Learning Objectives

Report
Learning Objectives
Participants will be able to:
 Identify the key components of community
supervision, and
 Explain how to apply these components to
sex offenders.
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
1
Components of
Supervision
Caseload
The Case Plan
Organization
Maintaining the Case
The PSI
File
Assessment
Surveillance
Classification
Statutory
Pre-sentence
Requirements
Recommendations Lengthening Periods
Conditions of
of Supervision
Supervision CSOM Long Version: Section 3
2
Relapse Prevention
Offending behavior does not just
“happen”.
Offenders make a series of choices.
Intervention:
Offenders learn about their offense cycles.
Offenders learn to identify risk factors.
Offenders learn to respond appropriately.
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
3
Officers Can Support
Relapse Prevention by:
Helping offender learn his cycle, triggers
Correcting offender’s thinking errors
Promoting use of coping skills
Supporting development of internal
control
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
4
Relapse/Prevention
Relapse Prevention Cycle
Reward/Release
Fe Des
a p
Sh r, G air
am uil
e t,
False
Remor se
Seemingly Unimportant Decision?
Yes
No:
Prevention
Fals
e
(P ro Resol
mis v e
Sto e to
p)
Fal
se
Pro
mi s
e
s
High-Risk Situation
(Sense of control threat ened)
Pretends to be
Normal Phase
u rs o
rs
MCR
Cont s &
in
Laps ued
es
Freeman-Longo
New Hope Treatment Centers
225 M idland P arkway
S um mervil le, SC 29485
Setting Up Offense
Fantasy/Planning
Giving up
Control
AVE
D ru g
s
s
o id
lit y
A v s ib i
n
o
sp
Re
Lapse
s
SU
Ds
P re c
Build-Up
Phase
F
P ea
e s ow r s
po er
ns es
ut
O
t
c e
A
e - ha s
r
P P
R
Relapse
(D ownward Sp iral)
Yes:
Prevention
Lapse
Abstinence Violation Ef fect (giv ing up)
On Going Life Problems
Justification
Phase
Act Out
Phase
Adequate Coping Response
No
ss
re s
pp lem
Su r ob
P
(Payoff for Acting Out)
i ze,
i ni m
M
:
es
fy,
ens , Jus ti me
f
e
y
D
la
Den l ize, B
a
n
o
i
Rat
Abstinence
(sense of cont rol, continued success expect ed)
Adequate Coping Response?
No
Relapse
Yes:
Prevention
(Reof fense)
Trigger
&
Fs
HR CRs
M
*This diagram represent s an “average” off ender’ s cycl e and it s various
phases. T he part icular part s and t hei r order wit hin each phase may vary
among of fenders and some m ay not experience all parts shown
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
5
Specialized Skills for Sex
Offender Supervision
Risk and need assessment
Strategies for high risk situations
Treatment and monitoring tools
Legal liability issues
Legislative mandates (notification, DNA)
Victim issues
Restorative justice
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
6
The PSI Provides
Information Regarding
The offender
The supervision environment
Victim impact
Resources available
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
7
Pre-sentence Investigation
Recommendations
Risk Assessment:
To community
To victim(s)
Amenability to Treatment
Special Conditions
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
8
Elements of the PSI
Document review
Interviews
Assessing probability of reoffense and
amenability to treatment
Developing recommendations
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
9
Documents Essential to
the PSI
Police Affidavit
Sex Offender-specific Evaluation
Mental Health Evaluations
Previous Supervision and Treatment
Records
Military Records
Victim Information
Waivers of Confidentiality
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
10
Interviews Conducted for
the PSI
Offender
Authors of written reports
police
therapists
Family and associates of offender
Victim
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
11
Personal History Items of
the Offender
Family
Marital or other
relationships
Employment
Volunteer and
leisure activities
Financial
Medical
Military
Substance Abuse
Release of
Information
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
12
Interactions with the
Offender during the PSI
Different than during course of treatment
Accept some rationalization or
minimization
Balance:
need for information
need to garner cooperation
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
13
Details of the Offense
Alcohol or drug
use
Anything offender
wanted but didn’t
act on?
Weapons use
Offenders feelings
Has offender ever
CSOM Long Version: tried
Section 3 to stop?
14
Where
Selection of victim
Methods to force
submission
Victim reaction
Elements of crime
that were arousing
Sexual History Topics
How/when the offender learned about sex
What offender’s parents taught him
Dating and first sexual experience
Masturbation patterns and fantasies
Onset of sexual problems
Sexual relationship with significant other
Victimization issues
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
15
Closing the Sexual History
Interview
Emphasize use of information
Non-confidential
Others will have access
Encourage honesty and candor
Prepare offender for his own reactions
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
16
Interviews with Victims
USE CAUTION: follow agency policy
Seek training before working with victims
Avoid further trauma to victim
Look for info from other sources first
Listen for impact of crime on victim
Listen for modus operandi of offender
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
17
Collateral Interviews
Family, roommates, neighbors can help
answer:
 Who is offender living with?
