Input Processing and Processing Instruction - theories

Report
• the cognitive process which occurs when
input is understood and integrated into
interlanguages (VanPatten, 2002)
• the conditions under which learners may
attempt to make connections between
form in the input and meaning
(VanPatten, 2004)
•
Most studies on input treat issues such as linguistic
properties of input and modification of input. Input
processing is rather a new focus of research in second
language acquisition. Therefore, a model of input
processing needs to be developed (VanPatten, 1996).
•
Traditional approach to grammar instruction consists
of drills in which learner output is manipulated and the
instruction is divorced from meaning or
communication. As a result, an input-based approach
to grammar instruction is required (Lee & Benati,
2009).
•
It is important to differentiate the terms “Input
Processing” and “Processing Instruction”.
•
IP refers to what is assumed to occur in the brain
on perceiving input.
•
PI refers to what the teacher has the learners do
in order to notice the grammar of the input.
(Sheen, 2007)
input processing
input
intake
derivation of intake from
input during comprehension
developing system
the mental representation of
the L2 the learner is building
over time
• a set of processes learners use to make
form-meaning connections during input
processing (VanPatten, 1996)
Principle 1. The Primacy of Meaning Principle
•Principle
Learners
input
forPrinciple
meaning before they
2. process
The First
Noun
process it for form. (VanPatten, 2004)
• Learners tend to process the first noun (phrase)
in
the sentence
encounter
theyard.
A young
boy and they
an old
man are inasthe
subject/agent. (VanPatten, 2004)
The black cow was kicked by the brown horse.
•
explicit information about the target structure
•
explicit information about processing strategies
•
structured input activities
 referential activities with a right or wrong answer(Wong,
requiring2004)
learners to
pay attenti0n to form in order to get meaning
 affective activities with no right or wrong answer requiring learners to
express an opinion or belief
Lee, J. F., and Benati, A. G. (2009). Research and Perspectives on Processing Instruction.
Berlin:Walter de Gruyter GmbH. books.google.com.
Sheen, R. (2007). "Processing Instruction". ELT Journal, 61(2).
books.google.com.
VanPatten,
B. (1996). Input Processing and Grammar Instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
VanPatten, B. (2002). “Processing Instruction: An Update”. Language Learning. 52(4).
Lawrence
Erlbaum.
books.google.com.
VanPatten,
B. (2004).
Processing
Instruction: Theory, Research, and Commentary. Mahwah,
NJ:
and J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction (pp. 115-135).
VanPatten,
B. (2007).
Input Processing
Adult Second Language Acquisition. In B. VanPatten
Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum.inbooks.google.com.
Instruction: Theory, Research, and Commentary (pp. 33-63). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Wong,Erlbaum.
W. (2004).
The nature of processing instruction. In B. VanPatten (Ed.), Processing
books.google.com.

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