Division of Air Quality / NJ Air Program Update - Mid

Report
William O’Sullivan, Director
Division of Air Quality
NJ Department of Environmental Protection
[email protected]
1
Origin of Air Pollution Control Requirements
1.
2.
3.
4.
Federal Clean Air Act – Unlikely to change soon
Federal EPA rules – many in progress, some delayed
States – primary responsibility for attaining health standards
Regional Strategies
–
–
–
–
Needed for regional problems
Ozone Transport Commission (Example)
State Rules still needed
Interstate transport of Air Pollution – significant impacts on health
exceedances are prohibited
5. Local governments/Communities
–
–
More involvement
Cumulative impacts and EJ
6
Existing NAAQS and New Jersey Status
Primary Standards
Pollutant
CO
PM10
Designation/SIP Status
Attaining
Attainment/Last Maintenance
Plan in progress
Likely to Attain
No new Requirements
Level
9 ppm
35 ppm
New monitors
Date
1971
1971
2011
Averaging Time
8-hour
1-hour
1.5 µg/m3
1978
Quarterly Average
Attaining
Attainment
0.15 µg/m3
2008
Rolling 3-Month
Average
Attaining
Unclassifiable-Attainment
53 ppb
100 ppb and New
monitors
150 µg/m3
1971
Annual
Attaining
Attainment
2010
1-hour
Likely to Attain
Unclassifiable-Attainment
1987
24-hour
Attaining
15.0 µg/m3
1997
Annual
Attaining
35 µg/m3
2006
24-hour
Attaining
Attainment
Nonattainment/ Redesignation
requested
Nonattainment/ Redesignation
requested
0.12 ppm
1979
1-hour
Attaining
Standard revoked/CDDs final
0.08 ppm
0.075 ppm
0.03 ppm
0.14 ppm
1997
2008
1971
1971
8-hour
8-hour
Annual
24-hour
Attaining
Not Attaining
Nonattainment/CDDs final
Nonattainment
Attainment except for Warren
County
State designation
recommendations - NA for 61
municipalities in 4
counties/unclassifiable rest of
state
Lead
NO2
Monitoring Data
Status
PM2.5
Ozone
SO2
75 ppb
2010
1-hour
Attaining except for
Columbia
8
Anticipated National Ambient Air Quality Standards Milestones and Regional Haze
Standard
NAAQS
Promulgation
Date
PM2.5
35 µg/m3 daily
Sep-06
Ozone
0.075 ppm 8
hour
Pollutant
Attainment
Designations 110(a) SIPs
Demonstration/
Effective
Due
NAA SIP Due
Attainment
Date
Promulgated
Lead
NO2 Primary
SO2 Primary
CO
0.15 µg/m3
100 ppb 1 hour
75 ppb 1 hour
9 ppm 8 hour,
35 ppm 1 hour
Mar-08
Dec-09
Jul-12
Sep-09
(Done)
Mar-11
Dec-12, CDD in
progress
instead
Marginal Inventory/
RACT: Jul-14
Moderate: Jul-15
Oct-08
Jan-10
Jun-10
Dec-11
Feb-12
Aug-13?
Oct-11
Jan-13
Jun-13?
1971
NA
NA
Dec-14
Marginal: Dec-15
Moderate: Dec-18
NA
NA
Jan-14?
Maint Plan
Oct-10
NA
NA
Aug-18?
NA
CO
No change,
new monitoring
Aug-11
NA
NA
NA
NA
NO2/SO2
Secondary
No change
Mar-2012
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Progress
Report
Jul-14
Dec-2018
NA
Early 2015?
2015?
2018?
2020-25?
Jul-16?
Jun-16?
Jul-19?
Jul-24?
Regional Haze
Visibility
FTS eff. Jan-09
Not Yet Promulgated-Anticipated Schedule
Proposed Jun12-13 µg/m3
PM2.5
12, Final Decannual
12?
New 8-hour
Ozone
Jun-14?
??? ppm
9
10
Recent Successes
1. Much lower Fine Particles
– Well below current NAAQS
2. Lower Ozone
– At 85 ppb NAAQS
3. Declining Air Toxics Levels
11
Challenges
1.
