Chapter 3 - Transportation Modes

Report
THE GEOGRAPHY OF
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS Chapter 3 – Transportation
THIRD EDITION
Modes (Part II)
CONCEPTS
Copyright © 1998-2015, Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography,
Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, 11549 USA.
[email protected]
You may use the figures within for educational purposes only. No modification or
redistribution permitted.
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Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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THE GEOGRAPHY OF
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS
Air Transport
THIRD EDITION
Concept 5
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
US Post Office Airmail Routes, 1921-26
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Selected Transcontinental DC-3 Routes, Late 1930s
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Early Intercontinental Air Routes, 1930s
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Flight Times by Piston and Jet Engines from New York
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Shortest Air Route between London and Sydney, 1955 - 2006
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Concorde Services, 1976-2003
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Average Airfare (roundtrip) between New York and London, 1946-2012 (in 2012 dollars)
$9,000
$7,900
$8,000
$7,000
$6,000
$4,968
$5,000
$4,000
$3,490
$3,188 $3,160
$3,000
$2,000
$725
$1,000
$800
$0
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Flight Time and One Way Airfare, 1955
$400
$350
$300
1955 Dollars
$250
Domestic
International
Domestic Trend
International Trend
$200
$150
$100
$50
$0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Flight Time (Hours)
14
16
18
20
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Regional Sales of Boeing 747s, 1960s-2000s
450
400
350
300
South Asia
Oceania
250
North America
Middle East
200
Europe
Asia-Pacific
150
Latin America
Africa
100
50
0
1960s
1970s
1980s
1990s
2000s
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Main Commercial Passenger Aircraft, 1935-2011
Aircraft
Year of First Commercial
Service
Speed (km/hr)
Maximum Range at Full
Payload (km)
Seating Capacity
Douglas DC-3
1935
346
563
30
Lockheed L-649 Constellation
1943
560
8,200
95
Douglas DC-7
1953
555
7,500
105
Boeing 707-100
1958
897
6,820
110
Boeing 727-100
1963
917
5,000
94
Boeing 747-100
1970
907
9,045
385
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
1971
908
7,415
260
Airbus A300
1974
847
3,420
269
Boeing 767-200
1982
954
5,855
216
Boeing 747-400
1989
939
13,444
416
Boeing 777-200ER
1995
1030
14,300
300
Airbus A340-500
2003
886
15,800
313
Airbus A380
2007
930
14,800
555
Boeing 787-8
2012
1040
15,700
250
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Selected Ultra-Long-Range Nonstop Airline Routes
From
Singapore
Singapore
Sydney
Johannesburg
Dubai
Dallas
Los Angeles
Dubai
Dubai
New York
Newark
Doha
Johannesburg
Melbourne
Detroit
Chicago
Toronto
To
Newark
Los Angeles
Dallas
Atlanta
Los Angeles
Brisbane
Bangkok
Houston
San Francisco
Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Houston
New York
Los Angeles
Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Airline
Singapore
Singapore
Qantas
Delta
Emirates
Qantas
Thai Airways
Emirates
Emirates
Cathay Pacific
United
Qatar Airways
South African Airways
Qantas
Delta
United
Air Canada
Aircraft
Airbus A340-500
Airbus A340-500
Boeing 747-400ER
Boeing 777-200LR
Boeing 777-200LR
Boeing 747-400ER
Airbus A340-500
Boeing 777-200LR
Boeing 777-300ER
Boeing 777-300ER
Boeing 777-200ER
Boeing 777-200LR
Airbus A340-600
Airbus A380
Boeing 777-200LR
Boeing 747-400
Airbus A340-500
Flying Time
18:50
18:05
15:25
17:05
16:30
16:00
17:20
16:20
16:00
16:05
15:55
16:20
16:05
15:50
15:45
15:55
15:20
Distance (km)
15,345
14,114
13,804
13,582
13,420
13,363
13,309
13,144
13,041
12,990
12,980
12,951
12,825
12,748
12,645
12,517
12,569
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Main Air Transport Service Ranges (From New York)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World Air Travel and World Air Freight Carried, 1950-2012
200
Passengers
Freight
Billions of passengers-km
5,000
4,000
180
160
140
120
3,000
100
Billions of tons-km
6,000
80
2,000
1,000
60
40
20
0
0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World Air Travel and Gross World Product, 1950-2011
5000
Gross World Product
70.0
4500
Passengers
