Chapter 5 slides (Link Layer)

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Chapter 5
Link Layer and LANs
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Computer Networking:
A Top Down Approach
5th edition.
Jim Kurose, Keith Ross
Addison-Wesley, April
2009.
Thanks and enjoy! JFK/KWR
All material copyright 1996-2009
J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved
5: DataLink Layer
5-1
Chapter 5: The Data Link Layer
Our goals:
 understand principles behind data link layer
services:




error detection, correction
sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access
link layer addressing
reliable data transfer, flow control: done!
 instantiation and implementation of various link
layer technologies
5: DataLink Layer
5-2
Link Layer
 5.1 Introduction and




services
5.2 Error detection
and correction
5.3Multiple access
protocols
5.4 Link-layer
Addressing
5.5 Ethernet
 5.6 Link-layer switches
 5.7 PPP
 5.8 Link virtualization:
MPLS
 5.9 A day in the life of a
web request
5: DataLink Layer
5-3
Link Layer: Introduction
Some terminology:
 hosts and routers are nodes
 communication channels that
connect adjacent nodes along
communication path are links



wired links
wireless links
LANs
 layer-2 packet is a frame,
encapsulates datagram
data-link layer has responsibility of
transferring datagram from one node
to adjacent node over a link
5: DataLink Layer
5-4
Link layer: context
 datagram transferred by
different link protocols
over different links:

e.g., Ethernet on first link,
frame relay on
intermediate links, 802.11
on last link
 each link protocol
provides different
services

e.g., may or may not
provide rdt over link
transportation analogy
 trip from Princeton to
Lausanne
 limo: Princeton to JFK
 plane: JFK to Geneva
 train: Geneva to Lausanne
 tourist = datagram
 transport segment =
communication link
 transportation mode =
link layer protocol
 travel agent = routing
algorithm
5: DataLink Layer
5-5
Link Layer Services

framing, link access:




encapsulate datagram into frame, adding header, trailer
channel access if shared medium
“MAC” addresses used in frame headers to identify
source, dest
• different from IP address!
reliable delivery between adjacent nodes



we learned how to do this already (chapter 3)!
seldom used on low bit-error link (fiber, some twisted
pair)
wireless links: high error rates
• Q: why both link-level and end-end reliability?
5: DataLink Layer
5-6
Link Layer Services (more)

flow control:


pacing between adjacent sending and receiving nodes
error detection:


errors caused by signal attenuation, noise.
receiver detects presence of errors:
• signals sender for retransmission or drops frame
 error correction:


receiver identifies and corrects bit error(s) without
resorting to retransmission
half-duplex and full-duplex

with half duplex, nodes at both ends of link can transmit,
but not at same time
5: DataLink Layer
5-7
Where is the link layer implemented?
 in each and every host
 link layer implemented in
“adaptor” (aka network
interface card NIC)


Ethernet card, PCMCI
card, 802.11 card
implements link, physical
layer
 attaches into host’s
system buses
 combination of
hardware, software,
firmware
host schematic
application
transport
network
link
cpu
memory
controller
link
physical
host
bus
(e.g., PCI)
physical
transmission
network adapter
card
5: DataLink Layer
5-8
Adaptors Communicating
datagram
datagram
controller
controller
receiving host
sending host
datagram
frame
 sending side:
 encapsulates datagram in
frame
 adds error checking bits,
rdt, flow control, etc.
 receiving side
 looks for errors, rdt, flow
control, etc
 extracts datagram, passes
to upper layer at receiving
side
5: DataLink Layer
5-9
Link Layer
 5.1 Introduction and




services
5.2 Error detection
and correction
5.3Multiple access
protocols
5.4 Link-layer
Addressing
5.5 Ethernet
 5.6 Link-layer switches
 5.7 PPP
 5.8 Link virtualization:
MPLS
 5.9 A day in the life of a
web request
5: DataLink Layer
5-10
Error Detection
EDC= Error Detection and Correction bits (redundancy)
D = Data protected by error checking, may include header fields
• Error detection not 100% reliable!
• protocol may miss some errors, but rarely
• larger EDC field yields better detection and correction
otherwise
5: DataLink Layer
5-11
Parity Checking
Single Bit Parity:
Detect single bit errors
Two Dimensional Bit Parity:
Detect and correct single bit errors
0
0
5: DataLink Layer
5-12
Internet checksum (review)
Goal: detect “errors” (e.g., flipped bits) in transmitted
packet (note: used at transport layer only)
Sender:
 treat segment contents
as sequence of 16-bit
integers
 checksum: addition (1’s
complement sum) of
segment contents
 sender puts checksum
value into UDP checksum
field
Receiver:
 compute checksum of
received segment
 check if computed checksum
equals checksum field value:
 NO - error detected
 YES - no error detected.
But maybe errors
nonetheless?
5: DataLink Layer
5-13
Checksumming: Cyclic Redundancy Check
 view data bits, D, as a binary number
 choose r+1 bit pattern (generator), G
 goal: choose r CRC bits, R, such that