Fine Particles - continue improvement
– Avoid nonattainment of lower NAAQS
(Scheduled December 2012)
2.
Ozone – exceeds 75 ppb ozone NAAQS
–
–
–
3.
2015 attainment deadline for 75ppb NAAQS
Could exceed 85ppb NAAQS with hot summers (Did in 2012)
New NAAQS (60 to 70ppb) expected in 2014
Air Toxics – Risks still high
–
–
–
–
Primarily Motor Vehicles
Diesel Dominates Risk
Cumulative Risk
Disproportionate Risk - EJ
12
Focus on Particles
1. Clean Data Determinations - Air Quality now better than
current NAAQS
2. Attainment Designations in progress – need to
demonstrate maintenance of the NAAQS
(10 years)
3. PM offsets - continue until redesignation
- interpollutant offsets possible
4. New NAAQS – December 2012 EPA commitment
5. Need to continue fine particle downward trend
– to avoid exceedances of new NAAQS
14
New Jersey’s Multi-State PM 2.5
Nonattainment Areas
15
16
17
18
Wood Smoke
1. Primary Cause of Nonattainment in Rural States
2. Growing Air Quality Problem in Northeast
3. Outdoor Wood Burners
• Neighborhood Nuisance
• NJDEP Enforcement – No visible smoke standard
4. Wood Stoves
• Draft Federal standards for new stoves
• Will not solve misuse
• Will not address existing stoves
5. NJ Suburbs and Rural Areas
• Future exceedances of health standards?
• No burn days?
• Woodstove changeout Programs?
19
Sulfur Dioxide
1. Criteria Pollutant – Health and Welfare NAAQS
2. Converts to Sulfates – Major component of Fine Particles
(Precursor)
3. Causes haze – Brigantine Wildlife Refuge (Class 1 area for
visibility)
4. Causes acid rain – kills fish, damages plants and structures
21
22
Sulfur Dioxide
1. NJ Dominated by Coal in 2009 (10 units)
•
•
•
•
4 Units – had scrubbers prior to 2009 (1 will cease coal use in 2015)
2 Units – ceased coal use in 2010
3 Units – scrubbers operational in 2010
1 Unit – will cease coal use in 2013
2. NJ Sulfur in Home Heating Oil Limits
•
•
•
2000 ppm now
500 ppm in 2014
15 ppm in 2016
3. Diesel – EPA Rules
• 15 ppm phased in over last 5 years
Result – Dramatic decrease in S02 and sulfates
Challenge – Coal in other states
23
Out of State Powerplants
1. EPA Prevention of Significant Deterioration Cases
•
•
•
Air Pollution Control Technology Focus
Seek Best Available Control Technology
Examples – Ohio Edison, Homer City, Allegheny, GenOn
2. Clean Air Act Section 126 Petitions
•
•
•
Health Standard focus
Seek emission reduction sufficient to avoid exceedances of health
standard
GenOn Portland example
3. EPA Mercury and Air Toxics (MAT) Rules
•
Indirectly controls SO2
4. EPA Cross State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) – Court
Overturned
•
•
SO2 – generally effective caps
NOx – not sufficient for 75 ppb ozone
24
Table 1
Comparison of Allowable Short-Term Emissions between the 400 MW Coal-Fired Portland Power
Plant and the Proposed 655 MW Natural Gas Fired Newark Energy Center
Max. Allowable Emissions (lbs/hr)
Pollutant
Sulfur Dioxide
Nitrogen Oxides
Particulate (TSP)
Portland
Coal Units
14,720
2,070
416.9
NEC
Gas Turbines
5.6
33.6
15.8
Normalized Max. Allowable Emissions
(lbs/MWhr)
Portland
NEC
Coal Units
Gas Turbines
36.80
0.009
5.18
0.051
1.04
0.024
Pollutant
Portland Coal Units 2007-2010
Actual Annual Emissions
(tons per year)
NEC Gas Turbines Allowable
(tons per year)
Sulfur Dioxide
29,067
19.7
Nitrogen Oxides
3,321
136.9
Particulate (TSP)
295.5
57.27
26
NJ Ozone Nonattainment
28
29
30
Number of Days Ozone Standards
Have Been Exceeded in New Jesey
2000 - 2012*
* Data through Sept 21, 2012
70
64
60
>0.12 ppm (1-Hour Max)
>0.08 ppm (8-Hour Max)
52
>0.075 ppm (8-Hour Max)
50
Number of Days
45
44
41
39
40
35
36
35
34
30
30
30
23
23
23
21
20
20
18
18
17
16
14
13
11
11
9
10
4
9
5
4
3
3
0
0
0 1
1
0
0
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
32
33
34
35
OTC States
36
Ozone Transport Commission (OTC)
Regional Control Strategies
NOx Sources:
VOC Sources:
Model Rules/MOUs:
1.
