World War I, aka *The Great War* Long and Short

Report
World War I, aka “The Great War”
Long and Short-term Causes
Do Now
• Make two columns in your notebook.
• In one column, write down what you know
about World War I.
• In the second column, write down any
questions you have about WWI.
Web Quest: Causes of WWI
• Using the worksheet provided, determine the
causes of World War I.
• This time around, you may ONLY use the
resources listed on the NH Media/Library
page.
• www.northernhighlands.org
• Click “Our School”- Follow Library Link
• Use any resource on that page (Research tools
by Subject is a good start)
Essential Questions
• To what extent should the United States be
involved in foreign affairs?
– “Directly” vs. “Indirectly” Affected
• When American lives are threatened, how
should the government respond?
• Should America go to war to make the world
“safe for democracy”?
• Why is this called “World War I” and why do
we need to be aware of “hindsight”?
“Causes” Web Quest
– Throughout this unit, consider how
•
•
•
•
militarism (my muscles are bigger than yours)
Alliances (“Friends” vs. “enemies”)
imperialism (extend “our” influence)
nationalism (we are right; we are
autonomous)
…..contribute to conflict?
Militarism
• Use of force
• England’s Navy was apex
of military power
• Other countries
expanded military to
“keep up” (inc. US)
Alliances
• How/why they were formed
• How they pulled countries into
conflict
Imperialism
• “Race” to extend power and influences over
other lands
• Justification:
– Countries “needed” economic and political
influence?
– “Civilize” the “uncivilized”?
Review: Scramble for Africa
1880- 1914
Wave of Imperialism caused a “Scramble for
Africa”
Nationalism
• Allegiance to country =
Desire for autonomy
• Slavs in the Balkans vs.
Austria-Hungary
– The “Power Keg”- Balkan
Wars
– The Black Hands and the
“Spark”- Assassination
The countries beneath the pink
lines desired independence and
The MAIN Causes
• **Keep MAIN in mind as we go through the
story of Western and Eastern Europe from
1870s-1910s)***
NOW (2012-2013)
Then (Circa 1900)
What was going on in Europe circa
1870-1900?: Western Europe
• Franco-Prussian War (1871)- Prussia defeats
France and demands Alsace-Lorraine
– Retribution pay extremely high
– German occupation of France until $$ paid
• Subsequently, Germany becomes united as an
empire
• As a result, there is now a rivalry between
Germany and France (France wanted to
dominate Europe.. As did everyone else)
What was going on in Europe circa
1870-1900: Western Europe?
• How did M.A.I.N. manifest itself in politics and
society in Western Europe, specifically during
this conflict?
• Ripple effect… started in Western Europe..
Where is it headed next?... Eastern Europe
What was going on in Europe circa
1870-1900: Eastern Europe?
• Mostly controlled by Austria-Hungary and
Ottoman Empire (non-slavic), and Russia (slavic)
– All three vying for power
– Also fighting against subgroups who want
independence
• Ottoman Empire, “sick man of Europe”, is slowly
deteriorating –Slavs getting taste of nationalism
– Weakness encourages uprising, so political tension in
this area rises
• Wanted to be
independent:
• Serbia, Montenegro,
Romania (O-E)
• Bosnia-Herz (A-H)
Road to World War I:
The Birth of “Entangling Alliances”
Balance of power erupted
– During the Franco-Prussian War (1871),
“Germany” was gaining power at the expense of
France
– Deeply engrained conflict between France and
Germany
– Fear of France on the part of Germany- want to
keep them isolated to minimize their chance for
rebuttal
– **need for an alliance**
Entangling Alliances:
What do you notice about this political
cartoon?
Entangling Alliances
• 1873: Three Emperor’s League is formed
between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and
Russia
– Reasons for alliance?
• “Teammates” against France
• Bismarck (Germany) plays peacemaker between Russia
and Austria-Hungary (both want power in the BalkansRussia is protector of Slavic Nat’l)
• This doesn’t last long…
Entangling Alliances
• Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)Slavic national uprising in Balkans…
why Russia against Ottomans?
– Russia is “protector of the Slavic
interests”
• Russia wins: Treaty of San Stefano
– Russia gets to occupy Bulgaria (use
ports)
– Romania, Montenegro, Serbia =
independent (1878)
Remember this
map?….
Russo-Turkish War (1877-79)
• Russia’s success alarms Austria-Hungary
• Why??