<D,R> exactly divisible by G (modulo 2)
receiver knows G, divides <D,R> by G. If non-zero remainder:
error detected!
can detect all burst errors less than r+1 bits
 widely used in practice (Ethernet, 802.11 WiFi, ATM)
5: DataLink Layer
5-14
CRC Example
Want:
D.2r XOR R = nG
equivalently:
D.2r = nG XOR R
equivalently:
if we divide D.2r by
G, want remainder R
R = remainder[
D.2r
G
]
5: DataLink Layer
5-15
Link Layer
 5.1 Introduction and




services
5.2 Error detection
and correction
5.3Multiple access
protocols
5.4 Link-layer
Addressing
5.5 Ethernet
 5.6 Link-layer switches
 5.7 PPP
 5.8 Link virtualization:
MPLS
 5.9 A day in the life of a
web request
5: DataLink Layer
5-16
Multiple Access Links and Protocols
Two types of “links”:
 point-to-point
 PPP for dial-up access
 point-to-point link between Ethernet switch and host
 broadcast (shared wire or medium)
 old-fashioned Ethernet
 upstream HFC
 802.11 wireless LAN
shared wire (e.g.,
cabled Ethernet)
shared RF
(e.g., 802.11 WiFi)
shared RF
(satellite)
humans at a
cocktail party
(shared air, acoustical)
5: DataLink Layer
5-17
Multiple Access protocols
 single shared broadcast channel
 two or more simultaneous transmissions by nodes:
interference

collision if node receives two or more signals at the same time
multiple access protocol
 distributed algorithm that determines how nodes
share channel, i.e., determine when node can transmit
 communication about channel sharing must use channel
itself!

no out-of-band channel for coordination
5: DataLink Layer
5-18
Ideal Multiple Access Protocol
Broadcast channel of rate R bps
1. when one node wants to transmit, it can send at
rate R.
2. when M nodes want to transmit, each can send at
average rate R/M
3. fully decentralized:


no special node to coordinate transmissions
no synchronization of clocks, slots
4. simple
5: DataLink Layer
5-19
MAC Protocols: a taxonomy
Three broad classes:
 Channel Partitioning


divide channel into smaller “pieces” (time slots,
frequency, code)
allocate piece to node for exclusive use
 Random Access
 channel not divided, allow collisions
 “recover” from collisions
 “Taking turns”
 nodes take turns, but nodes with more to send can take
longer turns
5: DataLink Layer
5-20
Channel Partitioning MAC protocols: TDMA
TDMA: time division multiple access
 access to channel in "rounds"
 each station gets fixed length slot (length = pkt
trans time) in each round
 unused slots go idle
 example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt, slots 2,5,6
idle
6-slot
frame
1
3
4
1
3
4
5: DataLink Layer
5-21
Channel Partitioning MAC protocols: FDMA
FDMA: frequency division multiple access
 channel spectrum divided into frequency bands
 each station assigned fixed frequency band
 unused transmission time in frequency bands go idle
 example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt, frequency
FDM cable
frequency bands
bands 2,5,6 idle
5: DataLink Layer
5-22
Random Access Protocols
 When node has packet to send
 transmit at full channel data rate R.
 no a priori coordination among nodes
 two or more transmitting nodes ➜ “collision”,
 random access MAC protocol specifies:
 how to detect collisions
 how to recover from collisions (e.g., via delayed
retransmissions)
 Examples of random access MAC protocols:
 slotted ALOHA
 ALOHA
 CSMA, CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA
5: DataLink Layer
5-23
Slotted ALOHA
Assumptions:
 all frames same size
 time divided into equal
size slots (time to
transmit 1 frame)
 nodes start to transmit
only slot beginning
 nodes are synchronized
 if 2 or more nodes
transmit in slot, all
nodes detect collision
Operation:
 when node obtains fresh
frame, transmits in next
slot
 if no collision: node can
send new frame in next
slot
 if collision: node
retransmits frame in
each subsequent slot
with prob. p until
success
5: DataLink Layer
5-24
Slotted ALOHA
Pros
 single active node can
continuously transmit
at full rate of channel
 highly decentralized:
only slots in nodes
need to be in sync
 simple
Cons
 collisions, wasting slots
 idle slots
 nodes may be able to
detect collision in less
than time to transmit
packet
 clock synchronization
5: DataLink Layer
5-25
Slotted Aloha efficiency
Efficiency : long-run
fraction of successful slots
(many nodes, all with many
frames to send)