EGU’s (Oil and Gas-fired Boilers)*
2.
High Electric Demand Day (HEDD)
Turbines*
3.
New Small Boilers
4.
Stationary Generators
Model Rules/MOUs:
1.
Large VOC Stationary Storage
Tanks*
2.
Autobody Refinishing
3.
Consumer Products
4.
Architectural/Industrial Coatings
Draft Model Rules:
5.
Non-Road Equipment Idling*
6.
Natural Gas Compressor Stations
Draft Model Rules:
5.
Solvent Cleaning
(Industrial/Commercial)
6.
Paint Thinners (Consumer)
Categories Under Review:
7. Municipal Waste Incinerators
8.
Promote Energy Efficiency/
Renewable Energy
9.
Coal-fired Boilers (EPA)
Category Under Review:
7.
Stage 1 and 2 Vapor Recovery
*Existing NJ Rule Equivalent to Model Already Adopted
Mobile Sources
Significant contributors to Ozone,
Toxics, PM2.5, GHG
38
40
41
42
Diesel Emission Reduction Efforts
1. Mandatory Retrofit Law
• In last phase – DPWs and miscellaneous on and off-road
public diesel vehicles
2. Private off-road construction vehicles
• Implementing EO60
• 175 vehicle pilot program
• Retrofits of certain engines used on state contracts
3.
Ports
• Trucks, ships, cargo handlers, cranes, trains, tugs
• NJ NY Port Authority diesel emission reduction plan
• Other ports also reducing emission (Camden, other states)
• EPA 2015 sulfur limit for oil used by ships
4. Diesel I/M Program
44
Continued – Diesel Emission
Reduction Efforts
4. Stationary diesels
• NOx RACT Rules
• Cancer risk management with construction permits
• Model fine particles and NO2 NAAQS
5. Emergency Electricity Diesels
• Limited to blackouts and brownouts
• Can be used for peaking or DSM only if well controlled
(NOx and PM)
45
46
47
Summary
Where Do Emissions Need to Decrease?
1. Ozone
• Vehicles – VOC & NOx
• Area Sources - VOC
• Point Sources – Out of State NOx
2. Particles
• Wood Smoke
• Diesel Engines – Especially NonRoad
• Area Sources – Small Engines
• Out of State S02 and PM
3. Air Toxics
• Diesels
• Small Neighborhood Sources
▫ Dry Cleaners
▫ Autobody Repair/Painting
• Gasoline
▫ New Vehicles
▫ Maintain Existing Vehicles
49
Division of Air Quality Website: http://www.nj.gov/dep/daq/ (links to programs, regulations
and other topics found here)
Air Quality Permitting Program: http://www.state.nj.us/dep/aqpp/ (applications, forms, testing
information, etc.)
Bureau of Air Quality Planning: http://www.state.nj.us/dep/baqp/ (State Implementation Plans
(SIPs), inventory, etc.)
Bureau of Air Monitoring: http://www.njaqinow.net/Default.ltr.aspx (monitoring data, NJ air
quality forecast)
Bureau of Mobile Sources: http://www.nj.gov/dep/stopthesoot/
USEPA Greenbook for Nonattainment areas: http://epa.gov/oar/oaqps/greenbk/ (nationwide
information on nonattainment areas and classifications for criteria pollutants)
USEPA State Implementation Plan Status and information:
http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/sipstatus/
ISG notices come out on AQPP Listserv. Subscribing to Listserv can be found at :
http://www.state.nj.us/dep/aqpp/listserv.html
AirNow: http://www.airnow.gov/ (air quality forecasts)
50

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