Introduction class, EE3214 (2012)

Report
Introduction to Microprocessor’s & Microcontroller
Prepared by
Md. Zakir Hossain
Lecturer
Dept. of EEE, KUET
Contents
 8085 Microprocessor
 Bus, CPU, Memory and I/O of 8085 μp
 The 8085 Bus Structure
 CPU Internal Structure
 Hardware Description of uPC-MICRO 8085
 Keys and Key Functions
 8086μp internal architecture
 Function of Keypad & Register
 ATmega8(L) microcontroller
2
A microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable, clock-driven, register based electronic device
that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory; accepts binary data as input
and processes data according to those instructions, provides results as output.
Fig1. CPU internal structure of 8085 microprocessor
3
The internal architecture of the 8085 CPU is capable of performing the following operations:

Store 8-bit data (Registers, Accumulator)

Perform arithmetic and logic operations (ALU)

Test for conditions (IF / THEN)

Sequence the execution of instructions

Store temporary data in RAM during execution

the ALU includes a temporary register used for holding data temporarily during the
execution of the operation. This temporary register is not accessible by the programmer.
The 8-bit 8085 CPU (or MPU – Micro Processing Unit) communicates with the other
units using a 16-bit address bus, an 8-bit data bus and a control bus.
Address Bus





The address bus has 8 signal lines A8 – A15 which are unidirectional.
The other 8 address bits are multiplexed (time shared) with the 8 data bits.
16 address lines are capable of addressing a total of 216 = 65,536 (64k) memory locations.
Address locations: 0000 (hex) – FFFF (hex)
Identify perifheral or memory locations
4
Fig2. The 8085 Bus structure
Data Bus

Consists of 8 data lines: D0 – D7



Operates in bidirectional mode
Data range: 00 (hex) – FF (hex)
use for transferring data
Control Bus

Consists of various lines carrying the control signals such as read / write enable, flag bits.
5
The 8085 programmable registers
Registers



Six general purpose 8-bit registers: B, C, D, E, H, L
They can also be combined as register pairs to perform 16-bit operations: BC, DE, HL
Registers are programmable (data load, move, etc.)
Accumulator

Single 8-bit register that is part of the ALU .

Used for arithmetic / logic operations – the result is always stored in the accumulator.
Fig3. The 8085 programmable registers
6
The Program Counter (PC)
I. is used to control the sequencing of the execution of instructions.
II. always holds the address of the next instruction.
III. since it holds an address, it must be 16 bits wide.
The Stack pointer
 is also a 16-bit register that is used to point into memory.
 this register points to in a special area called the stack.
 the stack is an area of memory used to hold data that will be retreived soon.
 the stack is usually accessed in a Last In First Out (LIFO) fashion.
Memory: Where instructions (programs) and data are stored
•
Organized in arrays of locations (addresses), each storing one byte (8 bits) in general
•
A read operation to a particular location always returns the last value stored in that
location
I/O devices: Enable system to interact with the world
•
•
•
•
Device interface
I/O registers are connected to external wires, device control logic, etc.
Reads may not return last value written
Writes may have side effects
7
The Flags register
Flag Bits

Indicate the result of condition tests.

Carry, Zero, Sign, Parity, etc.

Conditional operations (IF / THEN) are executed based on the condition of these flag
bits.
There is also the flags register whose bits are affected by the arithmetic & logic operations.
S-sign flag
The sign flag is set if bit D7 of the accumulator is set after an arithmetic or logic
operation.
Z-zero flag
Set if the result of the ALU operation is 0. Otherwise is reset. This flag is affected
by operations on the accumulator as well as other registers. (DCR B).
AC-Auxiliary Carry
This flag is set when a carry is generated from bit D3 and passed to D4 .
P-Parity flag
After an ALU operation if the result has an even # of 1’s the p-flag is set.
Otherwise it is cleared. So, the flag can be used to indicate even parity.
CY-carry flag
After an operation, if the result in the accumulator is larger than 8 bits, the flipflop that is used to indicate a carry, called the carry flag.
S
Z
AC
P
CY
8
8085 Instruction Set