suppose: N nodes with
many frames to send,
each transmits in slot
with probability p
 prob that given node
has success in a slot =
p(1-p)N-1
 prob that
any node has
a success = Np(1-p)N-1
 max efficiency: find
p* that maximizes
Np(1-p)N-1
 for many nodes, take
limit of Np*(1-p*)N-1
as N goes to infinity,
gives:
Max efficiency = 1/e = .37
At best: channel
used for useful
transmissions 37%
of time!
5: DataLink Layer
!
5-26
Pure (unslotted) ALOHA
 unslotted Aloha: simpler, no synchronization
 when frame first arrives
 transmit immediately
 collision probability increases:
 frame sent at t0 collides with other frames sent in [t0-1,t0+1]
5: DataLink Layer
5-27
Pure Aloha efficiency
P(success by given node) = P(node transmits) .
P(no other node transmits in [p0-1,p0] .
P(no other node transmits in [p0-1,p0]
= p . (1-p)N-1 . (1-p)N-1
= p . (1-p)2(N-1)
… choosing optimum p and then letting n -> infty ...
= 1/(2e) = .18
even worse than slotted Aloha!
5: DataLink Layer
5-28
CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access)
CSMA: listen before transmit:
If channel sensed idle: transmit entire frame
 If channel sensed busy, defer transmission
 human analogy: don’t interrupt others!
5: DataLink Layer
5-29
CSMA collisions
spatial layout of nodes
collisions can still occur:
propagation delay means
two nodes may not hear
each other’s transmission
collision:
entire packet transmission
time wasted
note:
role of distance & propagation
delay in determining collision
probability
5: DataLink Layer
5-30
CSMA/CD (Collision Detection)
CSMA/CD: carrier sensing, deferral as in CSMA
collisions detected within short time
 colliding transmissions aborted, reducing channel
wastage

 collision detection:
 easy in wired LANs: measure signal strengths,
compare transmitted, received signals
 difficult in wireless LANs: received signal strength
overwhelmed by local transmission strength
 human analogy: the polite conversationalist
5: DataLink Layer
5-31
CSMA/CD collision detection
5: DataLink Layer
5-32
“Taking Turns” MAC protocols
channel partitioning MAC protocols:
 share channel efficiently and fairly at high load
 inefficient at low load: delay in channel access,
1/N bandwidth allocated even if only 1 active
node!
Random access MAC protocols
 efficient at low load: single node can fully
utilize channel
 high load: collision overhead
“taking turns” protocols
look for best of both worlds!
5: DataLink Layer
5-33
“Taking Turns” MAC protocols
Polling:
 master node
“invites” slave nodes
to transmit in turn
 typically used with
“dumb” slave devices
 concerns:



polling overhead
latency
single point of
failure (master)
data
poll
master
data
slaves
5: DataLink Layer
5-34
“Taking Turns” MAC protocols
Token passing:
 control token passed
from one node to next
sequentially.
 token message
 concerns:



token overhead
latency
single point of failure
(token)
T
(nothing
to send)
T
data
5: DataLink Layer
5-35
Summary of MAC protocols

channel partitioning, by time, frequency or code


random access (dynamic),





Time Division, Frequency Division
ALOHA, S-ALOHA, CSMA, CSMA/CD
carrier sensing: easy in some technologies (wire), hard in
others (wireless)
CSMA/CD used in Ethernet
CSMA/CA used in 802.11
taking turns


polling from central site, token passing
Bluetooth, FDDI, IBM Token Ring
5: DataLink Layer
5-36
Link Layer
 5.1 Introduction and




services
5.2 Error detection
and correction
5.3Multiple access
protocols
5.4 Link-Layer
Addressing
5.5 Ethernet
 5.6 Link-layer switches
 5.7 PPP
 5.8 Link virtualization:
MPLS
 5.9 A day in the life of a
web request
5: DataLink Layer
5-37
MAC Addresses and ARP
 32-bit IP address:

network-layer address

used to get datagram to destination IP subnet
 MAC (or LAN or physical or Ethernet)
address:

function: get frame from one interface to another
physically-connected interface (same network)
 48
bit MAC address (for most LANs)
• burned in NIC ROM, also sometimes software settable
5: DataLink Layer
5-38
LAN Addresses and ARP
Each adapter on LAN has unique LAN address
1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD
71-65-F7-2B-08-53
LAN
(wired or
wireless)
Broadcast address =
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
= adapter
58-23-D7-FA-20-B0
0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98
5: DataLink Layer
5-39
LAN Address (more)
 MAC address allocation administered by IEEE
 manufacturer buys portion of MAC address space
(to assure uniqueness)
 analogy:
(a) MAC address: like Social Security Number
(b) IP address: like postal address
 MAC flat address ➜ portability

can move LAN card from one LAN to another
 IP hierarchical address NOT portable
 address depends on IP subnet to which node is attached
5: DataLink Layer
5-40
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol
Question: how to determine
MAC address of B
knowing B’s IP address?
137.196.7.78
1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD
137.196.7.23
 Each IP node (host,
router) on LAN has
ARP table
 ARP table: IP/MAC
address mappings for
some LAN nodes
137.196.7.14

