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Connecting CCSS, PARCC, and SGOs to Raise Student Achievement New Jersey Council of Education October 4, 2013 Why do we need the CCSS? 2 Teacher Checklist Individually, check the items that effective teachers do in your school. Teach a curriculum that is aligned to standards. Determine the needs of students using several methods including a variety of assessments. Differentiate instruction based on the needs of students. Set goals for students appropriate to their grade, subject, and readiness level. Use high quality assessments to measure student performance. Work in collaborative groups to improve student achievement. In Requiring Teachers to Develop SGOs, What Are We Asking Them To Do? Teach a curriculum that is aligned to standards. Determine the needs of students using several methods including a variety of assessments. Differentiate instruction based on the needs of students. Set goals for students appropriate to their grade, subject, and readiness level. Use high quality assessments to measure student performance. Work in collaborative groups to improve student achievement. Formalize and document the process, and be recognized for doing these things well. Introduction to the ELA Shifts of the Common Core State Standards Independence Search: Shift + Control + F 7 The CCSS Requires Three Shifts in ELA/Literacy 1. Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction 2. Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational 3. Regular practice with complex text and its academic language 8 PARCC’s Core Commitments to ELA/Literacy Assessment Quality • • • • Texts Worth Reading: The assessments will use authentic texts worthy of study instead of artificially produced or commissioned passages. Questions Worth Answering: Sequences of questions that draw students into deeper encounters with texts will be the norm (as in an excellent classroom), rather than sets of random questions of varying quality. Better Standards Demand Better Questions: Instead of reusing existing items, PARCC will develop custom items to the Standards. Fidelity to the Standards (now in Teachers’ hands): PARCC evidences are rooted in the language of the Standards so that expectations remain the same in both instructional and assessment settings. What is an SGO? A Student Growth Objective is a long-term academic goal that teachers set for groups of students and must be: • Specific and measureable • Aligned to New Jersey’s Common Core State Standards or Core Curriculum Content Standards • Based on available prior student learning data • A measure of student learning between two points in time SGO Guidebook pg. 3 ELA Shift #1: Content-Rich Nonfiction • Balance of literary to informational texts • 50/50 in K-5 • 45/55 in grades 6-8 • 30/70 in grades 9-12 • Beginning in grades 2, students read more complex texts, combining foundational skills with reading comprehension. • Reading aloud texts that are well-above grade level are used K-5 and beyond to build vocabulary and background knowledge. 10 Grade 3 Grade 3 ELA Shift #2: Using Text Evidence • Most college and workplace writing requires evidence. • Ability to cite evidence differentiates strong from weak student performance on NAEP • Evidence is a major emphasis of the ELA Standards: • • • Reading Standard 1 Writing Standard 9 Speaking and Listening Standards 2, 3, and 4 13 14 Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” Not Text-Dependent • Why did the North fight the civil war? • Have you ever been to a funeral or gravesite? • Lincoln says that the nation is dedicated to the proposition that “all men are created equal.” Why is equality an important value to promote? Text-Dependent “The Gettysburg Address” mentions the year 1776. According to Lincoln’s speech, why is this year significant to the events described in the speech? 15 Grade 10 Prose ConstructedResponse Item Use what you have learned from reading “Daedalus and Icarus” by Ovid and “To a Friend Whose Work Has Come to Triumph” by Anne Sexton to write an essay that provides an analysis of how Sexton transforms Daedalus and Icarus. As a starting point, you may want to consider what is emphasized, absent, or different in the two texts, but feel free to develop your own focus for analysis. Develop your essay by providing textual evidence from both texts. Be sure to follow the conventions of standard English. 16 Grade 10 Evidence-Based SelectedResponse Item Part A Which of the following sentences best states an important theme about human behavior as described in Ovid’s “Daedalus and Icarus”? a. Striving to achieve one’s dreams is a worthwhile endeavor. b. The thoughtlessness of youth can have tragic results.