 What are their names and ages?
 Do they know of his offense?
Is offender willing to give access?
 What are names and criminal histories
of offender’s associates?
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
18
Assessing/Evaluating the Sex Offender to Support
Safe Management in the Community
Who?
Prosecutor
Probation/
Parole Officer
Judge
Treatment
Provider
Polygraph
Examiner
Victim
Advocate
How/Tools?
Actuarial Risk
Assessment
Tools
Psychometric
Scales
Physiological
Tests
-polygraph
-plethysmograph
-Abel Screen
Observation
Interview
Sources of
Information
Assessing what?
Why?
Likelihood of Reoffense
Sentencing
Dangerousness
Deviant Sexual Arousal
Suitability for
Community
Supervision
Severity/Type of
Offense/Reoffense
Level of
Supervision
Amenability to Treatment
Case Plan
Progress in
Treatment
Set Special
Conditions
Treatment Needs
Treatment Plan
Capacity of System to
Manage Offender Safely
Change/Adapt
Supervision
Progress in Treatment
Intervene to
Reduce
Imminent Risk
Offender
Official
Records
Family of
Offender and
Victim
Victim
Offender’s
Employer
Law
Enforcement
PSI
Other
Professionals
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
19
Assessment Supports Many Aspects of Supervision
Evaluating
Lapses/Violations
Setting
Conditions
Developing
Case Plan
Adjusting
Supervision
Approach
Flags to
Look for
Assessment/
Evaluation
Supports:
Adjusting
Conditions
Home/Field
Visit Strategies
Determining
Reporting
Expectations
Collaboration
Strategy w/ Polygraph
Examiner
Collaboration
Strategy w/ Treatment
Provider
Imposing
Sanctions
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
Safety Plan
for Victims
20
Identification of Static
Risk Factors
Deviant sexual interest, esp. children
Prior offenses, esp. sexual offenses
Not completing treatment
Sadistic arousal/high level of psychopathy
Young, never married
Unrelated or male child victims
Genital to genital contact w/ children
(Hanson and Bussiere, 1998)
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
21
Identification of Dynamic
Risk Factors
Acute
Substance abuse, negative mood, anger/hostility,
victim access
Stable
Intimacy deficits
Negative social influences
Attitudes
Sexual/emotional self-regulation
General self-regulation
(Hanson & Harris, 2000)
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
22
Assessing the Probability
of Re-offense
Actuarial tools are most effective.
Generic actuarial tools are not effective
with sex offenders.
Tools specifically designed for sex
offenses are most effective.
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
23
Risk Assessment Methods
and Instruments
Method/Instrument
Type of Recidivism
Sex
CLINICAL
.10
PAST SEX OFFENSE
.19
RRASOR – Rapid Risk Assessment
for Sexual Offense Recidivism
.27
STATIC-99
.33
MnSOST-R
Minnesota Sex Offender
Screening Tool – Revised
.45
VRAG
Violence Risk
Appraisal Guide
PCL-R
Psychopathy Checklist-Revised
violence
any
.06
.14
.02
.12
.32
.20
.44
.18
.27
.27
.26
.35
LSI-R
Level of Service
Inventory - Revised
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
24
Example Instrument:
The RRASOR
Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR)
1. Prior Sex Offenses (not including index offense)
none
0
1 conviction or 1-2 charges
1
2-3 convictions or 3-5 charges
2
4+ convictions or 6+ charges
3
2. Age at Release (current age)
more than 25
0
less than 25
1
3. Victim Gender
only females
0
any males
1
4. Relationship to Victim
only related
0
any non-related
1
Total
---------------------
Hanson, R.K. (1997). The development of a brief actuarial scale for sexual offense recidivism. (user Report No. 1997-04.) Ottawa:
Solicitor General of Canada
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
25
Re-offense Rates on the
RRASOR
Estimated Sex Offense Recidivism Rates
RRASOR
Score
Sample
Size
Percentage
Cumulative
Percentage
5-Year
Follow-up
10-Year
Follow-up
0
527
20
20
4.4
6.5
1
806
31
51
7.6
11.2
2
742
29
80
14.2
21.1
3
326
13
93
24.8
36.9
4
139
5
98
32.7
48.6
5
52
2
100
49.8
73.1
Total
2592
100
100
13.2
19.5
1 Hanson, R.K. (1997). The Development of a brief actuarial scale for
sexual offense recidivism. (user Report No. 1997-04.) Ottawa: Solicitor
General of Canada.