LAN
71-65-F7-2B-08-53
137.196.7.88
< IP address; MAC address; TTL>
58-23-D7-FA-20-B0
TTL (Time To Live): time
after which address
mapping will be forgotten
(typically 20 min)
0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98
5: DataLink Layer
5-41
ARP protocol: Same LAN (network)
 A wants to send datagram
to B, and B’s MAC address
not in A’s ARP table.
 A broadcasts ARP query
packet, containing B's IP
address
 dest MAC address = FFFF-FF-FF-FF-FF
 all machines on LAN
receive ARP query
 B receives ARP packet,
replies to A with its (B's)
MAC address

frame sent to A’s MAC
address (unicast)
 A caches (saves) IP-to-
MAC address pair in its
ARP table until information
becomes old (times out)
 soft state: information
that times out (goes
away) unless refreshed
 ARP is “plug-and-play”:
 nodes create their ARP
tables without
intervention from net
administrator
5: DataLink Layer
5-42
Addressing: routing to another LAN
walkthrough: send datagram from A to B via R
assume A knows B’s IP address
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55
A
111.111.111.111
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
222.222.222.220
111.111.111.110
111.111.111.112
R
222.222.222.221
222.222.222.222
B
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D
 two ARP tables in router R, one for each IP
network (LAN)
5: DataLink Layer
5-43
 A creates IP datagram with source A, destination B
 A uses ARP to get R’s MAC address for 111.111.111.110
 A creates link-layer frame with R's MAC address as dest,





frame contains A-to-B IP datagram
This is a really important
A’s NIC sends frame
example – make sure you
understand!
R’s NIC receives frame
R removes IP datagram from Ethernet frame, sees its
destined to B
R uses ARP to get B’s MAC address
R creates frame containing A-to-B IP datagram sends to B
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55
A
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
111.111.111.111
222.222.222.220
111.111.111.110
111.111.111.112
222.222.222.221
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
R
222.222.222.222
B
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D
5: DataLink Layer
5-44
Link Layer
 5.1 Introduction and




services
5.2 Error detection
and correction
5.3Multiple access
protocols
5.4 Link-Layer
Addressing
5.5 Ethernet
 5.6 Link-layer switches
 5.7 PPP
 5.8 Link virtualization:
MPLS
 5.9 A day in the life of a
web request
5: DataLink Layer
5-45
Ethernet
“dominant” wired LAN technology:
 cheap $20 for NIC
 first widely used LAN technology
 simpler, cheaper than token LANs and ATM
 kept up with speed race: 10 Mbps – 10 Gbps
Metcalfe’s Ethernet
sketch
5: DataLink Layer
5-46
Star topology
 bus topology popular through mid 90s
 all nodes in same collision domain (can collide with each
other)
 today: star topology prevails
 active switch in center
 each “spoke” runs a (separate) Ethernet protocol (nodes
do not collide with each other)
switch
bus: coaxial cable
star
5: DataLink Layer
5-47
Ethernet Frame Structure
Sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other
network layer protocol packet) in Ethernet frame
Preamble:
 7 bytes with pattern 10101010 followed by one
byte with pattern 10101011
 used to synchronize receiver, sender clock rates
5: DataLink Layer
5-48
Ethernet Frame Structure (more)
 Addresses: 6 bytes
 if adapter receives frame with matching destination
address, or with broadcast address (eg ARP packet), it
passes data in frame to network layer protocol
 otherwise, adapter discards frame
 Type: indicates higher layer protocol (mostly IP
but others possible, e.g., Novell IPX, AppleTalk)
 CRC: checked at receiver, if error is detected,
frame is dropped
5: DataLink Layer
5-49
Ethernet: Unreliable, connectionless
 connectionless: No handshaking between sending and
receiving NICs
 unreliable: receiving NIC doesn’t send acks or nacks
to sending NIC