Data transfer operations
 Between registers
 Between memory location and a register
 Direct write to a register / memory
 Between I/O device and accumulator
 Arithmetic operations (ADD, SUB, INR, DCR)
 Logic operations
 Branching operations (JMP, CALL, RET)
9
10
Hardware Description
uPC-MICRO 8085 system consists
1) crystal controlled oscillator
2) buffers for address
3) data control signals
4) two 8255 (Programmable Peripheral Interface)
5) one 8279 (Programmable keyboard & display controller)
6) one 8253 (Programmable interval timer)
7) one 8259A (Programmable Interrupt Controller)
8) One 8251A (Programmable Communication Interface) with
RS232C drivers & receivers.
9) 8 digit seven segment display
10) 32 keys with one RESET key in keyboard
11
System EPROM : 0000 to 0FFF (32K)
RAM (CMOS) : 8000 to 9FFF (8K)
(8000 to 97FF user RAM)
(9800 to 9FFF system RAM)
Expansion RAM : A000 to BFFF (8K)
C000 to DFFF (8K)
SL. No.
Peripheral LSI
Base port address in Hex
01.
A8255
00
02.
B8255
20
03.
8251A
10
04.
8253
30
05.
8257
08
06.
8259A
28
12
 Once a data is written to 8279 display RAM, 8279 automatically
refreshes the data on 8 digit 7 segment LED display.
 One can optionally connect a LCD module to the port lines of the
connector provided and writing the necessary software.
 16 keys are assigned for 16 hexadecimals
 16 keys for executing different functions
 1 key mounted on the motherboard
 duplex serial communication interface
 use 8251A serial communication controller with RS232C drivers at its output &
RS232C receivers at its input
At power on or at manual RESET, the CPU starts execution. Before executing the
main routine, the various peripherals, flags and parameters in RAM are initialized.
13
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
RESET
INC
STEP
BREAK
EXEC/GO
REG
HELP
MOVE
Single Star (*)
Double Star (**)
FILL
INS
DEL
OUTPUT
INPUT
DOWNLOAD
DEC
14
Label
Mnemonics
Op-code Operand
Hex Code
Memory
address
START
MVI A, ECH
3E, EC
8000-01
MVI B, F1H
06, F1
8002-03
MVI C, 00H
0E, 00
8004-05
ADD B
80
8006
JNC LOOP1
D2, 0B, 80
8007-09
INR C
0C
800A
STA 8090
32, 90, 80
800B-0D
MOV A, C
STA 8091
79
32, 91, 80
800E
800F-11
HLT
76
8012
LOOP1
END
15
Fig4. Pin layout of the 8085 and 8086 microprocessor
16

CPU is divided into BIU & EU

tells the BIU where to fetch instructions or data from, decodes instructions and executes
instructions
 Has a 16 bit arithmetic logic unit
 Decode instructions and done internal operations
FLAG Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
/
/
/
/
O
D
I
T
S
Z
/
A
/
P
/
C
Control Flags
 Trap flag (TF) >> used for single stepping through a program
 Interrupt flag (IF) >> used to allow or prohibit the interruption of a program
 Direction flag (DF) >> used with string instructions
Conditional Flags
 Carry Flag (CF), Parity Flag (PF), Auxiliary Carry Flag (AF), Sign Flag (SF) ,Zero Flag (ZF)
 & Overflow Flag (OF) >> will be set if the result of a signed operation is too large
17
General register
a. Data register (AX (AL & AH), BX (BL & BH), CX (CL & CH), DX (DL & DH))
used to store data
b. Pointer & Index register (16 bit)
Stack Pointer (SP) >> holds the 16 bit offset from the start of segment
Base Pointer (BP) >> holds the 16 bit offset and used for temporary store of data
Source Index (SI) >> holds the 16 bit offset of data word in the data segment
Destination Index (DI) >> used to indirect addressing & operation and
temporary store of data
Fig5. General purpose registers
18

