The Severan Dynasty

Report
THE SEVERAN
DYNASTY
193 CE to 235 CE
By Peter Baugh, Mac
Rechan, and Alex
Hawkenberry
A painting of Severan family members called the Severan Tondo
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Photo from:
http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/143/flashcards/1938143/jp
g/severan_tondo1351640371200.jpg
Background
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Short reigns
EMPERORS:
Septimius Severus
Caracalla
Geta
Macrinus
Elagabalus
Alexander Severus
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“Caracalla and Geta”. From:
http://imgc.allpostersimages.com/images/P473-48890/15/1501/4PBBD00Z/posters/sirlawrence-alma-tadema-caracalla-and-geta1907.jpg
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
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Septimius Severus
LEFT:
http://www.nndb.com/peopl
e/804/000107483/septimiu
s-severus-1-sized.jpg
FAR LEFT:
http://www.romansociety.org
/fileadmin/images/imago/3
071.jpg
193 CE to 211 CE
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Septimius Severus Background
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From Leptis Magna in Northern Africa
Founded African dynasty of Roman emperors
Born in 146 CE, died in 211 CE
Fathered Caracalla and Geta
http://www
.prepare2g
o.com/aviat
ion/images
/map_safar
i.jpg
Septimius Severus as Emperor
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Was part of conspiracy of emperor that was killed,
leading him to be emperor
Revengeful, cruel
Gave Asian natives equal rights to Italians
cont.
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Didn’t allow conversion to Judaism and Christianity
Restored Hadrian’s Wall
Strengthened Roman power in Britain
http://www.h
adrians-wallbed-andbreakfast.co.u
k/images/ind
ex/hadrians_
wall_cawfield
s.jpg
PB
CARACALLA
AH
Facts
-Caracalla created a huge bath complex in downtown Rome itself for the public enjoyment
-He placed heavy taxes on particularly the richest families, so as to limit their power as well as to fill his pocket
-Re-ignited conflict with the Parthians, after convincing them that he wanted peace by marriage, but instead he
murdered the bride and the guests, and began more skirmishes with Parthia
-He was of Syrian descent, and was born in Lugdunum, Gaul
-After his father, Septimius Severus died, he and his brother Geta were proclaimed co-emperors
-Instigated mass persecutions and massacres throughout the empire
-Caracalla wanted sole rule, so he had loyal members
of the Praetorian guard to kill him, Caracalla massacred
Geta's supporters
-In order to secure the allegiance of the army, Caracalla
raised the annual pay of the common legionary, (he used
the extra taxes from the rich)
-He was assassinated in Parthia by Julius Martialis, an
officer in his personal bodyguard
AH
http://lordbest.napoleonicmedals.org/Em
perors/caracalla5.jpg
Legacy
-The greatest legacy of Caracalla would be the baths that he created in Rome, the great piece of architecture
would live on after Caracalla's death, and will probably be the greatest reminder of his reign to the Roman
people
-The fact that he as well as many other proceeding emperors were Syrian gives proof to the fact that Rome was
a multi-ethnic empire, with a great diversity of rulers
-His continuation of the wars with Parthia had a certain impact on the course of the future of Rome's dominion in
the east
AH
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8e/Thermae_of_Caracalla
_Panorama.jpg/900px-Thermae_of_Caracalla_Panorama.jpg
GETA
MTR
Geta
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Was emperor from 209-211 CE
Ruled with both his brother, Caracalla, and father
(Severus)
Helped to defeat the Britains
Took a back seat to the throne as an emperor, and
had little overall influence
Little is truly known about Geta and how he
affected the lives of Romans in specific ways
Image of Geta
http://www.arthis
toryclub.com/art
_history/Publius_
Septimius_Geta
MTR
Geta’s Conflict with Caracalla
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The title of emperor was shared by both Geta and
his brother Caracalla
The two did not cooperate very well, and lived in
constant conflict
Eventually, Caracalla had enough, and decided to
assassinate Geta in their mother’s arms, thus
becoming the sole emperor of Rome
Caracalla then proceeded to damn (Damnatio
Memoriae in Latin) the memory of Geta, and
removed his name from all political inscriptions
MACRINUS
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Background
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Emperor from 217-218
AD
Neither a Senator or
from a Senatorial family
http://lordbest.nap
oleonicmedals.org/
Emperors/macrinus1
.jpg
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Reign
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Became Emperor after his predecessor was
murdered
Unable to maintain Roman influence in the East
Unpopular
Overthrown, killed
ELAGABALUS
AH
Facts
-Elagabalus was the 25th emperor of Rome
-He was Syrian, which demonstrates the diversity of emperors' ethnic backround
-He was a partier, he employed a sort of whoopee cushion at parties
-He reigned for a mere four years
-He rose to power by gaining support from the 3rd legion, who were persuaded by Elagabalus's mother. The
emperor before Elagabalus, named Macrinus sent a force to deal with the 3rd legion, but his force turned on
him and joined Elagabalus, after that event, the rest of the legions in the east deserted Macrinus and joined
Elagabalus and he assumed the throne.