stream of datagrams passed to network layer can have gaps
(missing datagrams)
gaps will be filled if app is using TCP
otherwise, app will see gaps
 Ethernet’s MAC protocol: unslotted CSMA/CD
5: DataLink Layer
5-50
Ethernet CSMA/CD algorithm
1. NIC receives datagram
4. If NIC detects another
from network layer,
transmission while
creates frame
transmitting, aborts and
sends jam signal
2. If NIC senses channel idle,
starts frame transmission 5. After aborting, NIC
If NIC senses channel
enters exponential
busy, waits until channel
backoff: after mth
idle, then transmits
collision, NIC chooses K at
random from
3. If NIC transmits entire
{0,1,2,…,2m-1}. NIC waits
frame without detecting
K·512 bit times, returns to
another transmission, NIC
Step 2
is done with frame !
5: DataLink Layer
5-51
Ethernet’s CSMA/CD (more)
Jam Signal: make sure all
other transmitters are
aware of collision; 48 bits
Bit time: .1 microsec for 10
Mbps Ethernet ;
for K=1023, wait time is
about 50 msec
See/interact with Java
applet on AWL Web site:
highly recommended !
Exponential Backoff:
 Goal: adapt retransmission
attempts to estimated
current load
 heavy load: random wait
will be longer
 first collision: choose K from
{0,1}; delay is K· 512 bit
transmission times
 after second collision: choose
K from {0,1,2,3}…
 after ten collisions, choose K
from {0,1,2,3,4,…,1023}
5: DataLink Layer
5-52
CSMA/CD efficiency
 Tprop = max prop delay between 2 nodes in LAN
 ttrans = time to transmit max-size frame
efficiency
1
1  5t prop /ttrans
 efficiency goes to 1
 as tprop goes to 0
 as ttrans goes to infinity
 better performance than ALOHA: and simple,
cheap, decentralized!
5: DataLink Layer
5-53
802.3 Ethernet Standards: Link & Physical Layers
 many different Ethernet standards
 common MAC protocol and frame format
 different speeds: 2 Mbps, 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps,
1Gbps, 10G bps
 different physical layer media: fiber, cable
application
transport
network
link
physical
MAC protocol
and frame format
100BASE-TX
100BASE-T2
100BASE-FX
100BASE-T4
100BASE-SX
100BASE-BX
copper (twister
pair) physical layer
fiber physical layer
5: DataLink Layer
5-54
Manchester encoding
 used in 10BaseT
 each bit has a transition
 allows clocks in sending and receiving nodes to
synchronize to each other

no need for a centralized, global clock among nodes!
 Hey, this is physical-layer stuff!
5: DataLink Layer
5-55
Link Layer
 5.1 Introduction and




services
5.2 Error detection
and correction
5.3 Multiple access
protocols
5.4 Link-layer
Addressing
5.5 Ethernet
 5.6 Link-layer switches,
LANs, VLANs
 5.7 PPP
 5.8 Link virtualization:
MPLS
 5.9 A day in the life of a
web request
5: DataLink Layer
5-56
Hubs
… physical-layer (“dumb”) repeaters:
 bits coming in one link go out all other links at
same rate
 all nodes connected to hub can collide with one
another
 no frame buffering
 no CSMA/CD at hub: host NICs detect
collisions
twisted pair
hub
5: DataLink Layer
5-57
Switch
 link-layer device: smarter than hubs, take
active role
store, forward Ethernet frames
 examine incoming frame’s MAC address,
selectively forward frame to one-or-more
outgoing links when frame is to be forwarded on
segment, uses CSMA/CD to access segment

 transparent
 hosts are unaware of presence of switches
 plug-and-play,

self-learning
switches do not need to be configured
5: DataLink Layer
5-58
Switch: allows multiple simultaneous
transmissions
A
 hosts have dedicated,
direct connection to switch
 switches buffer packets
 Ethernet protocol used on
each incoming link, but no
collisions; full duplex


each link is its own collision
domain
switching: A-to-A’ and Bto-B’ simultaneously,
without collisions

not possible with dumb hub
C’
B
6
1
5
2
3
4
C
B’
A’
switch with six interfaces
(1,2,3,4,5,6)
5: DataLink Layer
5-59
Switch Table

Q: how does switch know that
A’ reachable via interface 4,
B’ reachable via interface 5?
 A: each switch has a switch
table, each entry:

Q: how are entries created,
maintained in switch table?

C’
B
6
something like a routing
protocol?
1
5
(MAC address of host, interface
to reach host, time stamp)
 looks like a routing table!

A
2
3
4
C
B’
A’
switch with six interfaces
(1,2,3,4,5,6)
5: DataLink Layer
5-60
Switch: self-learning
 switch
learns which hosts
can be reached through
which interfaces


Source: A
Dest: A’
A A A’
C’
when frame received,
switch “learns” location of
sender: incoming LAN
segment
records sender/location
pair in switch table
B
1
6
5
2
3
4
C
B’
A’
MAC addr interface TTL
A
1
60
Switch table
(initially empty)
5: DataLink Layer
5-61
Switch: frame filtering/forwarding
When frame received:
1. record link associated with sending host
2. index switch table using MAC dest address
3. if entry found for destination
then {
if dest on segment from which frame arrived
then drop the frame
else forward the frame on interface indicated
}
else flood
forward on all but the interface
on which the frame arrived
5: DataLink Layer
5-62
Self-learning,
forwarding:
example
Source: A
Dest: A’
A A A’
C’
B
 frame destination
unknown: flood
A6A’
1
2
4
5
 destination A
location known:
C
A’ A
selective send
B’
3
A’
MAC addr interface TTL
A
A’
1
4
60
60
Switch table
(initially empty)
5: DataLink Layer
5-63
Interconnecting switches
 switches can be connected together
S4
S1
S2
A
B
S3
C
F
D
E

