World War I, aka “The Great War” Long and Short-term Causes Do Now • Make two columns in your notebook. • In one column, write down what you know about World War I. • In the second column, write down any questions you have about WWI. Web Quest: Causes of WWI • Using the worksheet provided, determine the causes of World War I. • This time around, you may ONLY use the resources listed on the NH Media/Library page. • www.northernhighlands.org • Click “Our School”- Follow Library Link • Use any resource on that page (Research tools by Subject is a good start) Essential Questions • To what extent should the United States be involved in foreign affairs? – “Directly” vs. “Indirectly” Affected • When American lives are threatened, how should the government respond? • Should America go to war to make the world “safe for democracy”? • Why is this called “World War I” and why do we need to be aware of “hindsight”? “Causes” Web Quest – Throughout this unit, consider how • • • • militarism (my muscles are bigger than yours) Alliances (“Friends” vs. “enemies”) imperialism (extend “our” influence) nationalism (we are right; we are autonomous) …..contribute to conflict? Militarism • Use of force • England’s Navy was apex of military power • Other countries expanded military to “keep up” (inc. US) Alliances • How/why they were formed • How they pulled countries into conflict Imperialism • “Race” to extend power and influences over other lands • Justification: – Countries “needed” economic and political influence? – “Civilize” the “uncivilized”? Review: Scramble for Africa 1880- 1914 Wave of Imperialism caused a “Scramble for Africa” Nationalism • Allegiance to country = Desire for autonomy • Slavs in the Balkans vs. Austria-Hungary – The “Power Keg”- Balkan Wars – The Black Hands and the “Spark”- Assassination The countries beneath the pink lines desired independence and The MAIN Causes • **Keep MAIN in mind as we go through the story of Western and Eastern Europe from 1870s-1910s)*** NOW (2012-2013) Then (Circa 1900) What was going on in Europe circa 1870-1900?: Western Europe • Franco-Prussian War (1871)- Prussia defeats France and demands Alsace-Lorraine – Retribution pay extremely high – German occupation of France until $$ paid • Subsequently, Germany becomes united as an empire • As a result, there is now a rivalry between Germany and France (France wanted to dominate Europe.. As did everyone else) What was going on in Europe circa 1870-1900: Western Europe? • How did M.A.I.N. manifest itself in politics and society in Western Europe, specifically during this conflict? • Ripple effect… started in Western Europe.. Where is it headed next?... Eastern Europe What was going on in Europe circa 1870-1900: Eastern Europe? • Mostly controlled by Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire (non-slavic), and Russia (slavic) – All three vying for power – Also fighting against subgroups who want independence • Ottoman Empire, “sick man of Europe”, is slowly deteriorating –Slavs getting taste of nationalism – Weakness encourages uprising, so political tension in this area rises • Wanted to be independent: • Serbia, Montenegro, Romania (O-E) • Bosnia-Herz (A-H) Road to World War I: The Birth of “Entangling Alliances” Balance of power erupted – During the Franco-Prussian War (1871), “Germany” was gaining power at the expense of France – Deeply engrained conflict between France and Germany – Fear of France on the part of Germany- want to keep them isolated to minimize their chance for rebuttal – **need for an alliance** Entangling Alliances: What do you notice about this political cartoon? Entangling Alliances • 1873: Three Emperor’s League is formed between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia – Reasons for alliance? • “Teammates” against France • Bismarck (Germany) plays peacemaker between Russia and Austria-Hungary (both want power in the BalkansRussia is protector of Slavic Nat’l) • This doesn’t last long… Entangling Alliances • Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)Slavic national uprising in Balkans… why Russia against Ottomans? – Russia is “protector of the Slavic interests” • Russia wins: Treaty of San Stefano – Russia gets to occupy Bulgaria (use ports) – Romania, Montenegro, Serbia = independent (1878) Remember this map?