-A rise in sun worship throughout the empire led to him
creating a god "deus sol invictus," the god of the
undefeated sun
-He was extremely promiscuous, often engaged in
homosexuality as well as heterosexuality
A
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
/Elagabalus
Legacy
-The reign of Elagabalus will be remembered mainly for sexual scandal and religious controversy
-He has one of the worst reputation among Roman emperors
-His acts of eccentric behavior, self prostitution, and extreme promiscuousness made him a hated emperor.
-His behavior seemed rather strange to senate, the common people, as well as his own bodyguards, known as the
Praetorian guard
-His bad rulership and strange behavior led to his assassination, planned by his grandmother and cousin, and
carried out by his own bodyguards
-He died at a mere 18 years of age
-Religious controversy between the worship of
the new Deus Sol Invictus, and the old gods
sparked violence and unrest
http://en.wikipedia.or
g/wiki/Elagabalus
AH
ALEXANDER SEVERUS
MTR
Alexander Severus General Info.
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Was originally born in Syria, an area of the Roman
Empire
He was adopted by Elagabalus at urging of Julia
Maesa
Alexander Severus was emperor from 222-235 CE
He was the last emperor of the Severan Dynasty
He was described as “pure, but living in an age of
corruption”
Images of Alexander Severus
http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Alexander_Severus
MTR
http://davidderrick.wordpress.com/2007/08/08/
effeminate-natives-of-asia/
Alexander Severus as Emperor
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MTR
Helped to eventually resist the Persian threat, probably
being the most significant event of his reign
Saw Abraham and Jesus as the greatest teachers of
mankind, and tried to follow their teachings
Lowered taxes for Roman citizens
However, corruption and instability were the prime
results of his reign
When the German Wars began, Maximinus ascended
to the throne and Severus was killed, as the people
grew tired of his policies
BIBLIOGRAPHY
"Alexander Severus." Wikipedia. Accessed
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Sever
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http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/biocategory
/a/elagabalus.htm.
"Elagabalus (Roman Emperor)." Encyclopedia
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http://www.aviewoncities.com/rome/bathsofcar Britannica Online. Accessed March 2013.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1
acalla.htm.
81888/Elagabalus.
"Caracalla (Roman Emperor)." Encyclopedia
"Elagabalus." Wikipedia. Accessed March 14,
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http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/9 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elagabalus.
4451/Caracalla.
"Caracalla." Wikipedia. Accessed March
2013.
"Geta - Roman Emperor." About.com Ancient /
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caracalla.
Classical History. Accessed March 2013.
http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/emperors/p
"Elagabalus." Elagabalus. Accessed March
/Geta.htm
2013. http://www.romanempire.net/decline/elagabalus.html.
cont.
"Roman Emperors - DIR Caracalla." Roman
Emperors - DIR Caracalla. Accessed March
2013. http://www.romanemperors.org/caracala.htm.
"Geta." Geta. Accessed March 2013.
http://www.romanempire.net/decline/geta.html.
"Roman Emperors - DIR Macrinus." Roman
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2013. http://www.romanemperors.org/macrinus.htm.
"Outlines of Roman History." Outlines of Roman
History. Accessed March 5, 2013.
http://www.forumromanum.org/history/index.ht
ml.
"Septimius Severus." CATHOLIC
ENCYCLOPEDIA:. Accessed March 3, 2013.
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13721a.ht
m.
"Publius Septimius Geta - Your Art History
Reference Guide!" Publius Septimius Geta.
Accessed March 2013.
http://www.arthistoryclub.com/art_history/Publi
us_Septimius_Geta.
"Septimius Severus." Wikipedia. Accessed
March 2, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septimius_Severu
s.
"Publius Septimius Geta." Wikipedia. Accessed
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Publius_Septimius
_Geta.
"The Toynbee Convector." The Toynbee
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