Germany concerned…again
• As was the case with France, Germany feared
another power (this time Russia) challenging
their status as the “most powerful nation in
Europe”
• Congress of Berlin- Reorganize Balkan States
– Reverses Treaty of San Stefano = Russia mad
– Russia’s victories in the war upset the balance
between Austria and Russia in the Balkans
Russia gets angry
• Germany now has France and Russia upset
– New rivalry w/ Russia = Austrian-German Alliance
(aka Dual Alliance) (1879)
• combat pan-Slavic nationalism and check Russia’s
power
• Italy later rejoins for protection (competing against
France and Britain in Mediterranean; AH and Germany
want to make sure Italy is on THEIR side)
What happened to Three Emperor’s
League??
• Russia, Germany, and Austria- Hungary were
supposed to be buddies
• Bismarck (Germany), being the diplomat that
he was, cajoled Russia and Austria-H (who are
competing in the Balkans) to renew their
alliance in the *updated* :
– Alliance of Three Emperors (1881-1887)
– was simply a balancing act to keep Russia on its
good side
• Nutshell: ????
Reinsurance Treaty (1887)
• Alliance of Three Emperors disturbed by Balkan
conflicts involving AH
• Reinsurance treaty (Russia-Germany) provided
for neutrality in the case that either became
involved in a defensive war
– Why?
1. Attempt by Germany to keep everybody on its good side
2. Keep France out of European Diplomatic relations
3. Prevent Germany from having to fight against AH if Russia
attacked
Bismarck’s Dismissal (1890)
• All of these alliances were done by Bismarck
leading Germany
• His main concern: protect German interests by
playing “peace maker”
• Kaiser Wilhelm wasn’t as quick to be “friends”
with everyone for the sake of Germany
– Hated Russia- let the Reinsurance Treaty lapse
Where’s France??
• While all of this is going on, France is watching
Germany play puppet-master
• France, eager to check German power, invests in
Russian railroads
• Russia, now no longer in an alliance with
Germany under Kaiser Wilhelm II, needs support
in the Balkans
• Russia is now rivals with Ottoman Turks (RussoTurkish War), Austria Hungary (both vying for
power), and Germany (Wilhelm II is not as
friendly as Bismarck was)
Review: Who is crying? Who is in the
middle? Who is the bear?
Franco-Russian Alliance (1894)
• “Dual Alliance”
• Why is this so significant?
• What was Bismarck’s intention with his
alliances?
• Who was Russia formerly allied with?
Where’s Great Britain??
• Practicing “splendid isolationism”
• Why does Great Britain form alliances all of
the sudden?
• A few reasons:
– Naval Arms race picks up (1898)- Germany is
challenging Great Britain’s navy (always the size of
two other nations’ fleets combined)
– Boer War (1899-1902) – Anti-British sentimentneeds “back-up”
Great Britain’s Alliances
• Anglo-Japanese (1902)
• Entente Cordiale (1904)
– France and Great Britain enter “friendly agreement”
(no military commitment) and recognize each other’s
African holdings (British in Egypt, France in Morocco)
– Entente Cordiale becomes Triple Entente when Russia
and Great Britain get over issues in Persia and Central
Asia (Russian influence was too close to the Suez
Canal)
– Russia needed friends after they lost the RussoJapanese War (1905)
Kaiser Wilhelm II
• Once again, not as
“delicate” as Bismarck
• Recap: Wilhelm’s major
goal was to secure a “place
in the sun” for Germany
• Wants to “check” the
strength of this Entente
Cordiale
First Moroccan Crisis (1905)
• Wilhelm II sends fleet down to Morocco makes a
speech to advocate for Moroccan independence
• As a response, the Algerciras Conference was
held to discuss French claims of Morocco
• Everybody supported France, except for AustriaHungary
• In your face, Germany!!!
– British and France tighten up, share military info, plan
joint operations
Second Moroccan Crisis (1911)
• Germany doesn’t take rejection well
• Wilhelm sends a gunboat, the Panther, down
to Africa to protect German interests in Africa
• Germans offered to drop their issue with
France being in Morocco if they took over
French Congo (yeah right)
• Only acquired two small strips of landGermany humiliated yet again.
Results of Moroccan Crises
• Germany feels ganged up on
– This is somewhat true, as their aggressive and
militaristic actions were seen as a threat to various
countries
• Britain and France’s Entente becomes more
militaristic
• Naval arms race picks up greatly (Tirpitz)
Questions to ponder:
• How did the dismissal of Bismarck (and the
policies of Wilhelm) change the atmosphere
of Europe?
• Why were alliances against the Germans so
imperative at the time?
Crisis in the Balkans!!!!!!!!