* c. Imagination and creativity bring their own rewards. d. Everyone should learn from his or her mistakes. Part B Select three pieces of evidence from Ovid’s “Daedalus and Icarus” that support the answer to Part A. a. “and by his playfulness retard the work/his anxious father planned” (lines 310-311)* b. “But when at last/the father finished it, he poised himself” (lines 312-313) c. “he fitted on his son the plumed wings/ with trembling hands, while down his withered cheeks/the tears were falling” (lines 327-329) d. “Proud of his success/the foolish Icarus forsook his guide” (lines 348-349)* e. “and, bold in vanity, began to soar/rising above his wings to touch the skies” (lines 350-351)* f. “and as the years went by the gifted youth/began to rival his instructor’s art” (lines 376-377) g. “Wherefore Daedalus/enraged and envious, sought to slay the youth” (lines 384-385) h. “The Partridge hides/in shaded places by the leafy trees…for it is mindful of its former fall” (lines 395-396, 399) ELA Shift #3: Complex Text & Academic Language • There is a 4 year gap in the complexity of what students read by the end of high school and college. • What students can read, in terms of complexity is the greatest predictor of success in college (ACT study). • • <50% of graduates can read sufficiently complex texts. • Standards include a staircase of text complexity from elementary through high school. Standards focus on building academic vocabulary to improve comprehension. 17 What are the Qualitative Features of Complex Text? • • • • • • • • Subtle and/or frequent transitions • • Longer paragraphs Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes Density of information Unfamiliar settings, topics or events Lack of repetition, overlap or similarity in words and sentences Complex sentences Uncommon vocabulary Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures 18 19 Which text is more complex? Text 1 Text 2 •Lincoln was shaken by the presidency. Back in Springfield, politics had been a sort of exhilarating game; but in the White House, politics was power, and power was responsibility. Never before had Lincoln held executive office. In public life he had always been an insignificant legislator whose votes were cast in concert with others and whose decisions in themselves had neither finality nor importance. As President he might consult with others, but innumerable grave decisions were in the end his own, and with them came a burden of responsibility terrifying in its dimensions. •According to those who knew him, Lincoln was a man of many faces. In repose, he often seemed sad and gloomy. But when he began to speak, his expression changed. “The dull, listless features dropped like a mask,” said a Chicago newspaperman. “The eyes began to sparkle, the mouth to smile, the whole countenance was wreathed in animation, so that a stranger would have said, ‘Why, this man, so angular and solemn a moment ago, is really handsome.’” 20 Close Analytic Reading • Requires prompting students with text-dependent questions to unpack complex text and gain knowledge. • Text dependent questions require text-based answers – evidence. • Not teacher summarizing text, but guiding students through the text for information. • Virtually every standard is activated during the course of every close analytic reading exemplar through the use of text dependent questions. • Supports fluency Grade 7 Research Task 22 Scaffolds for Reading Complex Text Chunking Reading and rereading Read aloud Strategic think aloud Scaffolding questions Heterogeneous small groups Recording Pre-prepping struggling readers to support confidence and participation • Annotation strategies • Cornell notes • Paraphrasing and journaling • • • • • • • • Grade 6 What are the Obstacles and Opportunities of the Common Core State Standards? CCSS - ELA Processing the Shifts - ELA ELA Shifts Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational Regular practice with complex text and its academic language What is the shift? Why this shift? Obstacles Opportunities General or Specific SGOs SGOs can be classified as “general” or “specific.” However, in some cases, the line between these is blurry. It is better to think of general and specific SGOs being on a continuum. General Specific • Broad • Focused • Includes a significant proportion of the curriculum and key standards for a given course • Includes a particular subgroup of a teacher’s students, and/or • Includes specific content or skill • Includes all, or a significant number, of a teacher’s students Introduction to the Math Shifts of the Common Core State Standards Dan Meyer: Math Class Needs a Makeover The CCSS Requires Three Shifts in Mathematics 1. Focus strongly where the standards focus. 2. Coherence: Think across grades, and link to major topics. 3. Rigor: In major topics, pursue conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application. 