4000
Trillions of $US
60.0
3500
50.0
40.0
30.0
3000
2500
Billions of passengers-km
80.0
2000
1500
20.0
1000
10.0
0.0
500
0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Annual Air Transportation Growth (Passengers and Freight) and Economic Growth, 19502011
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
-5%
-10%
Passengers-km
Tons-km
GWP
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Monthly Global Passenger Traffic, 2010
500
450
400
350
Millions
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August September October November December
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
New York / Hong Kong Air Routes: Conventional and Polar
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Characteristics of Major Air Travel Markets
United States
Europe
Pacific Asia
Deregulation started in 1978
Deregulation started in 1997
Regulated markets with government
ownership
Low population density and dispersed
urban centers
High population density and concentrated
urban centers
Dispersion of urban centers but high
regional concentrations
Relatively open air spaces and airports
Congested air spaces and airports
Congested gateway airports underutilized
regional airports
Rail minor competitor; Car compete for
short distances
High speed rail is a direct competitor; Rail
is a minor competitor; Car compete for
short distances
Except for Japan, less competition from
other transportation modes
No loyalty to carriers (pricing and frequent
flyers)
Some lingering loyalty to carriers
Strong “imposed” loyalty to carriers
Price transparency
Price becoming transparent
Price not transparent
Limited income growth and limited leisure
Limited income growth and more leisure
time
Growing income levels
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Airline Deregulation and Hub-and-Spoke Networks
Before Deregulation
After Deregulation
Hub
Hub
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Annual Passenger Plane Load Factor, United States, 1950-2012 (in %)
85
80
75
70
Air Deregulation Act
65
60
55
2012
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
1986
1984
1982
1980
1974
1976
1978
1972
1970
1968
1966
1964
1962
1960
1958
1956
1954
1952
1950
50
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Monthly Passenger Plane Load Factor, United States, 2000-2013 (in %)
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
Jan-00
Jun-00
Nov-00
Apr-01
Sep-01
Feb-02
Jul-02
Dec-02
May-03
Oct-03
Mar-04
Aug-04
Jan-05
Jun-05
Nov-05
Apr-06
Sep-06
Feb-07
Jul-07
Dec-07
May-08
Oct-08
Mar-09
Aug-09
Jan-10
Jun-10
Nov-10
Apr-11
Sep-11
Feb-12
Jul-12
Dec-12
50
Domestic
International
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Domestic Market Share of the top American Airlines, 1977-2012
100
90
80
32.7
48.5
70
All others
17.7
10.5
9.6
12.2
30
10
Southwest
7.0
15.1
40
20
39.7
54
60
50
38.3
9.3
12.6
12.0
16.2
15.1
1977
1984
11.9
13.1
Delta
Northwest
Eastern
9.6
16.3
TWA
American
20.4
17.5
12.9
17.7
14.5
16
1992
2005
2012
United
0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Largest Airline Companies by Revenue, 2005 (in $millions)
Iberia
Cathay Pacific
Emirates Group
Korean Air
Southwest
SAS Group
SIA Group (Singapore)
ACE (Air Canada)
Qantas
Continental
ANA
Northwest
British Airways
Delta Air Lines
UAL Corp (United)
JAL Group (Japan)
FedEx Express
AMR Corp. (American)
Lufthansa Group
Air France-KLM
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Strategies of Low-Cost Carriers
On-board operations
Optimum use of seating space.
Minimal crew.
Limited and paying cabin service.
Aircraft operations
Few (often one) types of aircraft used to minimize maintenance costs.
Stair boarding instead of air bridges.
Maximal usage of runway length (take-off thrust and braking on landing).
Fast turn around to maximize aircraft use.
No freight being carried.
Service network
Point-to-point services.
Destinations commonly of less than two hours apart.
Usage of secondary airports (lower gate rates).
Booking
Online booking to minimize transaction costs.
No travel agent commissions.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Strategies Used by Airlines to Save Fuel
Dimension
Strategy
Fleet
Retiring less fuel efficient aircrafts (e.g. DC-9, DC10, MD-80).
Switching to more fuel efficient aircrafts (e.g. A330, A319).
Operations
Less engine idle at gates (electrical systems).
Lower flying speed (-5%).
More frequent plane and engine washing.
On board
Lighter seats.
Removal of seat-pocket documents (e.g. magazines).
Less water in bathrooms.
