Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Section 1 The Rise of Nationalism A sense of nationalism (and rivalry) among Europe’s greatest powers: Germany, A-H, GB, Russia, Italy, and France Causes? Competition for _______ and ________ Territorial disputes Imperialism and Militarism Rivalry and mistrust over colonies The race for military greatness…militarism’s effects? The alliance system was originally designed to do what? Bismarck Forges Early Pacts Bismarck declares Germany satisfied, but what is he worried about? Formation of the Triple Alliance: Germany, A-H, Italy, and Russia Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace Kaiser Wilhelm II takes control of Germany, result? What’s wrong with a two front war? The Triple Entente is formed as a reaction to increased shipbuilding in Germany…GB+FR+Russia. kind of A Restless Region Many nations had formed in the Balkans after freeing themselves from who? Russia supports Serbia’s independence, Austria does not Austria then annexes B+H…Serbians vow to take away Bosnia while Austria was prepared to defend it and its authority in the Balkans A Shot Rings Throughout Europe The ___________Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie are shot in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Gavrilo Princip a Serbian nationalist and member of the Black Hand Austria attempts to punish Serbia, result? Austria does not wish to negotiate and declares war on Serbia…Russia mobilizes Europe encourages negotiations but it was too late How do imperialism and militarism work together to promote war? 2. How could a dispute between the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente draw all of Europe into the conflict? 1. Honors Only 3. What act by Austria-Hungary set the world on the path to war? Why? Chapter 13 Section 2 As an ally of Serbia, Russia mobilizes for war. Germany’s reaction? Nations Take Sides Central Powers-Germany and A-H Allied Powers-GB, France, and Russia (Japan and Italy later) General feelings at the beginning of the war? The Conflict Grinds Along Germany faces a war on two fronts and develops the _________ Plan which called for a quick victory in France and then movement to Russia First Battle of the Marne? Significance? More troops in France, stalemate in Russia War in the Trenches Trench warfare, digging elongated holes in the ground to fight enemy forces “No man’s land” was where the actual fighting took place North Sea to the Swiss border What was wrong with the new technology? At Verdun the Germans gained about ____ miles and in the Somme Valley the British gained about ____ miles http://www.history.com/photos/world-wari-trench-warfare/photo11# American soldiers engaged in trench warfare. Early Fighting Russia attacks both Austria and Germany…crushed by Germany in Tannenberg and eventually pushed out of Austria-Hungary Russia Struggles What supplies was Russia continually short on? Why? Germany limits supply shipments Russia’s size proved to be a pain for the Germans, why? Why was the Schlieffen Plan ultimately a failure for the Germans? 2. How did Russia’s industrialization affect its war efforts? 1. Honors Only 3. Why was the Battle of the Marne such a significant event in WWI history? What may have happened if the Germans had won? Chapter 13 Section 3 How would both powers try and end the stalemate? The Gallipoli Campaign The _______ decide to take the region known as the Dardanelles for strategic reasons Allied troops attack the Gallipoli Peninsula, Turks defend the land lead by ________ officers How does the campaign in Gallipoli in the end? Battles in Africa and Asia The Allies not only capture German colonies but also recruited who to fight against the Central Powers? Natives reacted in one of 2 ways: Wanted nothing to do with the war Helped in the war effort in hopes of someday achieving ___________. America Joins the Fight German unrestricted submarine warfare calls for any ship in the waters around __________ to be sunk without ___________. Germany sinks the Lusitania, taking American lives…Germany’s response? America Joins the Fight Germany takes back their promise and once again begins attacking ships Zimmerman note pushes America into the war on the side of the _________, why? Americans join the war after Europeans had already been fighting for ____ years. Government Wages Total War The gov’t in European countries takes control of the economy, what does this mean for business owners? Unemployment? Rationing results in only a small amount of goods being available for citizens Women and the War Women replaced men in ______, shops, offices, and there were even nurses on the front lines How were views of women changed? Russia Withdraws Russia refuses to fight by 1917 due to shortages in ______ and ______. Political unrest leads to revolution in Russia, putting Vladimir Lenin in power and the signing of a truce with Germany (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) The Central Powers Collapse Why did Russian withdrawal seem like a sure German victory? The arrival of U.S. troops lead to the defeat of the Germans at the Second Battle of the ________. After Kaiser Wilhelm I steps down, Germany becomes a __________ and an armistice is signed to end the fighting How was the Great War different than wars in the past? 8.5 million killed, 21 million wounded War destroys families, economies, villages, and farmland How did the post-war settlement effect Europe in the future? Why did wartime governments in Europe take control of their countries’ economies? 2. How did total war lead to the idea of rationing? 1. Honors Only 3. What effect did the Russian Revolution have on Russia’s role in WWI? What may have happened if the revolution never occurred? Chapter 13 Section 4 The Big Four at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The Big Four: Woodrow Wilson (U.S.) Georges Clemenceau (France) David Lloyd George (GB) Vittorio Orlando (Italy) Who was not represented at the meeting in Versailles? Wilson’s Plan for Peace The Fourteen Points outline a plan for achieving _______ Self-determination was the guiding principle behind the meeting “In the speech, Wilson directly addressed what he perceived as the causes for the world war by calling for the abolition of secret treaties, a reduction in armaments, an adjustment in colonial claims in the interests of both native peoples and colonists, and freedom of the seas. Wilson also made proposals that would ensure world peace in the future. For example, he proposed the removal of economic barriers between nations, the promise of “self-determination” for those oppressed minorities, and a world organization that would provide a system of collective security for all nations. Wilson’s 14 Points were designed to undermine the Central Powers’ will to continue and to inspire the Allies to victory. The 14 Points were broadcast throughout the world and were showered from rockets and shells behind the enemy’s lines.” www.ourdocuments.org The Versailles Treaty Signed June 28th 1919 and created the _________ of __________, an international association aimed at keeping peace among nations What did the treaty mean for Germany? Territories in Africa and the Pacific turn into mandates Restrictions placed on military operations war guilt clause The Hall of Mirrors at Versailles The Creation of New Nations The Allies sign treaties with the other Central Powers, resulting in the creation of which European countries? The Ottoman Turks lost almost all of their land except? Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania all become independent nations What feelings did the treaties evoke? “A Peace Built on Quicksand” U.S. rejects the Treaty of Versailles, believing that staying out of European affairs was the best hope for peace Was the concept of selfdetermination really used by the winners of the Great War? The Treaty of Versailles failed in so many ways, ultimately leading to what? Why didn’t Russia take part in the peace negotiations following the war? 2. How did the situation in African and Asian colonies compare before and after the war? Honors Only 3. How might selfdetermination in the Balkans have prevented the outbreak of WWI? 1.