…. Russo-Turkish War (1877-79) • Russia’s success alarms Austria-Hungary • Why?? Germany concerned…again • As was the case with France, Germany feared another power (this time Russia) challenging their status as the “most powerful nation in Europe” • Congress of Berlin- Reorganize Balkan States – Reverses Treaty of San Stefano = Russia mad – Russia’s victories in the war upset the balance between Austria and Russia in the Balkans Russia gets angry • Germany now has France and Russia upset – New rivalry w/ Russia = Austrian-German Alliance (aka Dual Alliance) (1879) • combat pan-Slavic nationalism and check Russia’s power • Italy later rejoins for protection (competing against France and Britain in Mediterranean; AH and Germany want to make sure Italy is on THEIR side) What happened to Three Emperor’s League?? • Russia, Germany, and Austria- Hungary were supposed to be buddies • Bismarck (Germany), being the diplomat that he was, cajoled Russia and Austria-H (who are competing in the Balkans) to renew their alliance in the *updated* : – Alliance of Three Emperors (1881-1887) – was simply a balancing act to keep Russia on its good side • Nutshell: ???? Reinsurance Treaty (1887) • Alliance of Three Emperors disturbed by Balkan conflicts involving AH • Reinsurance treaty (Russia-Germany) provided for neutrality in the case that either became involved in a defensive war – Why? 1. Attempt by Germany to keep everybody on its good side 2. Keep France out of European Diplomatic relations 3. Prevent Germany from having to fight against AH if Russia attacked Bismarck’s Dismissal (1890) • All of these alliances were done by Bismarck leading Germany • His main concern: protect German interests by playing “peace maker” • Kaiser Wilhelm wasn’t as quick to be “friends” with everyone for the sake of Germany – Hated Russia- let the Reinsurance Treaty lapse Where’s France?? • While all of this is going on, France is watching Germany play puppet-master • France, eager to check German power, invests in Russian railroads • Russia, now no longer in an alliance with Germany under Kaiser Wilhelm II, needs support in the Balkans • Russia is now rivals with Ottoman Turks (RussoTurkish War), Austria Hungary (both vying for power), and Germany (Wilhelm II is not as friendly as Bismarck was) Review: Who is crying? Who is in the middle? Who is the bear? Franco-Russian Alliance (1894) • “Dual Alliance” • Why is this so significant? • What was Bismarck’s intention with his alliances? • Who was Russia formerly allied with? Where’s Great Britain?? • Practicing “splendid isolationism” • Why does Great Britain form alliances all of the sudden? • A few reasons: – Naval Arms race picks up (1898)- Germany is challenging Great Britain’s navy (always the size of two other nations’ fleets combined) – Boer War (1899-1902) – Anti-British sentimentneeds “back-up” Great Britain’s Alliances • Anglo-Japanese (1902) • Entente Cordiale (1904) – France and Great Britain enter “friendly agreement” (no military commitment) and recognize each other’s African holdings (British in Egypt, France in Morocco) – Entente Cordiale becomes Triple Entente when Russia and Great Britain get over issues in Persia and Central Asia (Russian influence was too close to the Suez Canal) – Russia needed friends after they lost the RussoJapanese War (1905) Kaiser Wilhelm II • Once again, not as “delicate” as Bismarck • Recap: Wilhelm’s major goal was to secure a “place in the sun” for Germany • Wants to “check” the strength of this Entente Cordiale First Moroccan Crisis (1905) • Wilhelm II sends fleet down to Morocco makes a speech to advocate for Moroccan independence • As a response, the Algerciras Conference was held to discuss French claims of Morocco • Everybody supported France, except for AustriaHungary • In your face, Germany!!! – British and France tighten up, share military info, plan joint operations Second Moroccan Crisis (1911) • Germany doesn’t take rejection well • Wilhelm sends a gunboat, the Panther, down to Africa to protect German interests in Africa • Germans offered to drop their issue with France being in Morocco if they took over French Congo (yeah right) • Only acquired two small strips of landGermany humiliated yet again. Results of Moroccan Crises • Germany feels ganged up on – This is somewhat true, as their aggressive and militaristic actions were seen as a threat to various countries • Britain and France’s Entente becomes more militaristic • Naval arms race picks up greatly (Tirpitz) Questions to ponder: • How did the dismissal of Bismarck (and the policies of Wilhelm) change the atmosphere