Lighter service carts.
Passengers
Weight restrictions for luggage.
Surcharges for first or second check-in luggage.
Passengers weight surcharges (?)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Selected Low-Cost Carriers
Airline
Country
2005 Fleet
2005 Revenue (USD Millions)
Southwest
USA
454 B737s
7,584
EasyJet
UK
62 A319s; 43 B737s
2,365
Ryanair
Ireland
107 B737s
2,044
jetBlue
USA
89 A320s; 19 ERJs
1,701
Air Berlin
Germany
8 A319s/A320; 40 737s; 3 Other
1,457
Virgin Blue
Australia
47 B737s
1,335
WestJet
Canada
56 B737s
1,197
Gol
Brazil
47 B737s
1,140
Frontier
USA
51 A318s/A319s/A320s
944
AirAsia
Malaysia
6 A320s; 21 B737s
174
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Air Freedom Rights
First
Home
Second
Third
Fourth
Fifth
Sixth
Seventh
Eight
Ninth
Country B
Country A
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Air Hubs and Market Fragmentation: The Case of Chicago
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Longitudinal Intermediacy: Icelandair
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Latitudinal
Intermediacy: COPA
Airlines
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Composition of Weekly Frequencies on Eastbound Transatlantic Nonstop Routes, 2003
Airbus 330
11%
Other
2%
Boeing 747
15%
Airbus 340
10%
Boeing 777
25%
McDonnell Douglas
DC-10 & MD-11
7%
Boeing 767
30%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Composition of Weekly Frequencies on Westbound Transpacific Nonstop Routes, 2003
Boeing 767
8%
Other
0%
Boeing 777
21%
McDonnell Douglas
DC-10 & MD-11
5%
Boeing 747
58%
Airbus A340
8%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Major Air Freight Flows Between Regions, 2003 (in billions of ton-km)
24.2
13.8
North America
Europe
9.9
12.3
22.4
4.6
2.7
0.1
Latin America
1.3
1.9
2.2
1.7
2.7
24.2
11.6
2.5
3.3
12.4
0.1
Middle East
9.1
13.8
Asia / Pacific
0.1
Africa
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Development Costs for Selected Aircraft
Aircraft
Year of First Service
Development Costs (2004 Dollars)
Douglas DC-3
1936
4,300,000
Douglas DC-6
1946
144,000,000
Boeing 707
1958
1,300,000,000
Boeing 747
1970
3,700,000,000
Boeing 777
1995
7,000,000,000
Airbus A380
2007
14,400,000,000
Boeing 787
2012
13,400,000,000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Operating Profit in the Global Airline Industry, 1960-2005
20
15
$US Billions
10
5
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
1986
1984
1982
1980
1978
1976
1974
1972
1970
1968
1966
1964
1962
1960
0
-5
-10
-15
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
The World’s Most Profitable Airlines, 1994-2004
Iberia
Thai Airways Int’l
Scandinavian
Qantas
Cathay Pacific Airways
Lufthansa
Southwest Airlines
British Airways
FedEx
Singapore Airlines
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
Cumulative Net Income (Millions USD)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Jetliners Deliveries from Boeing and Airbus, 1974-2012
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
1974
1975
1975
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
0
Boeing
Airbus
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Stages in Air Network Development
Stage 1
Stage 3
Stage 2
Stage 4
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World’s 10 Largest Passengers and Freight Airlines, 2010
US Airways
Cargolux
China Eastern Airlines
EVA Air
Air France-KLM
China Airlines
China Southern Airlines
Singapore Airlines
Ryanair
Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Emirates
American Airlines
Korean Airlines
Southwest Airlines
Cathay Pacific
United Airlines
United Parcel Service
Delta Air Lines
Federal Express
0
50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000
Thousands of Passengers
0
5,000
10,000 15,000 20,000
Millions of Ton-km
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Commodities Shipped by Air Freight, 2003
Total: 144 billion freight ton-kms
17%
Capital equipment
Intermediate materials
43%
13%
Perishables
Computers
11%
Apparel
Other
7%
9%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Network Effect of Strategic Alliances
A
B
C
D
E
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Operating Expenses of the Airline Industry
4.1%
2.4%
16.4%
7.0%
7.1%
12.2%
7.4%
10.1%
12.0%
10.5%
Promotion and sales
Administration
Fuel
Station expenses
Passenger services
