Islam Flipped Assignment

Report
THE WORLD IN 1050
As Western Europe was just emerging from a period
of isolation, civilizations were thriving elsewhere.
ISLAMIC EMPIRE
INDIA
Islamic civilization
spread from Spain to
India. Islamic traders
travel to West Africa.
Cities thrived, despite
political division.
Hinduism and
Buddhism flourished.
WEST AFRICA
AMERICAS
The Soninke people
built the great trading
empire of Ghana.
Merchants traded gold
all over the world.
Mayas cleared rain
forests to build cities.
Native Americans in
Peru built empires.
CHINA
Culture flourished under
Tang and Song dynasties.
Chinese made advances
in technology.
BYZANTINE EMPIRE
Scholars studied Greek
and Roman writings.
Merchants mingled with
traders from the Italian
states.
c. Jarrett, Zimmer, Killoran, Mastering the TEKS
THE RISE OF ISLAM
THE RISE OF ISLAM
 In the fifth century, warfare between the
Byzantine and Persian Empires interrupted
overland trade routes from East Asia.
 Trade in spices, Chinese silks, and Indian
cottons, shifted to the sea routes connecting
India with Arabia and the Red Sea.
 Overland caravans carried goods up the
western coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Cities
and towns developed near wells along these
caravan routes, including Mecca.
 In the 7 th centur y, a new religion emerged
here: Islam.
 The term Islam is Arabic for submission.
 Within a hundred years, Islam grew to control
an area larger than the Roman Empire.
c. Jarrett, Zimmer, Killoran, Mastering the TEKS
MOHAMMED: THE PROPHET OF ISLAM
 Mohammed, the founder of Islam, worked in Mecca as a
merchant and shepherd.
 In 610, Mohammed had a vision that the Angel Gabriel told
him to convert the Arab tribes, who then believed in many
gods, to belief in a single God, known in Arabic as “ALLAH.”
 Muslims
are strict monotheists.
They believe in the JudeoChristian God, which they call Allah .


Muslims believe that the Torah
and the Bible , like the Qur’an
is the word of God.
Islam  An Abrahamic
Religion
 622 
Hijrah  Mohammed
flees Mecca for Medina.
* The beginning of the
Muslim calendar (1 A.H.)

Mohammed's revelations were
compiled into the Qur’an after
his death.
Mohammed will gather his
followers to retake Mecca in a jihad.
The Qur’an
 Sacred text of Islam:
Muslims believe it contains the
word of God as revealed to
Mohammad

114 suras or chapters
 In the name of Allah,
the
compassionate, the merciful.
Written in Arabic –
responsible for the spread of
the Arabic language in the
Middle East

THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM
1. The Faith or SHAHADAH – Muslims must affirm: “There is no God
but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet.
2. The Prayer or SALAT – Muslims must pray five times a day, while
facing east towards the city of Mecca.
3. The Alms or ZAKAT – Muslims must give money to the poor and
pay taxes to the mosque.
4. The Fast or SAWM – During the month of Ramadan, Muslims
cannot eat or drink during daylight hours.
5. The Pilgrimage or HADJ – If physically able, a Muslim must make
a pilgrimage (religious trip) to Mecca during the 12th Islamic month.
Sunni:
‫أهل السنة والجماعة‬
• “Sunni” – in Arabic come
from a word meaning “one
who follows the traditions
of the Prophet”
• caliph (leader) should be
chosen by leaders of the
Muslim community
• caliph should be a pious
Muslim
• he is a leader, not a
religious authority
Shi’a ‫شيعة‬
• “Shia” in Arabic means a
group or supportive party
of people
• historically, Shia Muslims
have not recognized the
authority of elected Muslim
leaders (Sunnis)
• follow a line of imams
(prayer leaders in
mosques) they believe
were appointed by the
Prophet or God Himself
ISLAM INFLUENCES LAW &
GOVERNMENT IN MUSLIM WORLD
Sharia
 body of Islamic law to
regulate moral conduct, family life,
business practices, government, and
other aspects of a Muslim community.