handles all transfers of data & addresses on the buses for the execution unit
The Queue
 stores prefetched bytes in first-in-first out fashion for EU
 Fetching the next instructions when the current instruction executes is called pipelining
Extra Segment (ES)
Code Segment (CS)
Stack Segment (SS)
Data Segment (DS)
Instruction Pointer (IP)
Fig6. Segment registers
 used to hold the upper 16 bits of the starting addresses of four memory segments
 Segment address (3000H) --------------- 30000H
Offset address (1234H)
-------------- + 1234H
Real address
--------------------- 31234H
19
 CPU or “brain”
 ROM has addresses F0000H through FFFFFH and non-volatile
 RAM has addresses 00000H through 10000H and volatile
 Keyboard/display interface ( an 8279 device)
 24 Key Keyboard
 Display: LCD
 Expansion area (upper left-hand side)
 Prototyping area (left-hand side)
 Reset
 Volatile memory
 16 of data line and 20 of address line
20
RESET, NMI, +, -, ., REG, :, “,”, EB/AX, ER/BX, GO/CX, ST/DX, IB/SP, OB/BP, MV/SI,
EW/DI, IW/CS, OW/DS, SS, ES, IP, FL,
FFFFFH
F8000H
F0000H
MONITOR PROGRAM
ROM
Exercise Program
ROM
USER MEMORY
ROM, RAM
E0000H
OPEN
10000H
400H
0H
User program
RAM
INTERRUPT VECTOR TABLE
RAM
21
Port
address
Port function
FFFFH
FFFDH
FFFBH
FFF9H
PPI-1 control word resister
PPI-1 C port
PPI-1 B port
PPI-1 A port
Parallel
I/O No.
1
FFFEH
FFFCH
FFFAH
FFF8H
PPI-1 control word resister
PPI-1 C port
PPI-1 B port
PPI-1 A port
Parallel
I/O No.
2
FFF2H
FFF0H
8251-1 command
8251-1 data
RS232C
PORT 1
FFFAH
FFE8H
8279 Status or Command
8279 Data
Keypad
control
FFDEH
FFDCH
FFDAH
FFD8H
8253 Command
8253 Count 2
8253 Count 1
8253 Count 0
Counter
& Timer
FFD2H
FFD0H
8251-2 Command
8251-2 data
RS232C
PORT 2
Port
address
Port function
FFCAH
FFC8H
8259 Command
8259 Data
Interrupt
control
3FF0H
FND
Display
3FD8H
D/A Converter
8 bit D/A
converter
3FD6H
3FD4H
3FD2H
3FD0H
PPI-1 control word
resister
PPI-1 C port
PPI-1 B port
PPI-1 A port
Experiment
for 8 bit
output and
input
3FCEH
3FCCH
3FCAH
3FC8H
A/D Converter IN3/IN7
A/D Converter IN2/IN6
A/D Converter IN1/IN5
A/D Converter IN0/IN4
8 bit A/D
Converter
22
Example :
*Knowing that,
DS=2042H.
AH
SI=500H,
21
AX=214E,
MOV [SI],AX ;
AL
4E
21
4E
20921H
20920H
SI=500
DS=2042H
DS=20420H
23
Label
Mnemonic
Hex code
CODE SEGMENT
Memory
address
Remarks
0040:
ASSUME CS: CODE & DS: CODE
Result will be
MOV AX, 1234H
B8, 34, 12
00, 01, 02
MOV CX, 0034H
B9, 34, 00
03, 04, 05
ADD CX
03, C1
06, 07
HLT
F4
08
stored in AX
CODE ENDS
END
24
History of microprocessor
8008
8080
8085
8086
Number of
instructions
66
111
113
133
Number of flags
4
5
5
9
Maximum
memory size
16K bytes
64K bytes
64K bytes
1 M bytes
I/O ports
8 input
24 output
256 input
256 output
256 input
256 output
64K input
64K output
Number of pins
18
40
40
40
Address bus
width
8
16
16
20
Data bus width
8
8
8
16
Introduction date
1972
1974
1976
Q-6,500 at 3 µm
1978
Q-29,000 at 3 µm
25
•
•
•
Microprocessor – Microcontroller what's the diff?
Microprocessors can not stand alone
– instruction decoder, ALU, address/data. busses, timing logic, (CPU)
– Has no capability to interact with the outside world
• memory, I/O ports, UARTS, etc. must be added to make it useful
Microcontrollers are small computing systems on a single chip
– Central Processing Unit (CPU)
– Program memory
– Random Access Memory (RAM)
– EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
– A variety of peripheral devices
• USARTs, Timer/Counters, ADC, DAC, I/O Ports, CANs, SPIs etc.
26
• Suppose we want to make a Line following Robot
• What do we do ?
• Use a computer with 2.4Ghz Intel core I7 with 4 Gb RAM , 500 Gb Hard disk , 1 Gb Graphics
Card ??
• PC is a general purpose computer.
• Can run thousand of software's
• Games (NFS , AOE , Call of Duty)
• Highly expensive
• Small reflected by the word “MICRO”
• Inexpensive
• Ideal for doing repetitive tasks
• Easy to use
• Highly Efficient and fast
27
The Atmel ®AVR® ATmega8 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the
AVR RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the
ATmega8 achieves throughputs approaching 1MIPS per MHz, allowing the system
designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
Fig7. Pin configuration of ATmega8(L)
28
Finally, you should write a report with clear conception for different
contents described above.
1) Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with the 8085/8080A
by Ramesh S. Gaonkar
2) Microprocessors and Interfacing
by Douglas V Hall
and
3) Internet
29

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