THE SEVERAN DYNASTY 193 CE to 235 CE By Peter Baugh, Mac Rechan, and Alex Hawkenberry A painting of Severan family members called the Severan Tondo PB Photo from: http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/143/flashcards/1938143/jp g/severan_tondo1351640371200.jpg Background Short reigns EMPERORS: Septimius Severus Caracalla Geta Macrinus Elagabalus Alexander Severus PB “Caracalla and Geta”. From: http://imgc.allpostersimages.com/images/P473-48890/15/1501/4PBBD00Z/posters/sirlawrence-alma-tadema-caracalla-and-geta1907.jpg SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS PB Septimius Severus LEFT: http://www.nndb.com/peopl e/804/000107483/septimiu s-severus-1-sized.jpg FAR LEFT: http://www.romansociety.org /fileadmin/images/imago/3 071.jpg 193 CE to 211 CE PB Septimius Severus Background PB From Leptis Magna in Northern Africa Founded African dynasty of Roman emperors Born in 146 CE, died in 211 CE Fathered Caracalla and Geta http://www .prepare2g o.com/aviat ion/images /map_safar i.jpg Septimius Severus as Emperor PB Was part of conspiracy of emperor that was killed, leading him to be emperor Revengeful, cruel Gave Asian natives equal rights to Italians cont. Didn’t allow conversion to Judaism and Christianity Restored Hadrian’s Wall Strengthened Roman power in Britain http://www.h adrians-wallbed-andbreakfast.co.u k/images/ind ex/hadrians_ wall_cawfield s.jpg PB CARACALLA AH Facts -Caracalla created a huge bath complex in downtown Rome itself for the public enjoyment -He placed heavy taxes on particularly the richest families, so as to limit their power as well as to fill his pocket -Re-ignited conflict with the Parthians, after convincing them that he wanted peace by marriage, but instead he murdered the bride and the guests, and began more skirmishes with Parthia -He was of Syrian descent, and was born in Lugdunum, Gaul -After his father, Septimius Severus died, he and his brother Geta were proclaimed co-emperors -Instigated mass persecutions and massacres throughout the empire -Caracalla wanted sole rule, so he had loyal members of the Praetorian guard to kill him, Caracalla massacred Geta's supporters -In order to secure the allegiance of the army, Caracalla raised the annual pay of the common legionary, (he used the extra taxes from the rich) -He was assassinated in Parthia by Julius Martialis, an officer in his personal bodyguard AH http://lordbest.napoleonicmedals.org/Em perors/caracalla5.jpg Legacy -The greatest legacy of Caracalla would be the baths that he created in Rome, the great piece of architecture would live on after Caracalla's death, and will probably be the greatest reminder of his reign to the Roman people -The fact that he as well as many other proceeding emperors were Syrian gives proof to the fact that Rome was a multi-ethnic empire, with a great diversity of rulers -His continuation of the wars with Parthia had a certain impact on the course of the future of Rome's dominion in the east AH http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8e/Thermae_of_Caracalla _Panorama.jpg/900px-Thermae_of_Caracalla_Panorama.jpg GETA MTR Geta MTR Was emperor from 209-211 CE Ruled with both his brother, Caracalla, and father (Severus) Helped to defeat the Britains Took a back seat to the throne as an emperor, and had little overall influence Little is truly known about Geta and how he affected the lives of Romans in specific ways Image of Geta http://www.arthis toryclub.com/art _history/Publius_ Septimius_Geta MTR Geta’s Conflict with Caracalla MTR The title of emperor was shared by both Geta and his brother Caracalla The two did not cooperate very well, and lived in constant conflict Eventually, Caracalla had enough, and decided to assassinate Geta in their mother’s arms, thus becoming the sole emperor of Rome Caracalla then proceeded to damn (Damnatio Memoriae in Latin) the memory of Geta, and removed his name from all political inscriptions MACRINUS PB Background Emperor from 217-218 AD Neither a Senator or from a Senatorial family http://lordbest.nap oleonicmedals.org/ Emperors/macrinus1 .jpg PB Reign PB Became Emperor after his predecessor was murdered Unable to maintain Roman influence in the East Unpopular Overthrown, killed ELAGABALUS AH Facts -Elagabalus was the 25th emperor of Rome -He was Syrian, which demonstrates the diversity of emperors' ethnic backround -He was a partier, he employed a sort of whoopee cushion at parties -He reigned for a mere four years -He rose to power by gaining support from the 3rd legion, who were persuaded by Elagabalus's mother. The emperor before Elagabalus, named