I
G
H
Q: sending from A to G - how does S1 know to
forward frame destined to F via S4 and S3?
 A: self learning! (works exactly the same as in
single-switch case!)
5: DataLink Layer
5-64
Self-learning multi-switch example
Suppose C sends frame to I, I responds to C
S4
1
S1
S2
A
B
C
2
F
D
E

S3
I
G
H
Q: show switch tables and packet forwarding in S1,
S2, S3, S4
5: DataLink Layer
5-65
Institutional network
to external
network
mail server
router
web server
IP subnet
5: DataLink Layer
5-66
Switches vs. Routers
 both store-and-forward devices
 routers: network layer devices (examine network layer
headers)
 switches are link layer devices
 routers maintain routing tables, implement routing
algorithms
 switches maintain switch tables, implement
filtering, learning algorithms
5: DataLink Layer
5-67
VLANs: motivation
What’s wrong with this picture?
What happens if:
 CS user moves office to EE,
but wants connect to CS
switch?
 single broadcast domain:

Computer
Science
Electrical
Engineering
Computer
Engineering
all layer-2 broadcast
traffic (ARP, DHCP)
crosses entire LAN
(security/privacy,
efficiency issues)
 each lowest level switch has
only few ports in use
5: DataLink Layer
5-68
VLANs
Port-based VLAN: switch ports grouped
(by switch management software) so
that single physical switch ……
Virtual Local
Area Network
Switch(es) supporting
VLAN capabilities can
be configured to
define multiple virtual
LANS over single
physical LAN
infrastructure.
1
7
9
15
2
8
10
16
…
…
Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)
Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-15)
… operates as multiple virtual switches
1
7
9
15
2
8
10
16
…
Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)
…
Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-16)
5: DataLink Layer
5-69
Port-based VLAN

traffic isolation: frames
to/from ports 1-8 can
only reach ports 1-8



router
can also define VLAN based on
MAC addresses of endpoints,
rather than switch port
dynamic membership:
ports can be dynamically
assigned among VLANs
1
7
9
15
2
8
10
16
…
Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)
…
Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-15)
forwarding between VLANS:
done via routing (just as with
separate switches)

in practice vendors sell combined
switches plus routers
5: DataLink Layer
5-70
VLANS spanning multiple switches
1
7
9
15
1
3
5
7
2
8
10
16
2
4
6
8
…
Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)

…
Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-15)
Ports 2,3,5 belong to EE VLAN
Ports 4,6,7,8 belong to CS VLAN
trunk port: carries frames between VLANS defined
over multiple physical switches


frames forwarded within VLAN between switches can’t be
vanilla 802.1 frames (must carry VLAN ID info)
802.1q protocol adds/removed additional header fields for
frames forwarded between trunk ports
5: DataLink Layer
5-71
802.1Q VLAN frame format
Type
802.1 frame
802.1Q frame
2-byte Tag Protocol Identifier
(value: 81-00)
Recomputed
CRC
Tag Control Information (12 bit VLAN ID field,
3 bit priority field like IP TOS)
5: DataLink Layer
5-72
Link Layer
 5.1 Introduction and




services
5.2 Error detection
and correction
5.3Multiple access
protocols
5.4 Link-Layer
Addressing
5.5 Ethernet
 5.6 Link-layer switches
 5.7 PPP
 5.8 Link virtualization:
MPLS
 5.9 A day in the life of a
web request
5: DataLink Layer
5-73
Point to Point Data Link Control
 one sender, one receiver, one link: easier than
broadcast link:
 no Media Access Control
 no need for explicit MAC addressing
 e.g., dialup link, ISDN line
 popular point-to-point DLC protocols:
 PPP (point-to-point protocol)
 HDLC: High level data link control (Data link
used to be considered “high layer” in protocol
stack!
5: DataLink Layer
5-74
PPP Design Requirements [RFC 1557]
 packet framing: encapsulation of network-layer