Maintenance
Flight crew
Other
Depreciation & amortization
Airport charges
Enroute facility charges
10.8%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Jet Fuel Prices, 1990-2014
4.5
4
3.5
USD per Gallon
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
Apr-14
Apr-13
Apr-12
Apr-11
Apr-10
Apr-09
Apr-08
Apr-07
Apr-06
Apr-05
Apr-04
Apr-03
Apr-02
Apr-01
Apr-00
Apr-99
Apr-98
Apr-97
Apr-96
Apr-95
Apr-94
Apr-93
Apr-92
Apr-91
Apr-90
0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Operating Revenues of the Airline Industry
18.8%
Passenger
Freight
4.2%
Charter
Other
11.9%
65.1%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Cost Structure of a Typical 100 Passengers Domestic Flight, c2012
1%
9%
29%
11%
Fuel
Salaries
Ownership costs
Fees and taxes
Maintenance
14%
Other
Profit
20%
16%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Seat Capacity of Selected Aircrafts, pre-1985 and 1985-2000
Main pre-1985 Models
Main 1985-2000 Models
Airbus 310
Boeing 747
297
400
Boeing 767
Douglas DC10
252
Airbus 320
132
Boeing 737
141
265
Boeing 757
Lockheed L1011
183
302
Boeing MD80
0
100
200
300
400
144
0
100
200
300
400
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Major Air Traffic Flows Between Regions, 2000 (% of IATA Scheduled Passengers)
North America
1.7
3.9
Europe
23.2
35.5
1.8
Central America
15.9
1.3
1.3
South America
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.5
Middle East
Asia
1.1
Africa
Southwest Pacific
3.2
2.6
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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The World's Busiest Air Transport Routes, 2012
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World’s 10 Largest International Air Carriers, 2008
Delta Air Lines
United Airlines
KLM
American Airlines
Cathay Pacific Airways
Singapore Airlines
Emirates
British Airways
Lufthansa
Air France
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
Millions of Passengers-km
100,000
120,000
140,000
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published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World’s 10 Largest Domestic Airlines, 2008
Air China
JetBlue
Northwest Airlines
Continental Airlines
China Southern Airlines
US Airways
Delta Air Lines
United Airlines
Southwest Airlines
American Airlines
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
Millions of Passengers-km
100,000
120,000
140,000
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Generation and Attraction of Global Air Freight Flows, 2003 (in billions of ton-km)
Middle East
Africa
Latin America
Europe
Asia / Pacific
North America
0
10
20
30
40
Regional
Generation
50
60
70
80
90
100
Attraction
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Changes in the Duration of Selected Scheduled Flights, 1996-2010 (hours)
1.7
Delta Flight 1323 (ATL - MCO)
1.2
2.6
Delta Flight 6582 (ORD - JFK)
1.9
6.6
American Flight 33 (JFK - LAX)
6.0
0
1
2
3
2010
4
5
6
7
1996
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THE GEOGRAPHY OF
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS
Intermodal Transportation
THIRD EDITION
Concept 6
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Intermodalism and Transmodalism
Intermodalism
Origin
Road
Rail
Maritime
Destination
Transmodalism
Origin
Rail
Rail
Destination
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Major Steps in Intermodal Integration
Intermodal Integration
Advanced Containers
Advanced Terminals
Regionalization
Intermodal rail crane (1985)
Doublestacking; IBCs (1985)
Deregulation (1980s)
COFC (1967)
Transatlantic (1966); Containerships (1968)
Standardization (size and latching) (1965)
Containerization (1956)
TOFC (1950s)
Pallets (1930s)
Time
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Integrated Transport Systems: From Fragmentation to Coordination
Factor
Cause
Consequence
Technology
Containerization & IT
Modal and intermodal innovations; Tracking
shipments and managing fleets
Capital investments
Returns on investments
Highs costs and long amortization; Improve
utilization to lessen capital costs
Alliances and M & A
Deregulation
Easier contractual agreements; joint ownership
Commodity chains
Globalization
Coordination of transportation and production
(integrated demand)
Networks
Consolidation and interconnection
