reinforcers
reinforcers.
contingent and timely.
3. Select the BEST
reinforcement schedule.
4. Consider contracting.
5. Use negative
reinforcement
effectively.
88
Reward Chart
Token Economy
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors
1. Use differential reinforcement by reinforcing
more appropriate behavior.
2. Withdraw positive reinforcement from a child’s
inappropriate behavior.
3. Remove desirable stimuli through “time-out
and response cost.”
4. Present aversive (unpleasant) stimuli.
90
Bandura’s Social Cognitive
Theory
Social, Cognitive, and
Behavioral factors play
important roles in learning.
Observational Learning
occurs when a person
observes and imitates
someone else’s behavior.
91
LO 5.21
Bandura’s classic Bobo doll study
Menu
.
Social Cognitive Approaches
to Learning
Bandura’s Contemporary Model
Attention
Students are more likely to
be attentive to high status
models (teachers).
Production
Poor motor ability inhibits
reproduction of the model’s
behavior. Help improve skills.
Retention
Student retention will be
improved when teachers give
logical and clear
demonstrations.
Motivation
When given a reinforcement,
modeling increases.
93
Modeling Violence
Children modeling after pro wrestlers
Glassman/ The Image Works
Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
Research has shown that viewing media violence does lead to
increased expression of aggression.
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
Theory into Practice
Nick frequently gets out of his seat and entertains his classmates with
humorous remarks. Mr. Lincoln often scolds Nick for his behavior.
However, Nick’s classmates laugh when Nick makes remarks. The
scolding rarely has any impact. Nick continues with his antics. After
several days of this, other boys in the class begin to get out of their
seats and make humorous remarks as well.
Q.1: Why do the other boys begin to misbehave? Explain.
Q.2: What does this say about Nick?
7.31
Social Cognitive Approaches
to Learning
Classroom Use of Observational
Learning
Decide the type of
model you will be
Demonstrate and teach
new behaviors
Use peers as
effective models
Use mentors as
models
Consider the models
children observe
in the media
96

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