datagram in data link frame
 carry network layer data of any network layer
protocol (not just IP) at same time
 ability to demultiplex upwards
bit transparency: must carry any bit pattern in the
data field
error detection (no correction)
connection liveness: detect, signal link failure to
network layer
network layer address negotiation: endpoint can
learn/configure each other’s network address
5: DataLink Layer
5-75
PPP non-requirements
 no error correction/recovery
 no flow control
 out of order delivery OK
 no need to support multipoint links (e.g., polling)
Error recovery, flow control, data re-ordering
all relegated to higher layers!
5: DataLink Layer
5-76
PPP Data Frame
 Flag: delimiter (framing)
 Address: does nothing (only one option)
 Control: does nothing; in the future possible
multiple control fields
 Protocol: upper layer protocol to which frame
delivered (eg, PPP-LCP, IP, IPCP, etc)
5: DataLink Layer
5-77
PPP Data Frame
 info: upper layer data being carried
 check: cyclic redundancy check for error
detection
5: DataLink Layer
5-78
Byte Stuffing
 “data transparency” requirement: data field must
be allowed to include flag pattern <01111110>
 Q: is received <01111110> data or flag?
 Sender: adds (“stuffs”) extra < 01111110> byte
after each < 01111110> data byte
 Receiver:
 two 01111110 bytes in a row: discard first byte,
continue data reception
 single 01111110: flag byte
5: DataLink Layer
5-79
Byte Stuffing
flag byte
pattern
in data
to send
flag byte pattern plus
stuffed byte in
transmitted data
5: DataLink Layer
5-80
PPP Data Control Protocol
Before exchanging networklayer data, data link peers
must
 configure PPP link (max.
frame length,
authentication)
 learn/configure network
layer information
 for IP: carry IP Control
Protocol (IPCP) msgs
(protocol field: 8021) to
configure/learn IP
address
5: DataLink Layer
5-81
Link Layer
 5.1 Introduction and




services
5.2 Error detection
and correction
5.3Multiple access
protocols
5.4 Link-Layer
Addressing
5.5 Ethernet
 5.6 Link-layer switches
 5.7 PPP
 5.8 Link virtualization:
MPLS
 5.9 A day in the life of a
web request
5: DataLink Layer
5-82
Virtualization of networks
Virtualization of resources: powerful abstraction in
systems engineering:
 computing examples: virtual memory, virtual
devices
 Virtual machines: e.g., java
 IBM VM os from 1960’s/70’s
 layering of abstractions: don’t sweat the details of
the lower layer, only deal with lower layers
abstractly
5: DataLink Layer
5-83
The Internet: virtualizing networks
1974: multiple unconnected
nets
 ARPAnet
 data-over-cable
networks
 packet satellite network (Aloha)
 packet radio network
ARPAnet
"A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication",
V. Cerf, R. Kahn, IEEE Transactions on Communications,
May, 1974, pp. 637-648.
… differing in:
 addressing
conventions
 packet formats
 error recovery
 routing
satellite net
5: DataLink Layer
5-84
The Internet: virtualizing networks
Internetwork layer (IP):
 addressing: internetwork
appears as single, uniform
entity, despite underlying local
network heterogeneity
 network of networks
Gateway:
 “embed internetwork packets in
local packet format or extract
them”
 route (at internetwork level) to
next gateway
gateway
ARPAnet
satellite net
5: DataLink Layer
5-85
Cerf & Kahn’s Internetwork Architecture
What is virtualized?
 two layers of addressing: internetwork and local
network
 new layer (IP) makes everything homogeneous at
internetwork layer
 underlying local network technology
 cable
 satellite
 56K telephone modem
 today: ATM, MPLS
… “invisible” at internetwork layer. Looks like a link
layer technology to IP!
5: DataLink Layer
5-86
ATM and MPLS
 ATM, MPLS separate networks in their own
right

different service models, addressing, routing
from Internet
 viewed by Internet as logical link connecting
IP routers

just like dialup link is really part of separate
network (telephone network)
 ATM, MPLS: of technical interest in their
own right
5: DataLink Layer
5-87
Asynchronous Transfer Mode: ATM
 1990’s/00 standard for high-speed (155Mbps to
622 Mbps and higher) Broadband Integrated
Service Digital Network architecture
 Goal: integrated, end-end transport of carry voice,
video, data
meeting timing/QoS requirements of voice, video
(versus Internet best-effort model)
 “next generation” telephony: technical roots in
telephone world
 packet-switching (fixed length packets, called
“cells”) using virtual circuits

5: DataLink Layer
5-88
Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)
 initial goal: speed up IP forwarding by using fixed
length label (instead of IP address) to do
forwarding


borrowing ideas from Virtual Circuit (VC) approach
but IP datagram still keeps IP address!
PPP or Ethernet
header
MPLS header
label
20
IP header
remainder of link-layer frame
Exp S TTL
3
1
5
5: DataLink Layer
5-89
MPLS capable routers
 a.k.a. label-switched router
 forwards packets to outgoing interface based
only on label value (don’t inspect IP address)