• The “Powder Keg” of World War I
• Background info: Austria-Hungary, Ottoman
Turks, and Russia all had influence in the
region
• The “sick man of Europe” had been declining
for years now
• Russo-Japanese War (1905)- Russia’s loss
means focus elsewhere… perhaps Balkans?
“Sick man of Europe”
• How did surges of nationalism tear apart the
Ottoman Empire? Nutshell:
– Crimean War (1854): Russia’s attempt to take the
Bosporus Straight from Ottomans
– 1875- Nationalist revolts break out in Slavic Balkan
states ruled by Ottomans
– 1877-1879- Russo-Turkish War (Treaty of San
Stefano)- Independence for Romania,
Montenegro, Serbia--- Remember?!?
Balkan Wars- Here comes the Power Keg…
• Balkan Crisis (aka Bosnian Crisis)
(1908)
–Austria and Russia make a deal…
• Russia would support Austria annexing
Bosnia-Herzegovina
• Austria would support Russia’s demand to
the Turks to open Dardanelles (for
shipping)
Bosnian Crisis (1908-9)
• Austria moved quickly and Russia did not gained
access to Dardanelles (sneaky sneaky)
• Russia- mad (Austria just wanted to anger Serbia
and check Slavic nationalism)
• Serbia- mad (they wanted Bosnia too and they
hate Austria-Hungary- Slavic nationalism!!!)
• Germany backs Austria!! (Note the year… Russia
wasn’t in the place to challenge this after their
loss of the Russo-Japanese War [1905])
First Balkan War (1912-1913)
• The Balkan League is formed in 1912
– Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Montenegro
– Declare war on Ottoman Empire
– Ottomans defeated
• Serbia wants to annex Albania, but Austria-Hungary
blocks this
• Bulgaria claims bulk of Macedonia as a spoil of warcauses the second Balkan War
Second Balkan War (1913)
• Bulgaria vs. Serbia (originally over Macedonia)
– Serbia defeats Bulgaria and seizes most of Albania
– Austria (with German support) prevents Serbia
from holding Albania – Serbia frustrated by
Austria again
• Map of Balkans, 1914
– Nationalism takes hold and breaks down Ottoman
Empire- could Austria be next?!?!?!
Finally… the spark!!!!!
• As you know, Serbia now hates Austria-Hungary
for exercising too much power against the
nationalist pan-Slavic movement
• Remember: AH blocks annexation of Albania
• A radical group, the Black Hands, of Serbia want
to unite Bosnia-Herzegovina and reduce Austrian
influence
• Who “owns” B-H? Who lives there?
• June 28, 1914- Archduke Francis Ferdinand and
his wife were assassinated in Bosnian capital,
Sarajevo
Black Hands
Summer of 1914
• June 28- Assassination
• July 23- Austria provides Serbia with
ultimatum
– Serbian government would eliminate any antiAustria-Hungarian texts, propaganda, etc.
– Serbia had to dismiss certain officials
– Austrian judges would hold trial against assassins
– Serbia had to accept in 48 hours
Serbia’s Response
• July 28- Serbia did not agree to last two terms
and Austria was not satisfied with this
response. Austria declares war. Serbia looks to
big brother Russia for help. Russia mobilizes.
• August 1- Germany provides Austria with a
“blank check” to declare war on Serbia,
declares war on Russia
• August 3-Britain declares war on Germany
when they violate Belgium’s neutrality.
Balkan Conflict
• How did this conflict serve as the “powder
keg”?
• Should’ve been a war between Austria and
Serbia. Why did the other countries get pulled
in? (Russia first, then Germany, then the rest)
Chain Reaction
• Is there a point in this chain reaction that a
country could’ve resisted entrance?
• In your opinion, are any of these entrances
unnecessary?
• Who was at fault?
Chain Reaction
• July 28, 1914- Austria-Hungary declares war on
Serbia (necessary?)
• July 30- Russia begins mobilizing along RussianAustrian border and Russian-German border
• August 1- Germany declares war on Russia
• August 3- France declares war on Germany
(revenge?)
• August 4- Great Britain declares war on Germany
(Belgium)
The makings of a World War
The Allies
- Triple Entente (Russia [out in 1918], France, GB)
- Italy (promised Austrian territory- 1915),
Romania, Greece, U.S. (1917), Japan
- Arabs, Jews in Palestine- autonomy
-Eastern Europeans- ethnic control
Central Powers
- Germany, Austria-Hungary
- Bulgaria- Balkan Wars (October), Ottoman
Empire – fear of Russia (1915)
To keep in mind:
• Who was responsible for war?
• Who was responsible for the entrance of each
country?

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