Economies of scale, efficiency and control.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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The Benefits of Containerization
• Lower freight rates
• Lower insurance rates
• Minimal load unit
• Lower storage costs
• Lower packing and
packaging costs
• Faster inventory
turnover
Transport
Costs
Inventory
Costs
• Time reliability
• Higher frequency
Service Level
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Evolution of Intermodal Integration
1- Containerization of Maritime Transport Systems
Container port
2- Containerization of Inland Transport Systems
Gateway
Pendulum
Services
Corridor
Intermodal terminal
3- Intermodal and Transmodal Operations
Inland Port
Offshore
hub
Transloading
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Intermodal Transport Chain
Composition
‘Last mile’
Interchange
Transfer
‘First mile’
Local / Regional Distribution
Decomposition
National / International Distribution
Transport Terminal
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Intermodal Transportation as an Integrative Force
Multimodal Point-to-Point Network
Intermodal Integrated Network
C
A
C
A
B
B
Transshipment
Rail
Road
D
D
Transshipment
F
E
F
E
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Integrated Freight Transport Systems: Intermodal and Transmodal Operations
Road
Transloading facility
Rail
On-dock rail
Thruport
Maritime
Intermodal operations
Distribution Center/ Cross-docking
Port container yard
Intermediate Hub
Transmodal operations
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Piggyback and Doublestack Train Cars
Piggyback (TOFC)
40’ (12.2 m)
9’ (2.7 m)
17’ (2.7 m)
85’ (25.9 m)
Doublestack (COFC)
18’ (5.5 m)
65’ (19.8 m)
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Multimodal Transport System
National / Continental
Maritime / Land interface
Gateways and Hubs
A
B
C
Intermodal Corridor
Gateway or Hub
Regional
E
Satellite Terminals
and Inland Ports
H
A
B
F
C
Intermodal terminal
Distribution center
G
Modal Link
Local
E
H
Competition or
Complementarity
Distribution Centers
F
G
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Driving Forces of Containerization and Intermodalism
Containerization
Unitization
Cellular ships
Specialized terminals
Land consumption
Standardization
Gantry cranes
Transshipment
productivity
Multi-rate structure
Management and
coordination
Mergers
Modal integration
Logistics
Control over cargo
Multimodal operators
Through rates and
billing
Deregulation
Intermodalism
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Main Physical Characteristics of Containers
Type
Cubic Capacity
Tare Weight
Payload Weight
Gross Weight
Length / Width / Height
20 Footer
33.2 cubic meters
(1,170 cubic feet)
2,150 kg - 2,220 kg
(4,740 lb - 4,894 lb)
21,850 kg - 28,160 kg
(48,171 lb - 62,082 lb)
24,000 kg - 30,480 kg
(52,911 lb - 67,197 lb)
6.058 m / 2.438 m / 2.591 m
(20‘0" / 8'0“ / 8'6“)
40 Footer
67.7 cubic meters
(2,391 cubic feet)
3,720 kg - 3,740 kg
(8,201 lb - 8,245 lb)
26,760 kg - 28,760 kg
(58,996 lb - 63,405 lb)
30,480 kg - 32,500 kg
(67,197 lb - 71,650 lb)
12.192 m / 2.438 m / 2.591 m
(40'0“ / 8'0“ / 8'6")
40 Footer High
Cube
76.4 cubic meters
(2,700 cubic feet)
3,730 kg - 3,950 kg
(8,223 lb - 8,708 lb)
26,750 kg - 28,550 kg
(58,974 lb - 62,942 lb)
30,480 kg - 32,500 kg
(67,197 lb - 71,650 lb)
12.192 m / 2.438 m / 2.896 m
(40'0“ / 8'0“ / 9'6")
40 Footer High
Cube Reefer
67.7 cubic meters
(2,391 cubic feet)
4,810 kg
(10,604 lb)
29,190 kg
(64,353 lb)
34,000 kg
(74,957 lb)
12.192 m / 2.438 m / 2.896 m
(40'0“ / 8'0“ / 9'6“)
45 Footer High
Cube
86.5 cubic meters
(3,055 cubic feet)
4,740 kg
(10,450 lb)
28,280 kg
(62,350 lb)
33,020 kg
(72,800 lb)
13.716 m / / 2.438 m / 2.896 m
(45'0“ / 8'0“ / 9'6“)
48 Footer High
Cube
98.8 cubic meters
(3,489 cubic feet)
5,140 kg
(10,865 lb)
25,340 kg
(56,350 lb)
30,480 kg
(67,197 lb)
14.630 m / 2.591 m / 2.908 m
(48'0“ / 8'6“ / 9'6 1/2")
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Carrying Capacity of Containers (in cubic feet)
53 feet truck
4,090
53 feet high cube container
(P5G1)
3,835
48 feet high cube container
(M5G1)
3,489
45 feet high cube container
(L5G1)
3,055
EILU Long 45 (LEG1)
2,895
40 feet high cube container
(45G1)
2,700
40 feet standard container (42G1)
2,391
20 feet standard container (22G1)
1,170
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Standard Container Road Weight Restrictions in the United States