MPLS forwarding table distinct from IP forwarding
tables
 signaling protocol needed to set up forwarding
 RSVP-TE
 forwarding possible along paths that IP alone would
not allow (e.g., source-specific routing) !!
 use MPLS for traffic engineering
 must co-exist with IP-only routers
5: DataLink Layer
5-90
MPLS forwarding tables
in
label
out
label dest
10
12
8
out
interface
A
D
A
0
0
1
in
label
out
label dest
out
interface
10
6
A
1
12
9
D
0
R6
0
0
D
1
1
R3
R4
R5
0
0
R2
in
label
8
out
label dest
6
A
out
interface
in
label
6
outR1
label dest
-
A
A
out
interface
0
0
5: DataLink Layer
5-91
Link Layer
 5.1 Introduction and




services
5.2 Error detection
and correction
5.3Multiple access
protocols
5.4 Link-Layer
Addressing
5.5 Ethernet
 5.6 Link-layer switches
 5.7 PPP
 5.8 Link virtualization:
MPLS
 5.9 A day in the life of a
web request
5: DataLink Layer
5-92
Synthesis: a day in the life of a web request
 journey down protocol stack complete!
 application, transport, network, link
 putting-it-all-together: synthesis!
 goal: identify, review, understand protocols (at
all layers) involved in seemingly simple scenario:
requesting www page
 scenario: student attaches laptop to campus
network, requests/receives www.google.com
5: DataLink Layer
5-93
A day in the life: scenario
DNS server
browser
Comcast network
68.80.0.0/13
school network
68.80.2.0/24
web page
web server
64.233.169.105
Google’s network
64.233.160.0/19
5: DataLink Layer
5-94
A day in the life… connecting to the Internet
 connecting laptop needs to
DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
get its own IP address,
addr of first-hop router,
addr of DNS server: use
DHCP
DHCP
encapsulated
in UDP, encapsulated in IP,
encapsulated in 802.1
 DHCP request
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
router
(runs DHCP)
Ethernet
 Ethernet frame
broadcast
(dest: FFFFFFFFFFFF) on LAN,
received at router running
DHCP server
 Ethernet
demux’ed to IP
demux’ed, UDP demux’ed to
DHCP
5: DataLink Layer
5-95
A day in the life… connecting to the Internet
 DHCP server formulates
DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP ACK containing
client’s IP address, IP
address of first-hop
router for client, name &
IP address of DNS server
 encapsulation at DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
router
(runs DHCP)
server, frame forwarded
(switch learning) through
LAN, demultiplexing at
client
 DHCP client receives DHCP
ACK reply
Client now has IP address, knows name & addr of DNS
server, IP address of its first-hop router
5: DataLink Layer
5-96
A day in the life… ARP (before DNS, before HTTP)
DNS
DNS
DNS
ARP query
 before sending
DNS
UDP
IP
ARP
Eth
Phy
need IP address of www.google.com:
DNS
 DNS query created, encapsulated
in UDP, encapsulated in IP,
encasulated in Eth. In order to
send frame to router, need MAC
address of router interface: ARP
ARP
ARP reply
HTTP request,
Eth
Phy

ARP query broadcast, received
by router, which replies with
ARP reply giving MAC address
of router interface
 client now knows MAC address
of first hop router, so can now
send frame containing DNS
query
5: DataLink Layer
5-97
A day in the life… using DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
DNS
DNS
DNS
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
DNS server
DNS
Comcast network
68.80.0.0/13
 IP datagram forwarded from
 IP datagram containing DNS
query forwarded via LAN
switch from client to 1st hop
router
campus network into comcast
network, routed (tables created
by RIP, OSPF, IS-IS and/or
BGP routing protocols) to DNS
server
 demux’ed to DNS server
 DNS server replies to
client with IP address of
www.google.com 5: DataLink Layer 5-98
A day in the life… TCP connection carrying HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy
SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN
 to send HTTP request,
SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy
web server
64.233.169.105
client first opens TCP
socket to web server
 TCP SYN segment (step 1
in 3-way handshake) interdomain routed to web
server
 web server responds with
TCP SYNACK (step 2 in 3way handshake)
 TCP
connection established!
5: DataLink Layer
5-99
A day in the life… HTTP request/reply
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
 web page
displayed
finally (!!!)

HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy
HTTP request sent into
TCP socket
 IP datagram containing
HTTP request routed to
www.google.com
 web server responds with
HTTP reply (containing
web page)
web server
64.233.169.105
 IP datgram containing
HTTP reply routed back to
client
5: DataLink Layer 5-100
Chapter 5: Summary
 principles behind data link layer services:
 error detection, correction
 sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access
 link layer addressing
 instantiation and implementation of various link
layer technologies
 Ethernet
 switched LANS, VLANs
 PPP
 virtualized networks as a link layer: MPLS
 synthesis: a day in the life of a web request
5: DataLink Layer 5-101
Chapter 5: let’s take a breath
 journey down protocol stack
complete
(except PHY)
 solid understanding of networking principles,
practice
 ….. could stop here …. but lots of interesting
topics!
wireless
 multimedia
 security
 network management

5: DataLink Layer 5-102

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