Applies Qur’an to all legal situations.
Interpretation of Sharia varies
between Sunni and Shi’a sects of Islam.

ISLAM SPREADS- UMAYYADS
By the time of Mohammed’s death almost all of
Arabia had converted to Islam, but now the tribes
were united under one cause, one language
(Arabic), and one religion.
However, by this time the Byzantines and Persians
were both weakened from centuries of fighting each
other (power vacuum) and Arab Muslims
succeeded in creating a vast empire that extended
from the Indus Valley into Europe as far west as
Spain, where it was halted at the Battle of Tours.
Under the first four Caliphs (successor to
Mohammed) Islam will expand rapidly. These
leaders will be known as the Umayyad Caliphate.
The wars of expansion were also advanced by the
devotion of the faithful to the concept of jihad.
Muslims are obliged to extend the faith to
unbelievers and to defend Islam from attack.
Age of the Caliphs
•
Expansion under Mohammad, 622–
632/A.H. 1-11
•
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate,
632–661/A.H. 11-40
•
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate,
661–750/A.H. 40-129
ABBASID CALIPHATE
750 - the Abbasids took over the
caliphate. The Abbasids will focus on
trade rather than war.
Move capital to Baghdad (House of
Wisdom) that preserved and
translated scientific/medical
documents into Arabic.
Achievement: algebra & astrolabe
Muslim rulers treated Jews and Christians
(People of the Book) with respect since
they believed to worship the same God.
Permitted to have self-governing
communities.
Had to pay a special tax & could not
hold some public office.
GOLDEN AGE OF MUSLIM CULTURE
While learning was in decline in
Western Europe, a Golden Age of
Muslim Culture flourished– a period of
great advances in culture and
technology.
Mathematics:
Arab scholars
borrowed the concept
of zero from India and
developed algebra and
geometry.
Arts and Crafts:
Mohammed forbade
making images of God
or people. Islamic art is
largely made up of
geometric designs,
flowers, and stars.
Their textiles, leather
works, and rugs are
highly prized.
Medicine:
Arab doctors
discovered that blood
moves to and from the
heart. They learned to
diagnose many
diseases, including
measles and smallpox.
Architecture: Muslim
rulers built beautiful
palaces and mosques,
richly decorated with
mosaics, calligraphy,
and geometrical
designs.
Arab Muslims absorbed the cultural
achievements of the Greeks, Persians,
Romans, Jews and Byzantines.
They also controlled a trading area
larger than the ancient Roman Empire
had been.
Goods from India, China, Africa,
Spain, and the eastern
Mediterranean entered through
Arab territories.
ISLAMIC WORLD IN LATER YEARS
The rich Islamic Empire attracted
invaders from Central Asia:
In the 11th century Baghdad was
captured by the Seljuk Turks, a
Turkish tribe from Central Asia.
However, the Seljuk Turks
converted to Islam and Baghdad
remained the capital of their new
empire.
In the 12th century, Muslims
warred with the Christians
over control of the Holy Land
in the Crusades.
Christians captured Jerusalem
in 1099, but the city was later
retaken by the Muslim leader
and warrior, Saladin (11371193). Saladin remains a hero
to the Islamic world for uniting
the Arabs and defeating the
Crusaders in battle.
GROWTH OF ISLAM
• 1.6 billion Muslims today –
expected to be 2.5
billion by 2030
• Asia/ Africa/ Pacific
Region
• 7 out of every 10 a Muslim
• Fastest growing religion in
the world
1. Indonesia
183,000,000
6. Iran
62,000,000
2. Pakistan
134,000,000
7. Egypt
59,000,000
3. India
121,000,000
8. Nigeria
53,000,000
4. Bangladesh
114,000,000
9. Algeria
31,000,000
10. Morocco
29,000,000
5. Turkey
66,000,000

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