29 Traditional U.S. Approach K Number and Operations Measurement and Geometry Algebra and Functions Statistics and Probability 12 Shift #1: Focus (within Number and Operations) Operations and Algebraic Thinking Expressions and Equations Number and Operations— Base Ten K 1 2 3 4 Algebra The Number System Number and Operations— Fractions 5 6 7 8 High School Math Shift #1: Focus strongly where the standards focus • Greater focus not mile-wide, inch-deep • Focus deeply on the major work of each grade so students gain strong foundations: ▫ ▫ ▫ Solid conceptual understanding High degree of procedural skill and fluency Ability to apply the math they know to solve problems inside and outside the classroom 32 Priorities in Mathematics Grade Priorities in Support of Rich Instruction and Expectations of Fluency and Conceptual Understanding K–2 Addition and subtraction, measurement using whole number quantities 3–5 Multiplication and division of whole numbers and fractions 6 7 8 Ratios and proportional reasoning; early expressions and equations Ratios and proportional reasoning; arithmetic of rational numbers Linear algebra/linear functions Grade 3 – Fractions on a number line 6th Grade - ratios Math Shift #2: Coherence: think across grades, and link to major topics within grades • Thinking across grades: ▫ The Standards are designed around coherent progressions from grade to grade. ▫ Teachers can begin to count on deep conceptual understanding of core content and build on it. ▫ Each standard is not a new event, but an extension of previous learning. • Linking to major topics: ▫ Serve as the grade level focus – they keep additional or supporting topics from detracting from the focus 36 Linking to major topics – Grade 7 Part B Linking to major topics – high school Part B Math Shift #3: Rigor: in major topics pursue: conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application with equal intensity • Conceptual Understanding: ▫ • Procedural skill and fluency: ▫ • Teachers support students’ ability to access concepts from a number of perspectives so students are able to see math as more than a set of mnemonics or discrete procedures The Standards call for speed and accuracy in calculation. Application: ▫ The Standards call for students to use math flexibly for applications. ▫ Teachers provide opportunities for students to apply math in context. ▫ Teachers in content areas outside of math, particularly science, ensure that students are using math to make meaning of and access content. 41 Fluency Required Fluencies in K-6 Grade Standard K K.OA.5 Add/subtract within 5 1 1.OA.6 Add/subtract within 10 2.OA.2 Add/subtract within 20 (know single-digit sums from memory) 2 3 2.NBT.5 3.OA.7 3.NBT.2 Required Fluency Add/subtract within 100 Multiply/divide within 100 (know single-digit products from memory) Add/subtract within 1000 4 4.NBT.4 Add/subtract within 1,000,000 5 5.NBT.5 Multi-digit multiplication 6 6.NS.2,3 Multi-digit division Multi-digit decimal operations Content Emphases by Cluster: Grade Four Key: Major Clusters; Clusters Supporting Clusters; Additional 45 Coherence: Link to Major Topics Across Grades One of several staircases to algebra designed in the OA domain. • 46 Application • Students can use appropriate concepts and procedures for application even when not prompted to do so. • Teachers provide opportunities at all grade levels for students to apply math concepts in “real world” situations, recognizing this means different things in K5, 6-8, and HS. • Teachers in content areas outside of math, particularly science, ensure that students are using grade-levelappropriate math to make meaning of and access science content. 47 Real world application – Grade 4 Part A Teachers outside of math use grade-level-appropriate math Part B Part C Part D What are the Obstacles and Opportunities of the Common Core State Standards? CCSS - Math Processing the Shifts - Math Math Shifts Focus: Focus strongly where the Standards focus. Coherence: Think across grades, and link to major topics within grades. Rigor: In major topics, pursue conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application with equal intensity. What is the shift? Why this shift? Obstacles Opportunities SGOs and SMART goals Typical Usage of SMART SGOs Must Be SGOs Require a Teacher to Specific Describe how many students learn “what” or grow by “how much” M Measurable Measurable Compare starting points to ending points using assessments of some type A Achievable Ambitious but Achievable Determine a reasonable amount of growth according to knowledge of students R Relevant Relevant Align SGOs to standards T Time-related Time-related Set an appropriate instructional period S Specific How SMART is your SGO? Resources Welcome to the Educator Resource Website! What can I do? Educator (teacher, principal, supervisor, etc): • Search for resources and/or browse standards/model curriculum to locate instructional materials • Upload a resource to share with fellow educators and general public • Rate a resource and view rating (only educators can rate resources) • Create a user profile with a “my collections” feature to store and organize favorite resources • Access on a mobile device on IOS (Apple) and Android devices. • Share resources in social media NJDOE Website Common Core & Model Curriculum ELA Appendices A, B, C Common Core on the Go •iPhone •Android www.achievethecore.org Parent Roadmaps K-8 ELA & Math English & Spanish Thank you Kimberley Harrington Director of Standards NJ Department of Education [email protected]