40 Foot High Cube Reefer (GN Chassis)
39,300
40 Foot Reefer (GN Chassis)
39,800
40 Foot Dry High Cube (GN Chassis)
43,700
40 Foot Dry (GN Chassis)
44,000
20 Foot Reefer (Tri Axle Chassis)
39,700
20 Foot Reefer (Slider Chassis)
34,900
20 Foot Dry (Tri Axle Chassis)
44,000
20 Foot Dry (Slider Chassis)
39,200
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000 30,000
US Pounds
35,000
40,000
45,000
50,000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Container Identification System
Owner Code (3 letters): TGH
Product Group Code (1 letter): U
Registration Number (6 digits): 759933
Check Digit (1 digit): 0
Size & Type Code (4 digits/letters): 45G1
Operational Characteristics
Maximum weight: 30,480 kg
Container weight: 3,870 kg
Payload weight: 26,610 kg
Cubic capacity: 2,700 cubic feet
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
The Container as a Transport, Production and Distribution Unit
Transport
Modes, terminals, intermodal
and transmodal operations
Production
Synchronization of inputs and
outputs (batches)
Distribution
Flow management (timebased), warehousing unit
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Number of Units and Weight of Standard Consumption Goods that Can be Carried by a 20
Foot Container
4,648
Pair of shoes
6,029
3,916
DVD player
1,654
Payload Weight (kg)
8,279
Cell phone
Units
12,193
20,388
Copying
paper
1,685
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World Container Traffic and Throughput, 1980-2012
700
World Traffic
World Throughput
600
Full Containers
Empty Containers
500
Transshipment
400
300
200
100
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
1989
1988
1987
1986
1985
1984
1980
0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Containerization Growth Factors
Derived
Substitution
Economic and income
growth
Globalization
(outsourcing)
Fragmentation of
production and
consumption
Functional and
geographical
diffusion
New niches
(commodities and
cold chain)
Capture of bulk and
break-bulk markets
Incidental
Induced
Trade imbalances
Repositioning of
empty containers
Transshipment
(hubbing, relay and
intersection)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Containerization Growth Factors
Substitution-Based
New niches (commodities and cold chain)
Capture of bulk and break-bulk markets
Containerization
Incidental
Trade imbalances
Repositioning of empty containers
Induced
Transshipment (hubbing, relay and intersection)
Derived
Economic and income growth
Globalization (outsourcing)
Fragmentation of production and consumption
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Container Usage during its Life-Span
16%
16%
56%
Ocean Transit
Terminal
Inland Use
Repair
Idle or Empty Repositioning
6%
6%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Advantages of Containerization
Factor
Advantage
Standard transport
product
ISO standard.
Specialized ships, trucks and wagons.
Unique identification number and size type code.
Flexibility of usage
Commodities (coal, wheat), manufactured goods, cars, frozen products.
Adapted containers for dry cargo, liquids (oil and chemical products) and refrigerated cargo.
Reuse of discarded containers.
Costs
Low transport costs; 20 times less than bulk transport.
Economies of scale at modes and terminals.
Velocity
Fast transshipment operations.
Low terminal turnaround times (port time reduced from 3 weeks to about 24 hours).
Warehousing
Own warehouse; Simpler and less expensive packaging.
Stacking capability on ships, trains (doublestacking) and on the ground.
Security and Safety
Contents of the container is unknown to carriers.
Can only be opened at the origin, at customs and at the destination.
Reduced spoilage and losses (theft).
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Challenges of Containerization
Factor
Challenge
Site constraints
Large consumption of terminal space (mostly for storage); move to urban periphery.
Draft issues with larger containerships (more than 13 meters).
Infrastructure costs
Container handling infrastructures and equipment (giant cranes, warehousing facilities, inland road, rail
access), are important investments.
Stacking
Complexity of arrangement of containers, both on the ground and on modes (containerships and doublestack trains).
Restacking difficult to avoid.
