Comma Causers Many Comma Rules… • Opener , sentence (independent clause). • an “opener” could be many possibilities: – single words • interjections (Hey, Look, Um, etc.) • mild exclamations (Yes, No, Well, etc.) • time transitions (Later, Finally, During, etc.) – phrases • prepositional (Near the house, Around lunch time, etc.) • participial (Running for his life, Closing in, etc.) – subordinate clauses (Because I’m allergic to fish, Whenever I get in trouble, etc.) Our Focus for this Lesson • subordinate clauses • definition: a subordinate clause, or dependent clause, has a subject and a verb but it cannot stand alone as a complete thought. • example: When I saw the woman, she reminded me of a bird. Though her hair was white with age, she walked with small, quick, lively steps (Yep 13). — from The Star Fisher – “When I saw the woman” cannot stand alone as a complete sentence or thought. – “Though her hair was white with age” cannot stand alone as a complete sentence or thought. What To Remember • AAAWWUBBIS (Umm, an aaa-what-is?) • AAAWWUBBIS is a mnemonic, a strategy that increases retention when studying – An Alligator And Walrus Went Under Bees’ Boots In Shame. – Andy Always Argues With Walter Using Billy’s Brother In Secret. • AAAWWUBBIS stands for the ten most common subordinating conjunctions used to open sentences • After, Although, As, When/Whenever, While, Until, Because, Before, If, Since • there are others based on different functions (time, cause-effect relationships, opposition, and conditional) • nuts and bolts: if you begin a sentence with a subordinate clause, place a comma after the last word of the subordinate clause Becoming Good Grammarians • Crafting good sentences—good writing— can come from imitating published authors, modeling your style after theirs. – Is this plagiarism? – What would be plagiarism? • Research suggests that struggling writers who imitate sentence design perform better and learn grammar skills better. Teen Fiction as Models • From Taken by Edward Bloor: “Since those days, Mickie has gone global as the new host of the Living with . . . series breakdown” (Bloor 36). (cause-effect function) • From The Possibilities of Sainthood by Donna Freitas: “While we welcome your suggestions for possible patron saints, please recall that . . . generally there is a five-year postmortem waiting period before we can start the beatification process” (Freitas 148). (opposition function) • From Elsewhere by Gabrielle Zevin: “If she isn’t going to get totally behind, she calculates that she will probably need at least twenty-four eternims a day, or two hours, which amounts to five minutes every one hour of real life (Zevin 93). (conditional function) • From Gym Candy by Carl Deuker: “After what seemed like six hours but was only sixty minutes, Peter stopped” (Deuker 122). (time function) Handout and Assignment • The handout coming around now is a helper guide, and it goes on page 14 of your journal (Grammar section). • The worksheet is due tomorrow: – 10 sentences of entering in commas where needed. – 10 sentences of modeling and individual practice. • You will find 3 models in your current free-reading novel. • You will also compose 7 original sentences using different subordinate conjunctions. – You can “model” your original sentences, but you cannot copy or plagiarize.