THE STAGE IS SET FOR WAR 13.1 AN UNEASY PEACE GRIPS EUROPE • Europe had been at peace for nearly 30 years • A whole generation had grown up ignorant to the horror of war, many believed war was a thing of the past • Yet four factors arose to propel Europe into war 1. RISE OF NATIONALISM • Nationalism-A deep devotion to one’s nation. Can lead people to feel their nation is better than others • Rivalries developed based on the competition for materials and markets • Territorial disputes also played a role. AustriaHungary and Russia were both trying to control the Balkans in Southwest Europe 2. IMPERIALISM • European countries competed over colonies in Africa and Asia • The quest for colonies nearly led to war many times • As these countries continued to compete, their rivalry and mistrust deepened 3. THE GROWTH OF MILITARISM • Militarism- The policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war • Beginning in the 1890’s nationalism led to a European arms race • Having a large and strong standing army made citizens feel patriotic 4. TANGLED ALLIANCES • International rivalries lead to the creation of military alliances designed to keep peace • Two great alliances existed • • • The Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy The Triple Entente- Britain, France and Russia A dispute between any two rival nations could result in the entire continent going to war ASSIGNMENT • 1. Explain how each of the three factors listed led to rising tensions in Europe. • 2. Why would military alliances have been created to keep peace? • 3. Describe the territorial dispute between Russia and Austria-Hungary • 4. How might a incident between any two members of the alliances lead to war? WWI BEGINS 14.1.2 CRISIS IN THE BALKANS • The Balkan region was breaking away from the rule of the Ottoman Empire • This area was a mix of ethnic groups and new nations sought to expand and unite members of these groups together EUROPE’S POWDER KEG • Serbia was a Balkan nation with a mainly Slavic population. They wanted to expand and unite all the Slavic people in the region • Russia, also had a large Slavic population and supported Serbia • Austria-Hungary did not support this action. They took control of Bosnia and Herzegovina which both had large Slavic populations EUROPE’S POWDER KEG • Serbia wanted to take this area away from AustriaHungary, but A.H. was much more powerful and vowed to crush Serbia if they tried • If war erupted between Austria-Hungary and Russia it would involve the two great alliances A SHOT RINGS THROUGHOUT EUROPE • The heir to the throne of A.H. visited Bosnia • Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated by a Serbian nationalist who wanted to end A.H. rule • Because he was a Serbian, A.H. demanded Serbia allow Austrian officials into Serbia to investigate WAR BEGINS • Serbia attempted to negotiate with Austria-Hungary over their demands • A.H. refused to negotiate and declared war on Serbia • In response Russia sent troops to the Austrian border. This set in motion the beginning of World War I ASSIGNMENT 1. What single event led to the start of World War I? 2. Was the description of the Balkans as a “powder keg” accurate? Explain your answer 3. Do you think WWI was avoidable? Explain your answer 4. What was the source of conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary? 5. Why would a conflict between these two nations involve the rest of Europe?