Empty movements
Many containers are moved empty (20% of all flows).
Either full or empty, a container takes the same amount of space.
Divergence between production and consumption; repositioning.
Theft and losses
High value goods and a load unit that can opened or carried (on truck).
Vulnerability between terminal and final destination.
10,000 containers are lost at sea each year (fall overboard).
Illicit trade
Common instrument used in the illicit trade of goods, drugs and weapons, as well as for illegal
immigration.
Concerns about the usage of containers for terrorism.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Advantages and Drawbacks of Containerization
Advantages
Drawbacks
Standardization
ISO standard (modes and
equipment). Unique identification
number and size type code.
Site Constraints
Large consumption of terminal
space. Draft issues with larger
containerships.
Flexibility
Commodities, manufactured
goods, liquids and refrigerated
goods.
Capital Intensiveness
Container handling
infrastructures and equipment
are important investments.
Low transport costs. Economies
of scale at modes and terminals.
Stacking
Complexity of arrangement of
containers, both on the ground
and on modes.
Velocity
Fast transshipment operations.
Low terminal turnaround times.
Repositioning
Divergence between production
and consumption; repositioning.
20% of all containers.
Warehousing
Own warehouse; simpler and less
expensive packaging. Stacking
capability.
Theft and Losses
High value goods vulnerable to
thefts, particularly between
terminal and final destination.
Security & Safety
Contents unknown to carriers.
Reduced spoilage and losses.
Illicit Trade
Illicit trade of goods, drugs and
weapons, as well as for illegal
immigration.
Costs
$
$
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Container Shipping Costs and Cargo Value
Products
Items / 40 Foot Container
Retail Value (USD)
Freight / Value (%)
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Clothing (low value)
90,000
130,000
225,000
520,000
0.56
1.91
Clothing (mid range)
25,000
60,000
500,000
3,600,000
0.08
0.86
Sports shoes
18,000
28,000
350,000
2,520,000
0.12
0.23
Bicycles
1,200
1,600
240,000
480,000
0.60
1.79
Toys (low quality)
20,000
60,000
60,000
720,000
0.40
7.17
2,800
3,600
170,000
430,000
0.67
2.53
240
480
70,000
140,000
2.07
6.14
Appliances (small)
600
1,200
45,000
100,000
2.90
9.56
Appliances (large)
100
130
30,000
65,000
4.16
14.33
Furniture (assembled)
250
600
20,000
150,000
1.93
21.50
Furniture (flat packed)
1,000
3,000
70,000
360,000
0.80
6.14
Automobile parts
600
15,000
50,000
375,000
0.77
8.60
Consumer electronics
(small)
Consumer electronics
(large)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes, 1995-2013 (in millions of TEUs)
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
13.8
7.4
13.1
6.9
12.4
13.5
11.9
11.2
4.5
10.6
4.3
6.9
3.4
5.1
3.8
2.6
1.4
3.4
4.7
2.5
1.6
2.6
7.3
3.5
4.7
2.5
1.7
2.7
5.4
3.9
2.9
4.6
3.5
3.6
2.1
3.0
4.0
3.6
2.6
4.0
3.5
2.4
5
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.0
10
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.9
2.0
2.1
3.6
3.4
3.2
3.3
2.4
3.3
3.5
3.7
3.7
3.3
3.0
2.6
7.4
2.9
4.4
8.2
3.6
8.4
4.5
9.3
4.1
9.0
5.0
3.8
2.8
5.2
13.0
4.7
2.8
2.5
13.5
5.3
13.2
6.1
5.5
6.9
2.7
5.7
11.5
13.4
2.7
6.2
13.3
6.1
2.8
6.3
14.1
6.5
10.6
6.4
13.7
6.9
12.3
0
14.1
Asia-North America
North America-Asia
Asia-Europe
Europe-Asia
North America-Europe
Europe-North America
2.4
2.3
2.1
1.7
1.7
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes, 2012
Million TEUs 13.3 (+175%) Growth (2006-2012)
6.9 (+48%)
16.0
13.1
Asia
27.0
North America
6.3 (+178%)
10.5
2.7 (+55%)
Imports (M TEUs)
13.7 (+293%)
17.3
Europe
3.6 (+23%)
9.0
Exports (M TEUs)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
North American Containerized Trade with Asia, 1996-2012 (TEUs)
25
3
2.5
2
15
1.5
Ratio
Million of TEUs of Loaded Containers
20
10
1
5
0.5
0
0
1995 1996 1997 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Imports from Asia
Exports to Asia
Ratio Imports / Exports
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Value Per Ton of U.S. Freight Shipments by Transportation Mode, 2002
Rail
$198
Pipeline
$241
Water
$401
Truck
$775
Truck and rail
$1,480
Parcel, U.S.P.S, or courier
$37,538
Air (incl. truck and air)
$88,618
Single modes
$611
Multiple modes
$4,892
All Modes
$667
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Intermodal Transportation Cost Function
