The Periodic Table and the Elements

Report
The Periodic Table
and the Elements
Adapted from a Powerpoint by Dr. Fred Omega Garces
1
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
The Periodic Table and the Elements
What is the periodic table ?
What information is obtained from the table ?
How can elemental properties be predicted based on the Periodic Table?
2
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)
In 1869 Mendeleev (Russia) and Lothar Meyer
(Germany) published nearly identical
classification schemes for elements known at the
time. The periodic table is based on the similarity
of properties and reactivities exhibited by various
elements. Later, Henri Moseley ( England,18871915) established that each element has a unique
atomic number, which is how the current periodic
table is organized.
http://www.chem.msu.su/eng/misc/mendeleev/welcome.html
3
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
The Periodic Table
A map of the building block of matter.
1
1
IA
1
H
Periodic Table
2
IIA
13
IIIA
14
IVA
15
VA
16
VIA
17
VIIA
1.00797
2
3
Li
4
5
Be
B
6.939 9.0122
3
11
Na
12
Mg
19
K
20
Ca
3
IIIB
4
IVB
5
VB
6
VIB
7
VIIB
8
9
VIIIB
10
6
7
4
37
38
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
39
43
Sr
Mo
Tc
[99]
56
57
26
Fe
72
9
F
Ne
11
IB
12
IIB
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
27
Co
28
Ni
73
74
76
190.2
104
Fr
Ra
Ac
Ku
[223]
[226]
[227]
[260]
105
W
75
132.905 137.34 138.91 178.49 180.948 183.85 186.2
89
Ta
Ru
106
107
45
Rh
46
Pd
29
30
31
32
33
Ge
63.54
65.37
65.37
72.59 74.9216 78.96 79.909 83.80
47
48
49
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Sb
52
Te
Br
36
Ga
51
Se
35
Zn
50
As
34
Cu
53
I
Kr
54
Xe
101.07 102.905 106.4 107.870 112.40 114.82 118.69 121.75 127.60 126.904 131.30
Os
88
Hf
44
Re
87
La
Nb
42
87.62 88.905 91.22 92.906 95.94
Ba
Zr
41
Rb
55
Y
40
85.47
Cs
8
O
4.0026
10
26.9815 28.086 30.9738 32.064 35.453 39.948
39.102 40.08 44.956 47.90 50.942 51.996 54.9380 55.847 58.9332 58.71
5
7
N
He
10.811 12.0112 14.0067 15.9994 18.9984 20.179
22.9898 24.305
4
6
C
18
VIIIA
2
108
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
192.2 195.09 196.967 200.59 204.37 207.19 208.980 [210]
109
85
86
At
Rn
[210]
[222]
http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/periodic_table.html
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Periodic Table Expanded View
The Periodic Table can be arranged
by energy sub levels The s-block
is Group IA and & IIA, the p-block
is Group IIIA - VIIIA. The d-block
is the transition metals, and the fblock are the Lanthanides and
Actinide metals
The way the periodic table usually
shown is a compressed view. The
Lanthanides and actinides (F
block)are cut out and placed at the
bottom of the table.
5
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement
Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals
1
IA
1
18
VIIIA
2
IIA
13
IIIA
14
IVA
15
VA
16
VIA
17
VIIA
2
3
4
5
3
IIIB
4
IVB
5
VB
6
VIB
7
VIIB
8
9
VIIIB
10
Metals
11
IB
12
IIB
Nonmetals
6
7
6
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Periodic Table: The three broad Classes
Main, Transition, Rare Earth
Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth)
7
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Reading the Periodic Table: Classification
Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Noble gases
8
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Across the Periodic Table
Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the
periodic table (Rows 1-7)
These elements have the same number of valence shells.
1
IA
1
2
IIA
13
IIIA
14
IVA
15
VA
18
VIIIA
16
VIA
17
VIIA
2nd Period
2
3
3
IIIB
4
IVB
5
VB
6
VIB
7
VIIB
8
9
VIIIB
10
11
IB
12
IIB
4
5
6th Period
6
7
9
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Down the Periodic Table
Families are arranged vertically down the periodic table
(columns or group, 1- 18 or 1-8 A,B)
These elements have the same number of electrons in the outer most
energy level , known as the valence shell.