of Europe? • Why were alliances against the Germans so imperative at the time? Crisis in the Balkans!!!!!!!! • The “Powder Keg” of World War I • Background info: Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Turks, and Russia all had influence in the region • The “sick man of Europe” had been declining for years now • Russo-Japanese War (1905)- Russia’s loss means focus elsewhere… perhaps Balkans? “Sick man of Europe” • How did surges of nationalism tear apart the Ottoman Empire? Nutshell: – Crimean War (1854): Russia’s attempt to take the Bosporus Straight from Ottomans – 1875- Nationalist revolts break out in Slavic Balkan states ruled by Ottomans – 1877-1879- Russo-Turkish War (Treaty of San Stefano)- Independence for Romania, Montenegro, Serbia--- Remember?!? Balkan Wars- Here comes the Power Keg… • Balkan Crisis (aka Bosnian Crisis) (1908) –Austria and Russia make a deal… • Russia would support Austria annexing Bosnia-Herzegovina • Austria would support Russia’s demand to the Turks to open Dardanelles (for shipping) Bosnian Crisis (1908-9) • Austria moved quickly and Russia did not gained access to Dardanelles (sneaky sneaky) • Russia- mad (Austria just wanted to anger Serbia and check Slavic nationalism) • Serbia- mad (they wanted Bosnia too and they hate Austria-Hungary- Slavic nationalism!!!) • Germany backs Austria!! (Note the year… Russia wasn’t in the place to challenge this after their loss of the Russo-Japanese War ) First Balkan War (1912-1913) • The Balkan League is formed in 1912 – Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Montenegro – Declare war on Ottoman Empire – Ottomans defeated • Serbia wants to annex Albania, but Austria-Hungary blocks this • Bulgaria claims bulk of Macedonia as a spoil of warcauses the second Balkan War Second Balkan War (1913) • Bulgaria vs. Serbia (originally over Macedonia) – Serbia defeats Bulgaria and seizes most of Albania – Austria (with German support) prevents Serbia from holding Albania – Serbia frustrated by Austria again • Map of Balkans, 1914 – Nationalism takes hold and breaks down Ottoman Empire- could Austria be next?!?!?! Finally… the spark!!!!! • As you know, Serbia now hates Austria-Hungary for exercising too much power against the nationalist pan-Slavic movement • Remember: AH blocks annexation of Albania • A radical group, the Black Hands, of Serbia want to unite Bosnia-Herzegovina and reduce Austrian influence • Who “owns” B-H? Who lives there? • June 28, 1914- Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated in Bosnian capital, Sarajevo Black Hands Summer of 1914 • June 28- Assassination • July 23- Austria provides Serbia with ultimatum – Serbian government would eliminate any antiAustria-Hungarian texts, propaganda, etc. – Serbia had to dismiss certain officials – Austrian judges would hold trial against assassins – Serbia had to accept in 48 hours Serbia’s Response • July 28- Serbia did not agree to last two terms and Austria was not satisfied with this response. Austria declares war. Serbia looks to big brother Russia for help. Russia mobilizes. • August 1- Germany provides Austria with a “blank check” to declare war on Serbia, declares war on Russia • August 3-Britain declares war on Germany when they violate Belgium’s neutrality. Balkan Conflict • How did this conflict serve as the “powder keg”? • Should’ve been a war between Austria and Serbia. Why did the other countries get pulled in? (Russia first, then Germany, then the rest) Chain Reaction • Is there a point in this chain reaction that a country could’ve resisted entrance? • In your opinion, are any of these entrances unnecessary? • Who was at fault? Chain Reaction • July 28, 1914- Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia (necessary?) • July 30- Russia begins mobilizing along RussianAustrian border and Russian-German border • August 1- Germany declares war on Russia • August 3- France declares war on Germany (revenge?) • August 4- Great Britain declares war on Germany (Belgium) The makings of a World War The Allies - Triple Entente (Russia [out in 1918], France, GB) - Italy (promised Austrian territory- 1915), Romania, Greece, U.S. (1917), Japan - Arabs, Jews in Palestine- autonomy -Eastern Europeans- ethnic control Central Powers - Germany, Austria-Hungary - Bulgaria- Balkan Wars (October), Ottoman Empire – fear of Russia (1915) To keep in mind: • Who was responsible for war? • Who was responsible for the entrance of each country?