Autonomous Microsensor Networks with Optical Communication

Report
Cost of Sensor Networks
Mesh Networking
Computing
Power
Installation,
Connection and
Commissioning
$
Sensors
Time
Low Data Rate WPAN Applications (Zigbee)
security
HVAC
AMR
lighting control
access control
asset mgt
process
control
environmental
energy mgt
BUILDING
AUTOMATION
CONSUMER
ELECTRONICS
PC &
PERIPHERALS
INDUSTRIAL
CONTROL
patient
monitoring
fitness
monitoring
TV
VCR
DVD/CD
remote
PERSONAL
HEALTH CARE
RESIDENTIAL/
LIGHT
COMMERCIAL
CONTROL
mouse
keyboard
joystick
security
HVAC
lighting control
access control
lawn & garden irrigation
Standards
•
•
•
•
•
IEEE 802.15.4
Zigbee
TinyOS
ISA SP100
HART
Zigbee
• Zigbee 1.0 ratified in 2004
• Great marketing tool, but…
– Nothing interoperable yet
– “Zigbee” products typically aren’t
• Everything shipped to date is IEEE 802.15.4 +
proprietary MAC
•
•
•
•
Lost industrial automation in 2005
Losing building automation in 2006?
Fighting Zensys in home automation
Latest: Zigbee Pro
– “The stack that works” 
– Hot debate on frequency hopping
University Demos – Results of 100 man-years of research
Motes dropped from UAV, detect
vehicles, log and report direction
Intel Developers Forum, live demo
800 motes, 8 level dynamic network, and velocity
Seismic testing demo: real-time
data acquisition, $200 vs. $5,000 per
node
vs.
50 temperature sensors for HVAC
deployed in 3 hours. $100 vs. $800
per node.
What went wrong?
• Reliability
• Power
•
Security
•
Cost
•
Size
Academic:
• Repeatability
• Intractability
– “It takes roughly 2.5 PhDs to get a new sensor network project to
work. This has to change.” - Sam Madden, MIT
Reliability
• Understand the RF environment in the
context of Murphy’s Law
• Use redundancy
– Time
– Frequency
– Space
• Results: >99.9% end-to-end reliability in
harsh environments
Power
25
X
20
With software:
10 years  D cell
IRX (mA)
cc2420
15
X
10
cc1000
With software:
10 years  coin cell
5
Cook 06 (300 mW)
Molnar 04 (0.4mA)
X
Otis 05 (0.4mA)
X
100k
X
200k
300k
Bit rate (bps)
Security
• AES 128
– Confidentiality
– Integrity
– Authenticity
• Public Key Infrastructure
– Certification
– Key exchange
System Cost, 2005
• Single-chip mote
– Processor, memory
– 2.4G radio (not 802.15.4)
– Software?
Single-chip
Passives
PCB Assembly & Test
Battery
Total
$1.50
$0.20
$0.20
$0.10
$2
Chevron’s Richmond Refinery
1 km
Oil Refinery – Double Coker Unit
GW
• Scope limited to Coker
facility and support units
spanning over 1200ft
• Expanded to 27 units,
implemented 14 to start
• No repeaters were needed
to ensure connectivity
• Gateway connected via
Ethernet port in control
room to process control
network
• Electrical/Mechanical
contractor installed per
wired practices
ISA Expo Wireless HART Demo
October 2006
Wireless HART Demo, ISA Expo 2006
12 Manufacturers,1 Network – Dust Networks’ SmartMesh XT
Emerson
(Fully integrated +
Battery powered)
MACTek
Yokogawa
Siemens
(Gateway + Mgmt)
Siemens
(Fully Integrated +
Battery powered)
ABB
Honeywell
Phoenix
Contact
Endress+
Hauser
Elpro
Smar
Pepperl+
Fuchs
Excerpts from Customer Presentations at the Emerson Process
Users Conference
October 2-5, 2006
Next generation capabilities
• Coming soon:
–
–
–
–
–
–
32 bit ARM; 1MB flash; 64kB RAM
2.4GHz RF, bps to Mbps, ~1nJ/bit
~ ms synchronization across network
~ 1 meter location accuracy
< 10mm2
1mA in-network average current consumption
• Baby version
– 32 bit ARM; 128kB Flash; 8kB RAM
– Same RF, same power
– 2mm2?
Mote on a Chip? (circa 2001)
• Goals:
– Standard CMOS
– Low power
– Minimal external components
antenna
Temp
~$1
uP
SRAM
Amp ADC Radio
~2 mm^2 ASIC
battery
inductor
crystal
Single-chip 802.15.4 motes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Atmel
Chipcon (TI)
Ember
Freescale
Jennic
Oki
…

similar documents