1
IA
1
18
VIIIA
Alkali Family:
1 e- in the valence shell
2
IIA
13
IIIA
14
IVA
15
VA
16
VIA
17
VIIA
2
3
3
IIIB
4
IVB
5
VB
6
VIB
7
VIIB
8
9
VIIIB
10
11
IB
12
IIB
4
Halogen Family:
7 e- in the valence shell
5
6
7
10
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Notable Families of the Periodic Table
Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members:
Halogen
Alkali
Noble Gas
Alkaline
Chalcogens
1
18
(earth)
IA
VIIIA
1
2
IIA
13
IIIA
Transition Metals
14
IVA
15
VA
16
VIA
17
VIIA
2
3
3
IIIB
4
IVB
5
VB
6
VIB
7
VIIB
8
9
VIIIB
10
11
IB
12
IIB
4
5
6
7
11
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Important Elements of Various Groups
Individual members of selected groups & their characteristics
1
IA
1
H
2
Li
3
4
18
VIIIA
2
IIA
Na Mg
K
Ca
13
IIIA
3
IIIB
4
IVB
5
VB
6
VIB
7
VIIB
8
9
VIIIB
10
Fe
5
11
IB
12
IIB
Cu Zn
Ag
14
IVA
15
VA
16
VIA
17
VIIA
C
N
O
F
Al Si
P
S
Cl
He
Br
I
6
7
12
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Periodic Table
e- configurations are inherent in the periodic table
1
IA
18
VIIIA
2
IIA
1
H
1s1
2
Li Be
2s1 2s2
Na Mg
3s1 3s2
3
4
5
6
7
13
13
IIIA
3
IIIB
4
IVB
Sc
3d1
Rb
5s1
Ca
4s2
Sr
5s2
Y
4d1
V
Ti
Cr Mn Fe Co
3d2 3d3 4s13d5 3d5 3d6 3d7
Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh
4d2 4d3 5s14d5 4d5 4d6 4d7
Cs
6s1
Ba
6s2
La
5d1
Hf Ta W Re Os
5d2 5d3 6s15d5 5d5 5d6
Fr
7s1
Ra
7s2
Ac Rf
6d1 6d2
K
4s1
5
VB
6
VIB
7
VIIB
Db Sg Bh
6d3 7s16d5 6d5
8
9
VIIIB
14
IVA
15
VA
16
VIA
17
VIIA
B
2p1
BC
N
O
1
2
3
2p
2p 2p 2p4
F
2p5
Ne
2p6
Al
3p1
Si
3p2
Cl
3p5
Ar
3p6
He
1s2
10
11
IB
12
IIB
Ni
3d8
Cu
4s13d10
Ni
4d8
5s14d10
Zn Ga Ge
3d10 4p1 4p2
Cd
In Sn
10
4d
5p1 5p2
As Se Be
4p3 4p4 4p5
I
Sb Te
5p3 5p4 5p5
Kr
4p6
Xe
5p6
Hg
Tl Pb
5d10 6p1 6p2
Bi Po At
6p3 6p4 6p5
Rn
6p6
Ir
Ni
7
5d 5d8
Hs Mt
6d6 6d7
3.3 Periodic Table
Ag
Au
6s15d10
S
P
3
3p 3p4
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Periodic Table: Electron behavior
The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of their electrons
West (South)
METALS
Alkali
Alkaline
Transition
These elements
tend to give up
e - and form
CATIONS
1
IA
1
Mid-plains
METALLOID
These elements
will give up e- or
accept e-
East (North)
NON-METALS
Noble gas
Halogens
Calcogens
These elements
tend to accept
e - and form
ANIONS
2
II A
13
II IA
14
IVA
18
VII IA
15
VA
16
VIA
17
VII A
2
3
3
II IB
4
IVB
5
VB
6
VIB
7
VII B
8
9
VII IB
10
11
IB
12
II B
4
5
6
7
14
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
2. Trend in Atomic Radius
Atomic Radius:
The size of an atom is determined
by the boundaries of the valence e-.
Largest atomic species are those
found in the lower left corner since
these atoms have the largest n, but
the smallest Zeff.
15
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
3. Trends in Ionization Energy
Ionization energy:
The energy required to remove the
valence electron from an atom is
known as the ionization energy.
Largest toward upper right corner of
periodic table since these atoms hold
on to their valence e- the tightest.
16
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
4. Trend in Electron Affinity
Electron Affinity:
The energy released
when an electron is
added to an atom.
The electron affinity
is highest among the
elements of the
upper right corner of
the periodic table
(excluding the noble
gases) since these
atoms have a great
affinity for electrons.
17
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Summary of Trends
Periodic Table and Periodic Trends
1. Electron Configuration 3. Ionization Energy: Largest toward upper right
4. Electron Affinity: Most favorable upper right
2. Atomic Radius: Largest toward lower left
18
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM
Summary
Periodic Table: Map of the Building blocks of matter
Types :
Blocks:
S,P, D, and F
Representative or main = S and P Blocks
Transition = D Block
Lanthanide/Actanides = F Block
Families
or Groups:
Elements in the same column have similar
chemical properties because of similar
numbers and types of valence electrons
Alkali metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Chalcogens,
Halogens, Noble gases
Periods :
19
Metal, metalloid and Nonmetal
Elements in the same row have valence electrons in
the same energy level.
3.3 Periodic Table
9.17.00 1:37 PM

similar documents