C(T)
Local / Regional Distribution Costs
Decomposition
C(dc)
Connection
C(cn)
Costs
National / International Distribution Costs
C(I)
Interchange
C(cn)
Connection
Composition C(cp)
Origin
Transshipment
Destination
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Time and Cost of Transport Activities Involving Moving a 40 Foot Container between the
American East Coast and Western Europe
0
200
400
600
US Dollars
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
Moving container to consignee
Storage at inland depot
Unloading container at inland depot
Road transport, port terminal to inland depot
Clearance and inspection
Tranfer from stack to road trailer
Waiting in stack
Transfer to stack
Tranfer/unloading off ship
Containership travel time (NY-Rotterdam)
Transfer/loading onto ship
Unstacking and transfer to terminal trailer
Waiting in stack
Transfer from road trailer to stack
Waiting for admission to port terminal
Road transport to port terminal
Loading container on road trailer
Container waiting for pickup after stuffing
Moving container from loading ramp to storage
Time (hours)
Cost ($US)
0
20
40
60
80
Hours
100
120
140
160
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Cumulative Cost and Time of Moving a 40 Foot Container between the American East Coast
and Western Europe
3,500
Cumulative cost (US$)
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Cumulative time (hours)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Container Transport Costs, 2000s
13%
23%
Ships
Containers
Terminals
25%
Inland Transport
Other
18%
21%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Monthly Intermodal Equipment Depreciation Factors
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1
5
9
13
17
21
25
29
33
37 41 45 49 53
Container
Chassis
57
61
65
69
73
77
81
85
89
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Container Transport Costs from Inland China to US West Coast ($US per TEU)
Land access to final destination
(USA)
250
Port handling (USA)
150
Maritime transport
750
Port handling (China)
200
Land access to port (China)
2300
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Price of New Containers, 2001-2008
$4,000
$3,500
$3,000
$2,500
$2,000
$1,500
$1,000
$500
$0
2001
2002
2003
20 footer
2004
40 footer
2005
2006
2007
2008
40 footer high cube
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Container Lease Rates, 2003-2008
17
0.9
16
0.8
Return (%)
14
0.7
13
0.6
Lease Rate (USD)
15
12
11
0.5
10
0.4
9
8
0.3
2003
2004
2005
Annual Return for Lessor (%)
2006
2007
2008
Daily Lease Rate (USD per TEU)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Composition of the Global Fleet of Containers, 2008
26.2 million TEU
33%
6%
4%
6%
20 Foot
40 Foot
40 Foot High Cube
Reefer
Regional
24%
27%
Other
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Millions
Global Container Fleet, 2003-2009
30
25
20
23.52
2006
24.00
2005
21.30
18.94
15.95
14.59
10
17.83
15
2008
2009
5
0
2003
2004
Dry Freight Standard
Dry Freight Special
2007
Reefer
Tank
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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World Container Production, 2007
2%
3%
5% 1%
Dry Freight Standard
Dry Freight Special
Reefer
Tank
Regional
89%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Composition of the American Domestic Container Fleet, 2003-2012
250,000
200,000
Units
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
48-Foot
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
53-Foot
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Economies and Diseconomies of Scale in Container Shipping
Costs per TEU
Transshipment
Inland Transportation
Maritime Shipping
Capacity in TEU
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Functional Integration of Supply Chains
Maritime
Distribution
Inland Distribution
Shipping
Agent
Custom
Agent
Stevedore
Freight
Forwarder
Trucking
Distribution
center
Carrier
Customer
Economies of scale
Shipping Line
Rail / Trucking
Megacarrier
Level of functional integration
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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Impacts of River / Sea Shipping
Origin
Road / Rail
Fluvial Port
Fluvial
Seaport
Maritime
River/sea
Fluvial
Road / Rail
Destination
A
B
C
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be
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