Macrinus sent a force to deal with the 3rd legion, but his force turned on him and joined Elagabalus, after that event, the rest of the legions in the east deserted Macrinus and joined Elagabalus and he assumed the throne. -A rise in sun worship throughout the empire led to him creating a god "deus sol invictus," the god of the undefeated sun -He was extremely promiscuous, often engaged in homosexuality as well as heterosexuality A http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Elagabalus Legacy -The reign of Elagabalus will be remembered mainly for sexual scandal and religious controversy -He has one of the worst reputation among Roman emperors -His acts of eccentric behavior, self prostitution, and extreme promiscuousness made him a hated emperor. -His behavior seemed rather strange to senate, the common people, as well as his own bodyguards, known as the Praetorian guard -His bad rulership and strange behavior led to his assassination, planned by his grandmother and cousin, and carried out by his own bodyguards -He died at a mere 18 years of age -Religious controversy between the worship of the new Deus Sol Invictus, and the old gods sparked violence and unrest http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Elagabalus AH ALEXANDER SEVERUS MTR Alexander Severus General Info. MTR Was originally born in Syria, an area of the Roman Empire He was adopted by Elagabalus at urging of Julia Maesa Alexander Severus was emperor from 222-235 CE He was the last emperor of the Severan Dynasty He was described as “pure, but living in an age of corruption” Images of Alexander Severus http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Alexander_Severus MTR http://davidderrick.wordpress.com/2007/08/08/ effeminate-natives-of-asia/ Alexander Severus as Emperor MTR Helped to eventually resist the Persian threat, probably being the most significant event of his reign Saw Abraham and Jesus as the greatest teachers of mankind, and tried to follow their teachings Lowered taxes for Roman citizens However, corruption and instability were the prime results of his reign When the German Wars began, Maximinus ascended to the throne and Severus was killed, as the people grew tired of his policies BIBLIOGRAPHY "Alexander Severus." Wikipedia. Accessed March 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Sever us. "Elagabalus Emperor OfÂ Rome." About.com Ancient / Classical History. Accessed March 2013. http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/biocategory /a/elagabalus.htm. "Elagabalus (Roman Emperor)." Encyclopedia "Baths of Caracalla." , Rome. http://www.aviewoncities.com/rome/bathsofcar Britannica Online. Accessed March 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1 acalla.htm. 81888/Elagabalus. "Caracalla (Roman Emperor)." Encyclopedia "Elagabalus." Wikipedia. Accessed March 14, Britannica Online. Accessed March 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/9 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elagabalus. 4451/Caracalla. "Caracalla." Wikipedia. Accessed March 2013. "Geta - RomanÂ Emperor." About.com Ancient / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caracalla. Classical History. Accessed March 2013. http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/emperors/p "Elagabalus." Elagabalus. Accessed March /Geta.htm 2013. http://www.romanempire.net/decline/elagabalus.html. cont. "Roman Emperors - DIR Caracalla." Roman Emperors - DIR Caracalla. Accessed March 2013. http://www.romanemperors.org/caracala.htm. "Geta." Geta. Accessed March 2013. http://www.romanempire.net/decline/geta.html. "Roman Emperors - DIR Macrinus." Roman Emperors - DIR Macrinus. Accessed March 4, 2013. http://www.romanemperors.org/macrinus.htm. "Outlines of Roman History." Outlines of Roman History. Accessed March 5, 2013. http://www.forumromanum.org/history/index.ht ml. "Septimius Severus." CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA:. Accessed March 3, 2013. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13721a.ht m. "Publius Septimius Geta - Your Art History Reference Guide!" Publius Septimius Geta. Accessed March 2013. http://www.arthistoryclub.com/art_history/Publi us_Septimius_Geta. "Septimius Severus." Wikipedia. Accessed March 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septimius_Severu s. "Publius Septimius Geta." Wikipedia. Accessed March 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Publius_Septimius _Geta. "The Toynbee Convector." The Toynbee Convector. Accessed March 2013. http://davidderrick.wordpress.com/2007/08/ 08/effeminate-natives-of-asia/.