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
26
Pre-sentence Investigation
Recommendations
Risk Assessment:
To community
To victim(s)
Amenability to treatment
Special Conditions
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
27
Pre-sentence Investigation
Recommendations (cont.)
Level of Risk to the Community
Probability of re-offense
Past victim characteristics
Risk identified in psycho-sexual evaluation
Risk factors identified during the PSI
Factors that will support safe supervision
Degree of harm anticipated in case of reoffense
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
28
Pre-sentence Investigation
Recommendations (cont.)
Amenability to Treatment
Acceptance of responsibility for actions
Understanding of victim impact and trauma
Admits behavior is a problem
Willingness to participate in specialized
treatment
Agrees to comply with sex offense-specific
conditions
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
29
Pre-sentence Investigation
Recommendations (cont.)
Victim Impact and Safety
Degree of trauma suffered by victim
Injury
Financial Loss
Can victim safety be assured?
Victim input regarding conditions
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
30
Pre-sentence Investigation
Recommendations (cont.)
Conditions of Supervision for Sex
Offenders
Specialized for sex offenders
Consistent with standards or legislative
mandates
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
31
Conditions of Supervision
for Sex Offenders
Treatment
Victim Contact
Driving and Travel
Daily Living
Social/Sexual
Behavior
Work
Alcohol and drugs
Disclosure
Polygraph,
Plethysmograph,
other tests
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
32
Indications for Increased
Monitoring
Stress or crisis
Visits with victims or potential victims
Increased denial
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
33
Red Flags for Supervising
Officers
Disengagement
“No showing”
Manipulation
(Hanson, Harris and Associates, 1997)
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
34
Disengagement
Offender going through motions
Not open to talking about treatment
Not invested in treatment
General non-cooperation with treatment
Silent / non-disclosing
(Hanson, Harris, and Associates, 1997)
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
35
Disengagement
(cont.)
Keeps secrets from you
Any feeling client is being “phony”
Feeling you don’t know what’s going on
with offender in general
Feeling offender is working against you
(Hanson, Harris and Associates, 1997)
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
36
“No-Showing”
Frequently late
Misses appointments with you/others
Frequently wants to reschedule
Tries to limit meeting time
“Working against you”
Violates conditions
(Hanson, Harris and Associates, 1997)
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
37
Manipulation
Makes inappropriate requests
Inconsistencies between what offender
and treatment team tell you
Catching offender in lies / contradictions
Curt / rude / threatening with you
Any feeling offender is being “phony”
(Hanson, Harris and Associates, 1997)
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
38
Manipulation
(cont.)
Tries to “play the system”
Tries to take control of interview
Tries to be “buddy-buddy” with you
Attempts to focus interview on irrelevant
issues
Takes inordinate amount of your time
(Hanson, Harris and Associates, 1997)
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
39
Situations Requiring
Immediate Removal of Offender
Possession of dangerous weapon
Contact with children initiated by offender
and not reported
Substance use that is part of offense cycle
Offender physically harms another person
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
40
Responses to Limit Risk
Limiting access to victims
Electronic monitoring or curfews
No contact orders
Restrictions on movement
Increased monitoring, contact, treatment
Pre-revocation contracts
Admissions to violations
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
41
Amending Conditions of
Supervision
When new information becomes available
To provide more control over offender
To reward positive compliance
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
42
Developing a Case Plan
Forms basis for supervision
Involvement of offender is key
All changes and updates should be
carefully documented
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
43
The Case Plan:
Two Major Elements
Controlling the offender’s environment
Assuring participation in sex offenderspecific treatment
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
44
An Appropriate Treatment
Referral--Issues to Consider
Substance abuse?
Pharmacological intervention?
Family reunification?
New information from a polygraph?
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
45
Maintaining the Case File
Combats deception / tracks patterns
Clarifies expectations
Makes new information easily available
(e.g., evaluations, polygraph results, etc.)
Documentation for revocation
Enables continuity if personnel changes
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
46
Increasing Requirements
on Probation and Parole
Community Notification
Registration
DNA testing
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
47
Lengthening Periods of
Supervision
Currently in Arizona, Colorado, and Iowa
Pro-active risk management
Acknowledges long-term nature of
problem
Provides great flexibility
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
48
Surveillance as a Tool for
Sex Offender Supervision
Allows greater control and monitoring-24/7
Monitors compliance with conditions
Supplements resources of the
probation/parole officer
CSOM Long Version: Section 3
49

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